Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary exploration of the natural origins and early evolution of this famous plant, highlighting its historic role in the development of human societies. Cannabis has long been prized for the strong and durable fiber in its stalks, its edible and oil-rich seeds, and the psychoactive and medicinal compounds produced by its female flowers. The culturally valuable and often irreplaceable goods derived from cannabis deeply influenced the commercial, medical, ritual, and religious practices of cultures throughout the ages, and human desire for these commodities directed the evolution of the plant toward its contemporary varieties. As interest in cannabis grows and public debate over its many uses rises, this book will help us understand why humanity continues to rely on this plant and adapts it to suit our needs.
Over the past thirty years the Australian travel experience has been ‘Aboriginalized’. Aboriginality has been appropriated to furnish the Australian nation with a unique and identifiable tourist brand. This is deeply ironic given the realities of life for many Aboriginal people in Australian society. On the one hand, Aboriginality in the form of artworks, literature, performances, landscapes, sport, and famous individuals is celebrated for the way it blends exoticism, mysticism, multiculturalism, nationalism, and reconciliation. On the other hand, in the media, cinema, and travel writing, Aboriginality in the form of the lived experiences of Aboriginal people has been exploited in the service of moral panic, patronized in the name of white benevolence, or simply ignored. For many travel writers, this irony - the clash between different regimes of valuing Aboriginality - is one of the great challenges to travelling in Australia. Travel Writing from Black Australia examines the ambivalence of contemporary travelers’ engagements with Aboriginality. Concentrating on a period marked by the rise of discourses on Aboriginality championing indigenous empowerment, self-determination, and reconciliation, the author analyses how travel to Black Australia has become, for many travelers, a means of discovering ‘new’—and potentially transformative—styles of interracial engagement.
Autophagy is a major catabolic process used by cells to remove superfluous or damaged proteins and organelles. In the final stages of autophagy, acidic organelles (lysosomes) act to degrade autophagic cargo and to facilitate their recycling. Little is known about how cancer cells undergoing autophagy, often as a consequence of stress, respond when lysosomal function is blocked. To elucidate this mechanism, several recent studies report that lysosomes and their hydrolytic proteases (cathepsins) play a critical role in autophagy and subsequent cancer progression. Our studies in breast cancer suggest that inhibition of cathepsins D and L using the BH3-mimetic, obatoclax, is effective in reducing the cell density of anti-estrogen sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, blockage of cathepsin protein expression with obatoclax leads to the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and impairs the ability of cells to use degraded material to restore homeostasis. While cancer cells are dependent on effective lysosomal function, neoplastic transformation induces changes in lysosomal volume, number, and protease activity. Recent reports suggest that pro-oncogenic changes render cancer cells more susceptible to lysosomal-associated death pathways. A number of distinct stimuli have been shown to permeabilize the lysosomal membrane, leading to the release of hydrolases into the cytosol and, ultimately, cell death. Thus, changes in cathepsin and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) regulation during cancer cell progression suggest that strategies targeting this cellular compartment may be exploited to improve outcomes for cancer patients.