Since FY 2001, the fed. gov¿t. has been unable to collect over $1 billion in AD and CV imposed to remedy injurious, unfair foreign trade practices. These include AD duties imposed on products exported to the U.S. at unfairly low prices (i.e., dumped) and CV duties on products exported to the U.S. that were subsidized by foreign governments. These uncollected duties show that the U.S. gov¿t. has not fully remedied the unfair trade practices for U.S. industry and has lost out on a substantial amount of duty revenue to the U.S. Treasury. This statement summarizes key findings from prior reports on: (1) past initiatives to improve AD/CV duty collection; and (2) additional options for improving AD/CV duty collection. This is a print on demand report.
The nature of diamonds and the international diamond industry's operations create opportunities for illicit trade, including trade in conflict. Conflict diamonds are used by rebel movements to finance their military activities, including attempts to undermine or overthrow legitimate governments. These conflicts have created severe humanitarian crises in a number of African countries. An international effort called the Kimberley Process, in which the U.S. participates, aims to develop a diamond certification scheme to deter the flow of conflict diamonds. This report assesses the challenges associated with deterring trade in conflict diamonds. Charts, tables and maps.
In July 2000, Pres. Clinton proposed a Global Food for Educ. Initiative (GFEI) whereby developed countries would provide school breakfasts or lunches to needy children in poor countries. The goal is to contribute to universal educ. by using school meals to attract children to school, keep them attending once they enroll, and improve learning. This report examines: lessons that can be drawn from expert views on the effectiveness and cost of school feeding programs in promoting these goals; the extent to which the U.S. pilot program (PP) has built upon these lessons; whether the PP is being managed so as to ensure that the food aid and proceeds are efficiently used; and the views of other major donors regarding support for a comprehensive, long-term GFEI.
Some U.S. companies allege that unfair subsidies are a factor in Chinese success in U.S. markets. U.S. producers injured by subsidized imports may normally seek countervailing duties (CVD) to offset subsidies, but the U.S. does not apply CVDs against countries, including China, that the Dept. of Commerce classifies as non-market economiesÓ (NME). This report: (1) explains why the U.S. does not apply CVDs to China; (2) describes alternatives for changing this policy; (3) explores challenges that would arise in applying CVDs; & (4) examines the implications for duty rates on Chinese products. Includes recommendations. Charts & tables.
Small businesses are important to the U.S. economy for their roles in technological development and job creation. To fully protect and profit from their innovations, small businesses may need to obtain patents in other countries. This report identifies whether small businesses encounter any impediments in seeking patents abroad and determines whether any federal actions could help small businesses overcome those impediments. To answer these questions, the GAO convened an expert panel of U.S. patent attorneys and surveyed a number of small businesses. The respondents felt that the U.S. should promote harmonization (i.e. reduce differences) among U.S. and foreign patent systems, and reduce the high cost of foreign patents. Charts and tables.
In Nov. 2001, the WTO launched a new set of multilateral negotiations. It laid out an ambitious agenda for a broad set of new multilateral trade negotiations, which calls for a continuation of discussions on liberalizing trade in ag. and services, which began in 2000. It also provides for new talks on market access for non-ag. products, trade and the environ., trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights, and other issues. This report: (1) analyzes the factors that contributed to the successful launch of new WTO negotiations, (2) analyzes the key interim deadlines for the most sensitive issues from the present time through the next ministerial conference in 2003, and (3) evaluates the most significant challenges facing the WTO in the overall negotiations.
U.S. textile & apparel imports from China have more than doubled in value since China became a World Trade Organization (WTO) member. When joining the WTO, China agreed to a special textile safeguard mechanism applicable only to that country. This report: (1) describes the mechanism, (2) describes requests for safeguard action filed by U.S. producers & the results of these requests, & (3) evaluates U.S. agency procedures for transparency & accessibility. Includes recommendations. Charts & tables.