Covers all of the basic concepts and methods of the field of semantics, as well as some of the most important contemporary lines of research Features a series of new exercises, along with their solutions, that are arranged by level of difficulty Addresses componential theory, formal semantics, and cognitive semantics, the three main current theoretical approaches to semantics Includes revisions and updates that reflect the most recent theoretical developments
The authors clear up once and for all the confusion between lay and lie and put to rest some common myths about language. The book's finale is a ten-minute writing lesson from which everyone, from rank amateur to seasoned pro, can benefit. These and dozens of other features make this book pure pleasure for language buffs, writers, and teachers. Sleeping Dogs Don't Lay is useful and authoritative as well as fun to read, with humorous touches often popping up where least expected and most needed.
This work presents a provocative theory: that drawings and sequential images are structured the same as language. Building on contemporary theories from linguistics and cognitive psychology, it argues that comics are written in a visual language of sequential images that combines with text. Like spoken and signed languages, visual narratives use a lexicon of systematic patterns stored in memory, strategies for combining these patterns into meaningful units, and a hierarchic grammar governing the combination of sequential images into coherent expressions. Filled with examples and illustrations, this book details each of these levels of structure, explains how cross-cultural differences arise in diverse visual languages of the world, and describes what the newest neuroscience research reveals about the brain's comprehension of visual narratives. From this emerges the foundation for a new line of research within the linguistic and cognitive sciences, raising intriguing questions about the connections between language and the diversity of humans' expressive behaviours in the mind and brain.
In The Geometry of Meaning, Peter Gärdenfors proposes a theory of semantics that bridges cognitive science and linguistics and shows how theories of cognitive processes, in particular concept formation, can be exploited in a general semantic model. He argues that our minds organize the information involved in communicative acts in a format that can be modeled in geometric or topological terms—in what he terms conceptual spaces, extending the theory he presented in an earlier book by that name.
Many semantic theories consider the meanings of words as relatively stable and independent of the communicative context. Gärdenfors focuses instead on how various forms of communication establish a system of meanings that becomes shared between interlocutors. He argues that these “meetings of mind” depend on the underlying geometric structures, and that these structures facilitate language learning. Turning to lexical semantics, Gärdenfors argues that a unified theory of word meaning can be developed by using conceptual spaces. He shows that the meaning of different word classes can be given a cognitive grounding, and offers semantic analyses of nouns, adjectives, verbs, and prepositions. He also presents models of how the meanings of words are composed to form new meanings and of the basic semantic role of sentences. Finally, he considers the future implications of his theory for robot semantics and the Semantic Web.
Oscar Wilde once said the Brits have "everything in common with America nowadays except, of course, language."
Any visitor to Old Blighty can sympathize with Mr. Wilde. After all, even fluent English speakers can be at sixes and sevens when told to pick up the "dog and bone" or "head to the loo," so they can "spend a penny." Wherever did these peculiar expressions come from?
British author Christopher J. Moore made a name for himself on this side of the pond with the sleeper success of his previous book, In Other Words. Now, Moore draws on history, literature, pop culture, and his own heritage to explore the phrases that most embody the British character. He traces the linguistic influence of writers from Chaucer to Shakespeare and Dickens to Wodehouse, and unravels the complexity Brits manage to imbue in seemingly innocuous phrases like "All right." Along the way, Moore reveals the uniquely British origins of some of the English language’s more curious sayings. For example: Who is Bob and how did he become your uncle? Why do we refer to powerless politicians as “lame ducks”? How did “posh” become such a stylish word?
Part language guide, part cultural study, How to Speak Brit is the perfect addition to every Anglophile’s library and an entertaining primer that will charm the linguistic-minded legions.
Brings together, in one volume, influential but difficult to find papers by one of the most important researchers in formal semantics.
Includes a new introductory essay in which Partee reflects on how her research and the field of semantics have developed over the past 35 years.
Discusses critical themes in semantic theory.
“Long live the King” hailed Entertainment Weekly upon publication of Stephen King’s On Writing. Part memoir, part master class by one of the bestselling authors of all time, this superb volume is a revealing and practical view of the writer’s craft, comprising the basic tools of the trade every writer must have. King’s advice is grounded in his vivid memories from childhood through his emergence as a writer, from his struggling early career to his widely reported, near-fatal accident in 1999—and how the inextricable link between writing and living spurred his recovery. Brilliantly structured, friendly and inspiring, On Writing will empower and entertain everyone who reads it—fans, writers, and anyone who loves a great story well told.
This book identifies the interrelations between user text actions and the software environment framing them. It takes a critical perspective on Facebook and develops a model that grants methodological access to complex interlaced practices incorporating media, text and literacies.
It shows Facebook users employing idiosyncratic and Facebook-specific literacy practices, and gives weight to the larger hypothesis of the software service as an ideological setting designed to calculate and standardize human behaviour. Specifically, the book examines text action and automation within Facebook to determine how the software service intervenes in the communicative flow between/among profile owners and profile recipients. This is cutting edge work and of huge importance to modern fields of discourse analysis and computer-mediated communication.
The book takes the reader through three distinct grammatical frameworks – functional grammar, multimodal grammar and cognitive grammar. Using examples taken from a range of discourses relating to globalisation, including discourses of immigration, war, corporate practice and political protests, the book demonstrates the individual utility and the interconnectedness of these models inside CDA. A key argument advanced is that the cognitive processes necessarily involved in making sense of language are based in visual experience. This position offers new ways of understanding the ideological effects of grammatical choices in texts and suggests a reassessment of the relationship between linguistic and multimodal grammars in CDA.
The book will appeal to students and researchers interested in CDA and the relationship between discourse, cognition and social action.
People often say they haven’t yet found a good dictionary to interpret their dreams, signs and symbols. The Source Code brings a whole new vision to the subject and will surely become one of the most important reference books in this field. It will be published simultaneously in English and French and found in bookstores and malls in many countries all over the world, including the UK and the USA. It’s written by Kaya, one of today’s most eminent specialists in dream interpretation, assisted by over 100 of his students, who are doctors, psychologists, nurses, therapists, linguists, teachers and specialists in many fields, in many different countries. The idea of uniting so many people for this extraordinary project came from the workshops Kaya has been giving on dream and symbol interpretation for over 12 years now. During these workshops, when Kaya asked students in groups of 4 to deepen and define symbols, he realized how advanced they were, and so he asked them to help him finish his work. Hence his publishing house, UCM set up work teams to carry out the necessary research so Kaya could then write the final metaphysical syntheses and definitions.
A book presenting the + and – of each symbol
The Dictionary, Dreams-Signs-Symbols, The Source Code, helps us discover, in great depth, over 870 pages, the most common words in dreams and signs. Each word is analyzed in detail with its physical and metaphysical characteristics, and a synthesis defining the + and – of each symbol is included. This provides the reader with an analytical, understandable vision of the various different possible interpretations. Just one word may occupy 2 or 3 explanatory pages, which makes this Dictionary very complete from all points of view. Readers will also find a detailed introduction explaining dream mechanics as well as the multiple angles and subtleties of dream and sign interpretation.
Extract from the Preface by Kasara (Kaya’s daughter)
The day we receive The Source Code, our life changes completely… Shortly after my birth, my father’s life completely changed. From one day to the next, he started having 10-50 dreams every night. He studied dreams in his dream. He could no longer tell the difference between dream and reality. To everyone’s surprise, he quit everything. He became the village fool, the incomprehensible hermit, and all to deepen his research and understanding of dreams. Everyone either laughed at him or didn’t understand. I lived through this change alongside him – those early years when we feel other people’s fear and mistrust because we aren’t like everyone else. The greatest philosophers and scholars of the past often lived as visionaries before being really understood, because they traced a new path, one which called into question our way of thinking and understanding of the world we live in.
My father went through many ordeals to offer us this unique book. You have no idea how psychologically difficult it was. I sometimes consoled him, hugging him, telling him it was going to be ok; everything was going to be all right. I have so much admiration and love for my father. He sacrificed his career, everything a man could wish for, in order to follow his inner guidance, the wind of change and transformation that took form in his dreams. Above all, he had the courage to turn the page, to completely change his life in order to get to know himself better, to better understand the Source Code and to transmit it to us today. Now, with this revolution of Knowledge for the science of our conscience, the great changes he undertook take on their full meaning. Surpassing all of the previous research into the meaning of dreams, Kaya opens the path to our autonomy of conscience; he helps us understand the multi-dimensions, the metaphysics that we all have within ourselves. He may have been ridiculed and denigrated as a man, but this whole path was all worthwhile to help people all over the world who are on a spiritual path today, seeking to make sense of their lives; therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists and doctors now use The Source Code to help patients better understand how their conscience works.
In That’s Not English, the seemingly superficial differences between British and American English open the door to a deeper exploration of a historic and fascinating cultural divide. In each of the thirty chapters, Erin Moore explains a different word we use that says more about us than we think. For example, "Quite" exposes the tension between English reserve and American enthusiasm; in "Moreish," she addresses our snacking habits. In "Partner," she examines marriage equality; in "Pull," the theme is dating and sex; "Cheers" is about drinking; and "Knackered" covers how we raise our kids. The result is a cultural history in miniature and an expatriate’s survival guide.
American by birth, Moore is a former book editor who specialized in spotting British books—including Eats, Shoots & Leaves—for the US market. She’s spent the last seven years living in England with her Anglo American husband and a small daughter with an English accent. That’s Not English is the perfect companion for modern Anglophiles and the ten million British and American travelers who visit one another’s countries each year.
These questions, and more, about our language catapulted Robert MacNeil and William Cran—the authors (with Robert McCrum) of the language classic The Story of English—across the country in search of the answers. Do You Speak American? is the tale of their discoveries, which provocatively show how the standard for American English—if a standard exists—is changing quickly and dramatically.
On a journey that takes them from the Northeast, through Appalachia and the Deep South, and west to California, the authors observe everyday verbal interactions and in a host of interviews with native speakers glean the linguistic quirks and traditions characteristic of each area. While examining the histories and controversies surrounding both written and spoken American English, they address anxieties and assumptions that, when explored, are highly emotional, such as the growing influence of Spanish as a threat to American English and the special treatment of African-American vernacular English. And, challenging the purists who think grammatical standards are in serious deterioration and that media saturation of our culture is homogenizing our speech, they surprise us with unpredictable responses.
With insight and wit, MacNeil and Cran bring us a compelling book that is at once a celebration and a potent study of our singular language.
Each wave of immigration has brought new words to enrich the American language. Do you recognize the origin of
1. blunderbuss, sleigh, stoop, coleslaw, boss, waffle?
2. dumb, ouch, shyster, check, kaput, scram, bummer?
3. phooey, pastrami, glitch, kibbitz, schnozzle?
4. broccoli, espresso, pizza, pasta, macaroni, radio?
5. smithereens, lollapalooza, speakeasy, hooligan?
6. vamoose, chaps, stampede, mustang, ranch, corral?
1. Dutch 2. German 3. Yiddish 4. Italian 5. Irish 6. Spanish
From the Hardcover edition.
The pun is commonly dismissed as the lowest form of wit, and punsters are often unpopular for their obsessive wordplay. But such attitudes are relatively recent developments. In The Pun Also Rises, John Pollack-a former World Pun Champion and presidential speechwriter for Bill Clinton-explains why such wordplay is significant: It both revolutionized language and played a pivotal role in making the modern world possible. Skillfully weaving together stories and evidence from history, brain science, pop culture, literature, anthropology, and humor, The Pun Also Rises is an authoritative yet playful exploration of a practice that is common, in one form or another, to virtually every language on earth.
At once entertaining and educational, this engaging book answers fundamental questions: Just what is a pun, and why do people make them? How did punning impact the development of human language, and how did that drive creativity and progress? And why, after centuries of decline, does the pun still matter?
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The analyses focus on a diverse range of texts from very different contexts, using analytic techniques that are based on the latest research in this field. They represent a wealth of exploratory, innovative and challenging perspectives, and are a key contribution to the extension of systemic-functional theory to the analysis of multimodality, identity and affiliation.
The volume is of interest to linguists, applied linguists, semioticians, and communication theorists.
Key features include:A consistent mentalist perspective on meaning Broad coverage of lexical and sentence semantics, including three new chapters discussing deixis, NP semantics, presuppositions, verb semantics and frames Examples from a wider range of languages that include German, Japanese, Spanish and Russian. Practical exercises on linguistic data Companion website including all figures and tables from the book, an online dictionary, answers to the exercises and useful links at routledge.com/cw/loebner
This book is an essential resource for all undergraduate students studying semantics.Sebastian Löbner is a Professor of Linguistics at the Institute for Language and Information at the University of Düsseldorf, Germany
across seven Indo-European languages (English, German, Norwegian,
French, Russian, Latin and Ancient Greek): bare and comitative small
clauses (“absolutes”), participle constructions and related clause-like but
non-finite adjuncts that increase descriptive granularity with respect to
constitutive parts of the matrix event (elaboration in the narrowest
sense), or describe eventualities that are co-located and connected
with but not part of the matrix event. The book falls in two
parts. Part I addresses central theoretical issues: How is the co-eventive
interpretation of such adjuncts achieved? What is the internal syntax of
participial and converb constructions? How do these constructions
function at the discourse level, as compared to various finite structures
that are available for co-eventive elaboration? Part II takes an empirical
cross-linguistic perspective. It consists of five self-contained chapters that
are based on parallel corpora and study either the use of a specific
construction across at least two of the seven object languages, or how a
specific construction is rendered in other languages.
In der klassischen Disziplin der Sprachwissenschaft erscheint eine Zusammenfassung des Wissensstandes notwendig, um der im Wechsel der Theorien rasch voranschreitenden Forschung eine Bezugsbasis zu geben; in den neuen Wissenschaften können die Handbücher dem Forscher Übersicht geben und Orientierung verschaffen.
Um diese Ziele zu erreichen, wird in der Handbuchreihe, was
· die Vollständigkeit in der Darstellung,
· die Explizitheit in der Begründung,
· die Verlässlichkeit in der Dokumentation von Daten und Ergebnissen und
· die Aktualität im Methodischen
angeht, eine Stufe der Verwirklichung angestrebt, die mit den besten Handbuchkonzeptionen anderer Wissenschaftszweige vergleichbar ist. Alle Herausgeber, die der Reihe und diejenigen der einzelnen Bände, wie auch alle Autoren, die in den Handbüchern ein Thema bearbeiten, tragen dazu bei, dieses Ziel zu verwirklichen. Veröffentlichungssprachen sind Deutsch, Englisch und Französisch.
Wenngleich als Hauptzweck der Handbuchreihe die angemessene Darstellung des derzeitigen Wissensstandes in den durch die jeweiligen Handbuchbände abgedeckten Ausschnitten der Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft zu gelten hat, so wird doch bei der Abgrenzung der wissenschaftlichen Bereiche, die jeweils in einem Handbuchband erschlossen werden sollen, keine starre Systematik vorausgesetzt. Die Reihe ist offen; die geschichtliche Entwicklung kann berücksichtigt werden. Diese Konzeption sowie die Notwendigkeit, dass zur gründlichen Vorbereitung jedes Bandes genügend Zeit zur Verfügung steht, führen dazu, dass die ganze Reihe in loser Erscheinungsfolge ihrer Bände vervollständigt werden kann. Jeder Band ist ein in sich abgeschlossenes Werk.
Die Reihenfolge der Handbuchbände stellt keine Gewichtung der Bereiche dar, sondern hat sich durch die Art der Organisation ergeben: der Herausgeber der Reihe bemüht sich, eine Kollegin oder einen Kollegen für die Herausgabe eines Handbuchbandes zu gewinnen. Hat diese/r zugesagt, so ist sie/er in der Wahl der Mitherausgeber und bei der Einladung der Autoren vollkommen frei. Die Herausgeber eines Bandes planen einen Band inhaltlich unabhängig und werden dabei lediglich an bestimmte Prinzipien für den Aufbau und die Abfassung gebunden; nur wo es um die Abgrenzung zu anderen Bänden geht, ist der Reihenherausgeber inhaltlich beteiligt. Dabei wird davon ausgegangen, dass mit dieser Organisationsform der Hauptzweck dieser Handbuchreihe, nämlich die angemessene Darstellung des derzeitigen Problem- und Wissensstandes in den durch die jeweiligen Handbuchbände abgedeckten Teilbereichen, am besten verwirklicht werden kann.
Meaning in Context collects some of the biggest names in systemic functional linguistics in one volume, and shows how this theory can be applied to language studies 'intelligently', in order to arrive at a better understanding of how meaning is constructed in language. The chapters use systemic functional theory to examine a range of issues including corpus linguistics, multimodality, language technology, world Englishes and language evolution.
This forward-thinking volume will be of interest to researchers in applied linguistics and systemic functional linguistics.
The book is divided into two parts. In the first part, the chapters are organised around different methodological perspectives for CDS (history, cognition, multimodality and corpora, among others). In the second part, the chapters are organised around particular discourse types and topics investigated in CDS, both traditionally (e.g. issues of racism and gender inequality) and only more recently (e.g. issues of health, public policy, and the environment).
This is, altogether, an essential new reference work for all CDS practitioners.
Thanks to cognitive linguistics the material is organized around each particle giving the students an astonishing insight into the networks of metaphorical meanings of each particle. Furthermore, the book implements the most important findings and techniques in the field of learning a foreign language. This textbook will be a valuable companion for teachers and students.
TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language.
TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.
• The latest addition to Jan Venolia's Right! series, which has sold more than 600,000 copies.
• With the growing influence of email and other instant communication on the English language, a modern reference is more important than ever.
• Small and portable, this book is easier to carry and to use than some of the larger, bulkier reference works.
• The cover design for WRITE RIGHT! and REWRITE RIGHT! was selected to display in the AIGA (American Institute of Graphic Arts) 50 Books / 50 Covers Exhibition in 2001. The designer for this series (including The Right Word!) is Paul Kepple, director, Headcase Design, Philadelphia, PA.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
In the author's own words, "How Language Works is not about music, cookery, or sex. But it is about how we talk about music, cookery, and sex-or, indeed, anything at all." Language is so fundamental to everyday life that we take it for granted. But as David Crystal makes clear in this work of unprecedented scope, language is an extremely powerful tool that defines the human species.
Crystal offers general readers a personal tour of the intricate workings of language. He moves effortlessly from big subjects like the origins of languages, how children learn to speak, and how conversation works to subtle but revealing points such as how email differs from both speech and writing in important ways, how language reveals a person's social status, and how we decide whether a word is rude or polite.
Broad and deep, but with a light and witty touch, How Language Works is the ultimate layman's guide to how we communicate with one another.
The book is divided into two sections, the first on monolingual corpora and the second addressing multilingual corpora. The range of languages covered includes English, French and German, but also Chinese and some of the less widely known and less widely explored central and eastern European language. The chapters discuss:
the relationship between methodology and theory
the importance of computers for linking textual segments, providing teaching tools, or translating texts
the significance of training corpora and human annotation
how corpus linguistic investigations can shed light on social and cultural aspects of language
Presenting fascinating research in the field, this book will be of interest to academics researching the applications of corpus linguistics in modern linguistic studies and the applications of corpus linguistics.
Authors address matters such as the issue of semantic minimalism vs. radical contextualism, the attribution of responsibility for the modes of presentation associated with Noun Phrases and how to distinguish the indirect reporter’s responsibility from the original speaker’s responsibility. They also explore the connection between indirect reporting and direct quoting. Clearly indirect reporting has some bearing on the semantics/pragmatics debate, however, there is much controversy on “what is said”, whether this is a minimal semantic logical form (enriched by saturating pronominals) or a much richer and fully contextualized logical form. This issue will be discussed from several angles. Many of the authors are contextualists and the discussion brings out the need to take context into account when one deals with indirect reports, both the context of the original utterance and the context of the report. It is interesting to see how rich cues and clues can radically transform the reported message, assigning illocutionary force and how they can be mobilized to distinguish several voices in the utterance. Decoupling the voice of the reporting speaker from that of the reported speaker on the basis of rich contextual clues is an important issue that pragmatic theory has to tackle. Articles on the issue of slurs will bring new light to the issue of decoupling responsibility in indirect reporting, while others are theoretically oriented and deal with deep problems in philosophy and epistemology.
Through chapters focusing on John Cotton, Roger Williams, Samuel Gorton, John Clarke, and the Quaker martyrs, Field traces an evolving discourse on the past, present, and future of colonial New England that revises the canon of colonial New England literature and the contours of New England history. In the broader field of early American studies, Field's work demonstrates the benefits of an Atlantic perspective on the material cultures of print. In the context of religious freedom, Errands into the Metropolis shows Rhode Island's famous culture of toleration emerging as a pragmatic response to the conditions of colonial life, rather than as an idealistic principle. Errands into the Metropolis offers new understanding of familiar texts and events from colonial New England, and reveals the significance of less familiar texts and events.
- A comprehensive book that will have you speaking Arabic with confidence in no time as it includes:
- 15 step-by-step lessons
- Practical vocabulary and authentic everyday usage
- Simple explanations and plenty of examples
- Supplemental sections, including e-mail and internet resources
- A comprehensive grammar reference section
- A simple and effective guide teaches you everything you need to know to read and write Arabic. There are simple step-by-step explanations, plenty of practice reading exercises. No previous knowledge of Arabic is assumed.
- The book teaches the basics of Modern Standard Arabic using a simple and effective building-block method which is proven, simple, solid and reliable, as it has been successful for few years!
- The book includes everything you need - Vocabulary, grammar, culture, and practice, and English - Arabic - English dictionary.
An invaluable overview of the philosophy of language by one of its most important practitioners, this book will be essential reading for all serious students of philosophy.
* dispersion plots
* building and annotating corpora
Illustrated with a number of real-life examples of corpus-based DA from a range of sources and covering a variety of subjects, this is an informative introduction to using corpus linguistics as a methodology in discourse analysis.
Semantics is the study of the literal meaning of words and the meaning of the way words are combined. This engaging introduction to formal semantics assumes no prior knowledge, providing a solid understanding of a range of semantic phenomena. Truly wide-ranging in coverage, no other introductory textbook discusses a comparable range of topics. Areas covered include:
• a beginner's introduction to type theory and the lambda calculus
• generalized quantifier theory
• referential opacity
• thematic roles and lexical conceptual structure
• tense and aspect, including Discourse Representation Theory
• event semantics
Illustrated throughout with numerous practical examples, each chapter also contains exercises, graded to three different levels of difficulty, as well as suggestions for further reading.
Thoroughly revised and expanded, this second edition includes entirely new material on type theory, lambda calculus, semantic composition and discussion of time within a narrative. Comprehensive and accessible, Semantics is ideal for both undergraduate and postgraduate students working at a variety of levels.
NOT GOT MUCH TIME?
One, five and ten-minute introductions to key principles to get you started.
Lots of instant help with common problems and quick tips for success, based on the author's many years of experience.
Tests in the book and online to keep track of your progress.
EXTEND YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Extra online articles at www.teachyourself.com to give you a richer understanding of linguistics.
FIVE THINGS TO REMEMBER
Quick refreshers to help you remember the key facts.
Innovative exercises illustrate what you've learnt and how to use it.
In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.
As a new speaker of English, you may hear some expressions in your daily conversations that you do not understand--yet. McGraw-Hill's Conversational American English will help you learn these expressions, so not only do you know what a person is saying to you, but that you can use the expression yourself! More than 3,000 expressions are organized by theme, so you can find what you are looking for quickly. And each topic is illustrated to further help you understand context.
The book features:Common expressions are batched into 350 themes, ranging from general greetings and asking how someone is, to the more specific needs, like showing disbelief, asking someone’s intentions, and expressions for a forgotten word or name A comprehensive thematic glossary provides an additional means for the learner to locate expressions by key words and concepts
Topics include: Basic Social Encounters, Greetings, Small Talk, Introductions, Ending a Conversation, Good-Byes, Agreeing, Disagreeing Conversational Encounters, Focusing Attention, Launching the Conversation, Making Friends, Complex Matters, Disputes, Discussion and Resolution, Polite Encounters, Prefaces, Communication Barriers