Kellogg was the author of Rhetoric; History of the English Language. With Alonzo Reed, he jointly authored Graded Lessons in English; Higher Lessons in English; A One Book Course. He authored a variety of textbooks on English writing and literature, including a series on the works of William Shakespeare.
Most methods of diagramming in pedagogy are based on the work of Alonzo Reed and Brainerd Kellogg in their book Higher Lessons in English, first published in 1877, though the method has been updated with recent understanding of grammar. Reed and Kellogg were preceded, and their work probably informed, by W. S. Clark, who published his "balloon" method of depicting grammar in his 1847 book A Practical Grammar: In Which Words, Phrases & Sentences are Classified According to Their Offices and Their Various Relationships to Each Another. Some schoolteachers continue to use the Reed–Kellogg system in teaching grammar, but others have discouraged it in favor of more modern tree diagrams.