The increase in leveraged buyouts (LBO) of U.S. companies by private equity funds prior to mid-2007 has raised questions about the potential impact of these deals. Some praise LBOs for creating new governance structures for companies and providing longer term investment opportunities for investors. Others criticize LBOs for causing job losses and burdening companies with too much debt. This report addresses the: (1) effect of recent private equity LBOs on acquired companies and employment; (2) impact of LBOs jointly undertaken by two or more private equity funds on competition; (3) SEC¿s oversight of private equity funds and their advisers; and (4) regulatory oversight of commercial and investment banks that have financed recent LBOs. Illustrations.
General aviation accounts for three-quarters of U.S. air traffic, from small propeller planes to large jets, operating among nearly 19,000 airports. While most security operations are left to private airport operators, the Transportation Security Admin. (TSA), part of the Dept. of Homeland Security (DHS), provides guidance on threats and vulnerabilities. In 2004, TSA issued suggested security enhancements that airports could implement voluntarily. Unlike commercial airports, in most cases general aviation airports are not required to implement specific security measures. This report performed onsite assessments at selected airports with general aviation operations to determine what physical security measures they have to prevent unauthorized access. With advance notice, investigators overtly visited a nonrepresentative selection of 13 airports, based on TSA-determined risk factors. Three of the airports also serve commercial aviation and are therefore subject to TSA security regulations. Using TSA's voluntary recommendations and investigators' security expertise, the report determined whether certain security measures were in place and also requested documentation of incidents of unauthorized access. Results of GAO's assessments cannot be projected to all general aviation airports and are not meant to imply that the airports failed to implement required security measures. Table and figures. This is a print on demand report.
In 2008, two reports were issued on hedge funds (HF) -- pooled invest. vehicles that are privately managed and often engage in active trading of various types of securities and commodity futures and options contracts -- highlighting the need for continued regulatory attention and for guidance to better inform pension plans on the risks and challenges of HF invest. For the first time, HF are allowed to borrow from the Fed. Reserve. This testimony discusses: (1) fed. regulators' oversight of HF-related activities; (2) potential benefits, risks, and challenges pension plans face in invest. in HF; (3) the measures investors, creditors, and counterparties have taken to impose market discipline on HF; and (4) the potential for systemic risk from HF-related activities.
The SEC adopted Regulation SHO to, among other things, curb the potential for manipulative naked short selling in equity securities. Selling a security short without borrowing the securities needed to settle the trade within the standard 3-day period, can result in failures to deliver (FTD), and can be used to manipulate (drive down) the price of a security. To further address this concern, SEC recently issued an order amending Regulation SHO. This report: (1) provides an overview of Regulation SHO and related SEC actions; (2) discusses regulators' and market participants' views on the effectiveness of the rule; and (3) analyzes regulators' efforts to enforce the rule. Includes recommendations. Charts and tables.
As competition among markets has increased, so have some market participants' concerns about the inherent conflicts of interest that securities self-regulatory organizations (SRO) face in their dual roles as market operators & regulators. This report describes how the SEC, the NASD, & the NYSE have been addressing concerns about: the impact of increased competition, including demutualization, on the ability of SROs to effectively regulate members with which they compete, & possible regulator inefficiencies associated with broker-dealer membership in multiple SROs. Describes alternative approaches that some securities market participants have discusses as a means of addressing concerns about the current self-regulatory structure.
In the wake of a series of recent corporate scandals and bankruptcies, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act mandated that the GAO study the involvement of investment banks (IB) with two companies, Enron and Global Crossing. In this report, the term "IB" includes not only securities firms but also those bank holding companies. with securities affiliates or business divisions that assist clients in obtaining funds to finance investment projects. GAO agreed to provide publicly available information on the roles IB played in designing, executing, and participating in certain structured finance transactions, IB, and Federal regulators' oversight of these transactions, and the role that the IBs' research analysts played with Enron and Global Crossing. Charts and tables.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS covers all aspects of these diseases with extensive inclusion of dermatological conditions. The multiple choice questions and answers have been compiled by a highly experienced group of clinicians and researchers from two major STD/AIDS centres in the UK. These MCQs aim to help readers learn in an easy, effective and enjoyable way. The book is intended to make them think, to test themselves and check the standard of their knowledge in order to pass exams as well as to improve their clinical practice for their patients. It will be of use to all those in training in sexually transmitted diseases, doctors and nurses alike. The questions have been refined by representatives of these groups to provide interesting questions to test knowledge to different standards, whether to satisfy their own curiosity or their examiners'. It will be particularly helpful to those sitting examinations such as MRCP, MBBS, DipGUM as well as those attending specialist STD or AIDS courses.
In the past decade, securities markets have undergone tremendous growth & innovation. Responding to concern that the Securities & Exchange Commission's (SEC) workload has outgrown its resources & impaired SEC's ability to fulfill its mission, the General Accounting Office (GAO) undertook this study to: (1) determine how the securities markets have changed; (2) identify whether SEC's resource levels have affected its ability to regulate & oversee the markets; & (3) identify any other factors that may affect SEC's ability to fulfill its mission. Charts, tables, & graphs.