Comparative studies on the charge dynamics and Mott transition features of transition-metal oxides were performed: Charge dynamics and thermoelectricity in a typical Mott transition system La1−xSrxVO3, charge dynamics in a doped valence-bond solid system (Ti1−xVx)2O3 and in layered nickelates R2-xSrxNiO4 with charge-ordering instability are investigated thoroughly. The results obtained successfully provide a number of novel insights into the emergent phenomena near the Mott transition.
The available books on semiconductor science and technology cannot afford to devote even an entire chapter to photoemissions from optoelectronic materials, although its importance in photoemission spectroscopy is extremely well known. This book deals totally with the photoemission from optoelectronic materials and their nanostructures (ultrathin films, quantum wires, superlattices, etc.).
This new edition contains an introduction to the methods of theory of one-dimensional systems (bosonization and conformal field theory) and their applications to many-body problems.
Intended for graduate students in physics and related fields, the aim is not to be exhaustive, but to present enough detail to enable the student to follow the current research literature, or to apply the techniques to new problems. Many of the examples are drawn from mesoscopic physics, which deals with systems small enough that quantum coherence is maintained throughout their volume and which therefore provides an ideal testing ground for many-body theories.
The physics of low dimensional semiconductor structures, including heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells, wires and dots is reviewed and their modeling is discussed in detail. The truly exceptional material, Graphene, is reviewed; its functionalization and Van der Waals interactions are included here. Recent research on optical studies of quantum dots and on the physical properties of one-dimensional quantum wires is also reported. Chapters on fabrication of nanowire – based nanogap devices by the dielectrophoretic assembly approach. The broad spectrum of research reported here incorporates chapters on nanoengineering and nanophysics. In its presentation of tutorial chapters as well as advanced research on nanostructures, this book is ideally suited to meet the needs of newcomers to the field as well as experienced researchers interested in viewing colleagues’ recent advances.
Following a short introduction to the working principles of laser diodes, the book describes the basics of laser diode beams and beam propagation, including Zemax modeling of a Gaussian beam propagating through a lens. The core of the book is concerned with laser diode beam manipulations: collimating and focusing, circularization and astigmatism correction, coupling into a single mode optical fiber, diffractive optics and beam shaping, and manipulation of multi transverse mode beams. The final chapter of the book covers beam characterization methods, describing the measurement of spatial and spectral properties, including wavelength and linewidth measurement techniques.
The book is a significantly revised and expanded version of the title Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations by the same author. New topics introduced in this volume include: laser diode types and working principles, non-paraxial Gaussian beam, Zemax modeling, numerical analysis of a laser diode beam, spectral property characterization methods, and power and energy characterization techniques. The book approaches the subject in a practical way with mathematical content kept to the minimum level required, making the book a convenient reference for laser diode users.
Each of these developments is significant in its own right. Collectively, they require new thinking in the design of chips, optical components, and systems. Such change also signals new business opportunities and disruption.
Notwithstanding challenges, silicon photonics’ emergence is timely because it is the future of several industries. For the optical industry, the technology will allow designs to be tackled in new ways. For the chip industry, silicon photonics will become the way of scaling post-Moore’s law. New system architectures enabled by silicon photonics will improve large-scale computing and optical communications.
Silicon Photonics: Fueling the Next Information Revolutionoutlines the history and status of silicon photonics. The book discusses the trends driving the datacom and telecom industries, the main but not the only markets for silicon photonics. In particular, developments in optical transport and the data center are discussed as are the challenges. The book details the many roles silicon photonics will play, from wide area networks down to the chip level. Silicon photonics is set to change the optical components and chip industries; this book explains how.Captures the latest research assessing silicon photonics development and prospectsDemonstrates how silicon photonics addresses the challenges of managing bandwidth over distance and within systemsExplores potential applications of SiP, including servers, datacenters, and Internet of Things
Dr. Wentao Zhang received his PhD from the Institute of Physics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Part one covers fundamental characteristics of high temperature superconductors and high TC films such as deposition technologies, growth, transport properties and optical conductivity. Part two is concerned with growth techniques and properties of high temperature superconductors, including YBCO, BSCCO and HTSC high TC films, and electron-doped cuprates. Finally, part three describes the various applications of high temperature superconductors, from Josephson junctons and dc-superconductive quantum inference devices (dc-SQUIDs) to microwave filters.
With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, this book is an invaluable resource for those researching high temperature superconductors, in industry and academia. In light of the many recent advances in high temperature superconductors, it will benefit physicists, materials scientists and engineers working in this field, as well as in areas of industrial application, such as electronic devices and power transmission.Summarises the materials science and physics of all the most important high temperature superconductorsDiscusses material growth, properties and applicationsOutlines fundamental characteristics of high temperature superconductors and high TC films
Drawing on extensive archival research, contemporaneous press accounts, and over one hundred interviews with scientists, engineers, government officials, and others involved, Tunnel Visions tells the riveting story of the aborted SSC project. The authors examine the complex, interrelated causes for its demise, including problems of large-project management, continuing cost overruns, and lack of foreign contributions. In doing so, they ask whether Big Science has become too large and expensive, including whether academic scientists and their government overseers can effectively manage such an enormous undertaking.
Aluminum shaped the twentieth century. It enabled high-speed travel and gravity-defying flight. It was the material of a streamlined aesthetic that came to represent modernity. And it became an essential ingredient in industrial and domestic products that ranged from airplanes and cars to designer chairs and artificial Christmas trees. It entered modern homes as packaging, foil, pots and pans and even infiltrated our bodies through food, medicine, and cosmetics. In Aluminum Dreams, Mimi Sheller describes how the materiality and meaning of aluminum transformed modern life and continues to shape the world today.
Aluminum, Sheller tells us, changed mobility and mobilized modern life. It enabled air power, the space age and moon landings. Yet, as Sheller makes clear, aluminum was important not only in twentieth-century technology, innovation, architecture, and design but also in underpinning global military power, uneven development, and crucial environmental and health concerns. Sheller describes aluminum's shiny utopia but also its dark side. The unintended consequences of aluminum's widespread use include struggles for sovereignty and resource control in Africa, India, and the Caribbean; the unleashing of multinational corporations; and the pollution of the earth through mining and smelting (and the battle to save it). Using a single material as an entry point to understanding a global history of modernization and its implications for the future, Aluminum Dreams forces us to ask: How do we assemble the material culture of modernity and what are its environmental consequences?
Aluminum Dreams includes a generous selection of striking images of iconic aluminum designs, many in color, drawn from advertisements by Alcoa, Bohn, Kaiser, and other major corporations, pamphlets, films, and exhibitions.
Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists.
The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only reviews the progress made since the early days of pulsar astronomy, but especially focuses on questions such as: "What have we learned about the subject and how did we learn it?", "What are the most important open questions in this area?" and "What new tools, telescopes, observations, and calculations are needed to answer these questions?".
All authors who have contributed to this book have devoted a significant part of their scientific careers to exploring the nature of neutron stars and understanding pulsars. Everyone has paid special attention to writing educational comprehensive review articles with the needs of beginners, students and young scientists as potential readers in mind. This book will be a valuable source of information for these groups.
In this thesis the static and dynamic properties of GaAs-based oxide-confined VCSELs emitting at 850 nm and 980 nm are analyzed and general rules for achieving energy-efficient data transmission using VCSELs at any wavelength are derived. These rules are verified in data transmission experiments leading to record energy-efficient data transmission across a wide range of multimode optical fiber distances and at high temperatures up to 85°C.
Important trade-offs between energy efficiency, temperature stability, modulation bandwidth, low current-density operation and other VCSEL properties are revealed and discussed.
The aim is to provide a basic understanding of edge states, bulk topological invariants, and of the bulk--boundary correspondence with as simple mathematical tools as possible.
The present approach uses noninteracting lattice models of topological insulators, building gradually on these to arrive from the simplest one-dimensional case (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model for polyacetylene) to two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators (the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model for HgTe). In each case the discussion of simple toy models is followed by the formulation of the general arguments regarding topological insulators.
The only prerequisite for the reader is a working knowledge in quantum mechanics, the relevant solid state physics background is provided as part of this self-contained text, which is complemented by end-of-chapter problems.
In recent years, a new perspective has been added to these systems and their interactions: They can be used for storing and processing information in the form of quantum bits (qubits), the building blocks of quantum computers. The basics of this emerging technology are explained and examples of demonstration-type quantum computers based on localized spins in solids are discussed.