An empirical study was undertaken (a) to examine the characteristics, influencing factors, and effectiveness of a distinctive Chinese management model adopted by the newly founded private enterprises in mainland China, as well as (b) to test the "fit" notion in contingency theory. The study was based on a random sample of 124 standardized personal interviews with CEOs of Chinese industrial and service companies in Beijing and Shanghai. The standardized questionnaire mainly contained the Aston structure scales (Pugh and Hickson 1976) and Khandwalla's (1977) management schedules. Besides, three case examples were studied including one state-owned bank and two private enterprises. Using AMOS structural equation modeling, size, mass-technology and uncertainty, as well as CEO need for achievement, environmental constraints and selected Chinese characteristics, were specified as influencing factors of "bureaucracy" and managerial practices, which included strategic orientation, leadership style, decision-making, communication and subcontracting. Another model analyzed the influence of various key success factors on organizational effectiveness. The findings provided support for the re-adoption of a distinctive Chinese management model in private companies, characterized by autocratic leadership, low formalization, "Chinese entrepreneurship" and network-based "webs". Private enterprises also tended to readopt and emphasize traditional Chinese family-related values. The distinctiveness of this model was, ceteris paribus, due to this emphasis on familism, which had a direct impact on organizational design and an indirect influence through its negative association with company size, which in turn significantly covaried with organizational design. This family-based ownership model was positively associated with organizational effectiveness. As regards contingency theory, the "traditional" fit hypotheses could not be rejected. In addition, less effective companies were not necessarily in "misfit". "Appropriate" structure, together with an optimizing planning style and firm age, were positively associated with performance. Managerial recommendations were codified in a CHINA© strategy framework for high effectiveness.
This ground-breaking book is the first in-depth empirical study of Chinese organizational design in state and private enterprises. Web-based Chinese management, a new paradigm in business studies, explains the dynamism of private Chinese enterprises and demonstrates the crucial role of micro-level organizational practices for economic development. It can be used anywhere in the world to help deal with the increasing uncertainty and complexity for the next millennium and can also be used as a framework for economic policy.
An empirical study was undertaken to (a) examine various determinants influencing (de-)centralisation in Trans-World, the largest producer of television programs in Taiwan, & (b) make normative recommendations as to how insights from organisational dynamics models can be used in practice. The research was based on a sample of 63 standardised personal interviews with all Trans-World employees. Scales were particularly developed for the purpose of this study. In-depth interviews, participant observer & archival data were combined with the survey data to test a model predicting uncertainty & interdependence as primary drivers of decentralisation. Results showed that despite high uncertainty & interdependence, Trans-World was highly centralised. This apparent paradox was explained by the overriding influence of two other factors not usually modelled, including both the owner-manager's desire to control & national culture. Reduced organisational effectiveness due to this partial "misfit" was sustainable through the company's oligopolistic power based on personal relations. Managerial recommendations included the use of a "company profile grid" to determine the optimal degree of decentralisation.