Molecular genetic studies have provided detailed information on the pathogenesis of retinal dystrophies. An important proof of principle that gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of these conditions was demonstrated in the rds mouse: introduction of a functional copy of the peripherin gene subretinally resulted in complete rescue of rod outer segment structure. Novel approaches are being developed based on the manipulation of biochemical pathways that previously were not considered relevant to these diseases. For example, renewed interest in retinal dystrophy pathogenesis led to the successful use of high dose vitamin A treatment in Sorsby fundus dystrophy.
This important new book covers all aspects of retinal dystrophies from the molecular and developmental biology of these disorders to possible therapeutic approaches, with special reference to gene therapy. Specific chapters deal with the molecular genetics of gene therapies, clinical genetic studies, molecular and cellular mechanisms of the development of the disease, functional genomics of retinal diseases, animal models of retinal dystrophies, and finally with studies on gene therapeutic approaches to correcting the disorder. With contributions by many of the leading researchers worldwide, this book is likely to be an important milestone in this rapidly developing field.
This family consists of at least 10 genes, each of which has several splice variants. Most members of the family are expressed in the luminal membrane of epithelial cells. Characterization of anion transport by three members has revealed that all function as Cl-/HCO3- exchangers, suggesting that SLC26 transporters are responsible for the luminal Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity. The SLC26 transporters are activated by the CF transmembrane conductance regulator and activate it in turn, leading to a model in which these molecules act together to mediate epithelial Cl- absorption and HCO3- secretion.
The book includes chapters on the transport of other molecules by the SLC26 family, including oxalate in the kidney and sugars in cochlear hair cells amongst others. It also describes recent discoveries that most SLC26 transporters bind to scaffold proteins and that they all contain a conserved domain predicted to participate in protein-protein interactions. These suggest the SLC26 transporters exist in complexes with other Cl- and HCO3- transporters, and possibly other regulatory proteins. This book explores the functional role of these interactions, leading to better understanding of transepithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion and the diseases associated with it.
Acetaldehyde-Related Pathology describes the toxic effects of acetaldehyde at the tissue and cellular levels, reviewing enzyme biochemistry, transgenic mouse models of alcohol dehydrogenase mutants, and the cell-signalling pathways implicated in alcohol-related pathology. It explores the mechanisms of acetaldehyde-induced damage to tissues, often a first step in carcinogenesis, including the oral cavity, the human airway, and the GI tract. The book considers pharmacological strategies and treatments for reducing oral and intestinal acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde-Related Pathology features in-depth, round-table discussions by an international array of scientists from major laboratories worldwide involved in studies of acetaldehyde-related pathology.
This book is essential reading for anyone interested in the effects of this compound - pathologists, biochemists, toxicologists, cell and molecular biologists.
Several mechanisms are thought to contribute to osteoarthritic joint pain. These include mild synovial inflammation, bone oedema, ligament stretching, osteophyte formation and cartilage-derived mediators. Changes in joint biomechanics and muscle strength also influence the severity and duration of joint pain in osteoarthritis. Within the nervous system, the relative contributions of peripheral afferent nociceptive fibres and central mechanisms remain to be defined, and there is limited information on the phenotype of sensory neurons in the OA joint. Importantly, there is no relation between clinical severity, as measured by radiographic changes, and the presence and severity of joint pain. Patients with severe joint pain may have normal joint architecture as determined by X-ray, whereas patients with considerable evidence of joint remodelling may not have significant joint pain. Treatments for osteoarthritic joint pain include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds, exercise, corrective shoes and surgical intervention. There remains a critical need for improved control of joint pain in osteoarthritis.
This book brings together contributions from key investigators in the area of osteoarthritic joint pain. It covers the clinical presentation of joint pain, the pathways involved in joint pain, osteoarthritis disease processes and pain, experimental models and pain control. The discussions provide insights into the nature of osteoarthritic joint pain, identify key studies needed to advance understanding of the problem, highlight possible intervention points and indicate future pathways towards a better treatment of osteoarthritic joint pain.
It features regulatory authority perspectives on preferred preclinical test systems and includes topics on hERG channel gating, regulation of functional expression, pharmacological properties of hERG/IKr channels, drug-induced long QT syndrome and preclinical evaluation and regulatory recommendations for assessing QT prolongation risks.
Better understanding of the role of the hERG channel in drug-induced cardiac arrhythmias should ultimately lead to the development of important, new and safer medicines.
The initial chapters deal with fundamental developments in hardware, software and mathematics that underlie current approaches to biological modelling. Next, different approaches to collating data on gene structure and function are presented. These databases form a vital resource for any investigator trying to construct an integrated picture of particular biological systems.
Cell signalling systems form a particularly complicated aspect of all cellular function and are important both in the understanding of basic cellular processes and in selecting targets for drugs. Recent approaches to integrating data on cell signalling into computer models are covered. Further chapters build on these approaches to show how computerized models of intact cells can be developed. Finally, approaches to the computer modelling of whole organs such as the heart are presented. The role of computer modelling in drug design is the subject of the final chapter and is also touched on throughout the discussions. !-- end body copy --
Chair: John A. Pickett, 1999
This book examines the sophisticated mechanisms that plants use to defend themselves against attack by insects and pathogens, focusing on the networks of plant signalling pathways that underlie these defences. In response to herbivory, plants release a complex blend of as many as 100 volatile chemicals, known as semiochemicals ('sign chemicals'). These act as an airborne SOS signal, revealing the presence of the herbivore to the predators and parasitoids that are its natural enemies. Plants also have endogenous defence mechanisms that can be induced in response to pathogens, and separate chapters deal with systemic acquired resistance, phytoalexins, and the interacting pathways in pathogen and pest resistance. The book discusses underlying biochemical mechanisms by which plant stress leads to the biosynthesis of chemical signals from pools of secondary metabolite precursors, or even from the primary metabolism source. Finally, consideration is given to the possibilities for exploiting these signalling pathways by plant molecular genetics. The use of plant signals and their analogues to switch on defence pathways in crop plants is covered in depth. Bringing together contributions from entomologists, chemical ecologists, molecular biologists and plant physiologists this book is truly interdisciplinary, and will be essential reading for anyone with an interest in agricultural pest control.
This book describes the work of leading investigators studying the basic mechanisms of cardiac growth, function and dysfunction. There are also exciting contributions from researchers developing novel therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease. The unique feature is the discussions amongst the contributors, which always return to the same basic problem: how can new data from biological studies be used to design novel therapies for the treatment of cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction, hypertension and other disorders?
With its strong emphasis on translational research, this book will appeal to both scientists and clinicians interested in diminishing the impact of the current epidemic of cardiac diseases.
Chapters in this book deal specifically with cell fate determination, cell migration and disorders of cell migration; current concepts and new ideas about cortical arealisation, and disorders which can arise from incorrect arealisation; genes implicated in the development of cortical connectivity and related pathologies such as schizophrenia and synaesthesia; and susceptibility genes for cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, dyslexia, and attention deficit disorder.
This book contains contributions from leading investigators from around the world, including lively discussion of the current state of the art in studies of regulatory lymphocytes. Topics featured are the physiological control of autoimmunity, the role of antigen-specific cells in various diseases and disease models and effector mechanisms. Therapeutic applications are considered, particularly for type 1 diabetes, tissue transplantation and the control of viral infection. This important and groundbreaking book should be of interest to all immunologists.
Related Novartis Foundation symposia:
254 Immunoinformatics: bioinformatic strategies for better understanding of immune function
Chair: Hans-Georg Rammensee
256 Cancer and inflammation
Chair: Siamon Gordon
Bringing together contributions from an international and interdisciplinary group of experts working on the many aspects of bacterial cellular responses to pH, this stimulating volume draws together new and innovative work in this area. It delineates both similarities and differences between mechanisms of tolerance and response, providing readers with an invaluable resource on the subject.
The classical view of the circadian system is of diverse physiological rhythms regulated by a centralized clock structure. This book presents evidence that challenges this view. Experiments in both vertebrate and invertebrate systems demonstrate that the circadian timing system is dispersed throughout the animal and suggest that possibly every cell contains an autonomous clock mechanism. A variety of tissues and cells contain have been shown to maintain an oscillation when placed in vitro and removed from any external cues or signals that originate from the classical clock structures and/or the environment.
This book draws together contributions from an international and interdisciplinary group of experts whose work is focused on all aspects of the topic. Coverage includes the mechanisms of light signalling to the vertebrate clock, the connections between central and peripheral clocks, circadian gene expression patterns and output pathways of clock mechanisms.
Incorporating data on disease-associated chromosomal loci that has been accumulated from inbred mice, the title:descibes how some susceptibility loci may be common to many diseases, whereas others are relatively disease specific discusses the importance of developing criteria for establishing the significance of these different categories of disease-associated loci.
The theme of the book is how the brain uses sensory information to develop and decide upon the appropriate action, and how the brain determines the appropriate action to optimize the collection of new sensory information. It addresses several key questions. How are percepts built up in the cortex and how are judgments of the percept made? In what way does information flow within and between cortical regions, and what is accomplished by successive (and reverberating) stages of processing? How are decisions made about the percept subsequently acted upon, through their conversion to a response according to the learned criterion for action? How does the predicted or expected sensation interact with the actual incoming flow of sensory signals? The chapters and discussions in the book reveal how answering these questions requires an understanding of sensory–motor loops: our perception of the world drives new actions, and the actions undertaken at any moment lead to a new ‘view’ of the world.
This book is a fascinating read for all clinical and experimental psychologists and neuroscientists, as well as anyone interested in how we perceive the world and act within it.
In recent years, comprehension of the molecular genetics of blood vessel formation has progressed enormously and studies in vertebrate model systems, especially the mouse and the zebrafish, have identified a common set of molecules and processes that are conserved throughout vertebrate embryogenesis while, in addition, highlighting aspects that may differ between different animal groups.
The discovery in the past decade of the crucial role of new blood vessel formation for the development of cancers has generated great interest in angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones), with its major implications for potential cancer-control strategies. In addition, there are numerous situations where therapeutic treatments either require or would be assisted by vasculogenesis (the de novo formation of blood vessels). In particular, post-stroke therapies could include treatments that stimulate neovascularization of the affected tissues.
The development of such treatments, however, requires thoroughly understanding the developmental properties of endothelial cells and the basic biology of blood vessel formation.
While there are many books on angiogenesis, this unique book focuses on exactly this basic biology and explores blood vessel formation in connection with tissue development in a range of animal models. It includes detailed discussions of relevant cell biology, genetics and embryogenesis of blood vessel formation and presents insights into the cross-talk between developing blood vessels and other tissues.
With contributions from vascular biologists, cell biologists and developmental biologists, a comprehensive and highly interdisciplinary volume is the outcome.
The structures of the rhodopsin molecule are studied in the fields of protein chemistry, molecular biology, organic chemistry and structural biology; the ultra fast reactions of the retinal protein are studied in physics, biophysics, physical chemistry, organic chemistry and photobiology; the phototransduction in retinal proteins and visual cells are studied in biophysics, biochemistry, biophysical chemistry and photobiology; and the localization in the tissues is studied in anatomy and histochemistry. The diversity of visual systems in various animals is studied in zoology and comparative biochemistry.
Although empathy seems to be an automatic response of the brain to others’ emotional reactions, there are circumstances under which we do not share the same feeling as others. Imagine, for example, that someone who does the same job as you is paid twice as much. In this case, that person might be very satisfied with their extra salary, but you would not share this satisfaction. This case illustrates the ubiquitous feeling of fairness and justice.
Our sense of fairness has also become the focus of modern economic theories. In contrast to the prominent self-interest hypothesis of classic economy assuming that all people are exclusively motivated by their self-interest, humans are also strongly motivated by other-regarding preferences such as the concern for fairness and reciprocity. The notion of fairness is not only crucial in personal interaction with others in the context of families, workplace or interactions with strangers, but also guides people’s behaviour in impersonal economic and political domains.
This book brings together work from a wide range of disciplines to explain processes underlying empathy and fairness. The expert contributors approach the topic of empathy and fairness from different viewpoints, namely those of social cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, evolutionary anthropology, economics and neuropathology. The result is an interdisciplinary and unitary framework focused on the neuronal, developmental, evolutionary and psychological basis of empathy and fairness. With its extensive discussions and the high calibre of the participants, this important new book is essential reading for anyone with an interest in this topic.
This exciting book features papers and discussion contributions from leading behavioural geneticists, evolutionary psychologists and experts on intelligence that explore the differences and the tensions between these two approaches. The nature of 'g' or general intelligence is discussed in detail, as is the issue of the heritability of intelligence. The alternative approaches that emphasise domain-specific intelligences are explored, alongside wide-ranging discussions on a broad range of issues such as the biological basis for intelligence, animal models and changes in IQ scores over time.
Chairman: Mitchell Glickstein, 1998
In the past few years there has been an increasing recognition of the multiplicity of sensory and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. However, still relatively little is known about the way in which sensory areas are functionally linked to motor areas. On the basis of current anatomical evidence, there are three major pathways involved in this linking. One of these routes is by way of cortico-cortical links, beginning in the primary sensory areas of the cortex, and connecting via a series of synaptic relays to motor or premotor areas. There are also two massive subcortical routes. One of these involves the basal ganglia, the other the cerebellum. This book focuses on current research on the structure and functions of these three pathways and their role in the sensory guidance of movement. Motor psychophysicists have made progress in characterizing the nature of movements such as reaching and grasping, and how such movements are modified by incoming sensory information. Anatomical studies have revealed important new information about the ways in which sensory information is relayed to the basal ganglia and cerebellum. There is now a volume of scanning evidence about the activity of brain areas in humans and recordings from individual neurons in animals during sensory guided movement. This book summarizes much of this recent knowledge and provides a forum for suggesting new avenues for further study. The topics covered also have important implications for understanding the role of these pathways in human disease.
The prevailing model for tobacco addiction is that nicotine from cigarettes rewards smoking and punishes abstinence, tapping into a motivational system of operant conditioning that requires no conscious awareness. However, there are also accounts which involve cognitive biases and the effect of nicotine on impulse control. The brain pathways involved have been studied extensively, but the role of different nicotine receptor subtypes and other neurotransmitter systems is still subject to debate.
In western countries, cigarette smoking as an adult has a heritability of 30-50% and candidate genes have been identified that may contribute in part to addiction susceptibility. Many socio-cultural correlates of cigarette smoking have been established, but a comprehensive model that accounts for these and links them with the psychobiological aspects of nicotine addiction has not been forthcoming. Structured behavioural support programmes aid cessation attempts, as do a number of pharmacotherapies, most notably nicotine replacement treatments and bupropion, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
This book deals with the problems involved in understanding and treating nicotine and tobacco addiction. Topics covered include the nature of the worldwide health problem posed by cigarette smoking, the psychodynamics of cigarette addiction, and the basic pharmacology and biochemistry of nicotine and its effect on the brain. Further chapters analyse the genetic basis of susceptibility to nicotine addiction. Finally, the contributors address approaches to therapy. A continuing theme in the discussions throughout the book is how best to treat nicotine addiction, given that many smokers would like to stop smoking but are unable to do so because of their addiction.
This book will be of great value to all psychologists and psychiatrists working on addiction, specifically to nicotine but also to other compounds and behaviours. It will also be of interest to neuroscientists and pharmacologists working on nicotine receptors and the brain pathways involved in dependence, as well as to biochemists, molecular biologist and to public health officials.
This book draws together contributions from an international and interdisciplinary group of experts working on both basic and clinical aspects of cardiac development. It features reviews of the structure and function of the developing PCS, discussion of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating embryological development of this system and studies on the fundamental basis of PCS pathology. The book also considers how novel therapeutic interventions based on understanding of the developmental biology of cardiac pacemaking and conduction tissues might ultimately impact on clinical medicine.
This exciting book brings together leading clinicians and researchers to discuss oestrogen's basic mechanisms of action, the extrahypothalmic brain regions it affects, and its influence on cognitive functions in animals and humans. Finally, recent research on the role of oestrogens in ageing and dementia, including the significance of oestrogen action in Alzheimer's disease, is discussed. The 15 papers contained in this book, together with the extensive discussion sessions that follow them, reveal much new and exciting work in this area, and identify promising new research directions.
The book focusses ultimately on intervention studies and so is of practical relevance to people interested in helping autistic children. In addition, it provides a very convenient summary of the principal controversies which currently exist in research on autism.
Since the promulgation of the ‘molecular chaperone’ concept as a general cellular function to control the process of correct protein folding, a large number of molecular chaperones and protein folding catalysts have been identified, and it has been recognized that not all molecular chaperones are stress proteins and vice versa. The discovery of molecular chaperones as folding proteins went hand-in-hand with their recognition as potent immunogens in microbial infection. It was subsequently shown that administration of molecular chaperones such as Hsp60, Hsp70 or Hsp90 could inhibit experimental autoimmune diseases and cancer.
More recently evidence has accumulated to show that certain molecular chaperones are also present on the surface of cells or in extracellular fluids. A new paradigm is emerging: at least some molecular chaperones are secreted proteins with pro- or anti-inflammatory actions, regulating the immune response in human diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition to having direct effects on cells, molecular chaperones can bind peptides and present them to T cells to modulate immune responses. This may be significant in the treatment of cancer.
This is the first book bringing leading researchers in this field together to review and discuss:our current knowledge of cell stress response and molecular chaperones the changing paradigms of protein trafficking and function cell stress proteins as immunomodulators and pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling molecules the role of these proteins in various chronic diseases and their potential as preventative or therapeutic agents.
The Biology of Extracellular Molecular Chaperones is of particular interest to immunologists, cell and molecular biologists, microbiologists and virologists, as well as clinical researchers working in cardiology, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.
Purinergic signalling affects a diverse range of cellular phenomena, including ion channel function, cytoskeletal dynamics, gene expression, secretion, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Recently, this class of signalling molecules and receptors has been found to mediate communication between neurons and non-neuronal cells (glia) in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Glia are critical for normal brain function, development and response to injury. Neural impulse activity is detected by glia and purinergic signalling is emerging as a major means of integrating functional activity between neurons, glia and vascular cells in the nervous system. These interactions mediate effects of neural activity on the development of the nervous system and in association with injury, neurodegeneration, myelination and cancer.
Bringing together contributions from experts in diverse fields, including glial biologists, neurobiologists and specialists in purinergic receptor structure and pharmacology, this book considers how extracellular ATP acts to integrate communication between different types of glia, and between neurons and glia. Beginning with an overview of glia and purinergic signalling, it contains detailed coverage of purine release, receptors and reagents, purinergic signalling in the neural control of glial development, glial involvement in information processing, and discussion of the interactions between neurons and microglia.
This book explores both theoretical and practical issues of tinkering. It features a wide range of perspectives to address several fundamental questions. How does tinkering occur developmentally, and how is it manifested phenotypically? Are the developmental mechanisms by which tinkering occur different from those that underlie larger evolutionary changes? What are the developmental constraints on tinkering? And how do we test hypotheses about microevolutionary shifts in development from the fossil record?
With contributions from experts in a range of fields, this fascinating book makes exciting reading for anyone studying evolution, developmental biology or genetics.
The last few years have seen considerable progress in this field and exciting new issues concerning gap junctional intercellular communication are being raised. Perturbed gap junction activity is beginning to be linked to certain pathologies, e.g. mutations in the major connexin of the heart have been found in human patients suffering from visceroatrial heterotaxia syndrome and mutations in the gene encoding another connexin have been found in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
This book is the first to highlight the recent progress in understanding gap junction structure and to discuss the specific roles of individual connexins. It features contributions from an interdisciplinary group of experts who review the role of gap junctions in the heart, the retina and lens, the auditory system, the reproductive system, and in cell proliferation and cancer.
The book will appeal to people interested in cell and molecular biology, embryonic development, neurobiology, cardiology, gynaecology and oncology.
Although anaphylaxis was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, there are still many unresolved issues. These include non-IgE-mediated anaphylactoid reactions, non-immunologically mediated anaphylactoid (pseudo-allergic) reactions, pathophysiological events at the microcirculatory level, appropriate therapy for the acute reaction, strategies for prevention, public education about the problem and new approaches to prevention and therapy at the IgE level. All these subjects are discussed in this book.
Since anaphylaxis occurs acutely and is unforeseen, it is very difficult to organize controlled studies regarding therapy and prevention. The spectrum of symptomatology covers many clinical areas (skin, respiratory, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system), therefore inter-disciplinary approaches are necessary for progress in the field. There is widespread uncertainty among physicians about therapy, especially concerning self-administered treatment.
In this important book, an multidisciplinary group of experts explore the pathophysiology of different types of anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions. Evidence is presented on the epidemiology of these conditions while problems relating to diagnosis, therapy and prevention are examined in detail. This thorough and up-to-date coverage of the subject will be of great interest to all clinical immunologists, researchers and physicians who deal with this life-threatening condition.
Related Novartis Foundation symposia:252 Generation and effector functions of regulatory lymphocytes
Chair: Jean-François Bach Immunoinformatics: bioinformatic strategies for better understanding of immune function
Chair: Hans-Georg Rammensee Cancer and inflammation
Chair: Siamon Gordon
* The transport of solutes into and out of the infected cell and the use of specific trafficking pathways in drug targeting
* The traffic of proteins produced by the intracellular parasite as an essential process for the biogenesis of transport systems.
* The relationship between the transport of drugs into the infected cell and the mode of drug action and drug resistance.
This timely book brings together leading neuroscientists, clinicians, and cell and developmental biologists to discuss the use of neural transplants in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. There is also extensive coverage of the potential alternatives to freshly derived fetal tissue as the source of transplants, for example xenografts, encapsulated cells and immortalized stem cells. With authoritative contributions and lively discussion sections, this book presents much new and exciting work in this field and identifies promising new research directions.
This book explores the latest research on the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in smooth muscle function. It examines the control and modulation of the SR and how this may vary among smooth muscle types. Potential therapeutic implications are also discussed.Discusses new and exciting work in this area and identifies promising new research directions. Considers the advances in this relatively unexplored field, offering new insights into the role of the SR muscle. Brings together contributions from key workers, both in basic and clinical science, whose studies range from physiological to pathological and molecular to whole animal.
The other area of controversy covered in the book is the identity of the endpoint effector(s). Some authors favour K+ channel inhibition, followed by depolarization and Ca2+ entry via L-type channels, while others propose that release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, or capacitative Ca2+ entry and other voltage-independent pathways may be more important. The book also describes evidence for an endothelium-dependent Ca2+-sensitizing pathway involving Rho and possibly other kinases.
While some of these differences can be attributed to variation between tissues, many must be related to differences in interpretation or methodology. In this book, experts in the field of acute oxygen sensing working in different tissues address these controversies and their possible origins, and discuss possible approaches whereby these controversies might be resolved.
The book will be of great interest to all those working in fields where oxygen sensing is important, particularly cancer and wound healing, as well as researchers in drug discovery and biotechnology.
The book addresses all of these important questions. Data are presented on the key proteins that regulate cell shape: the GTP binding proteins of the Rho family. There are also extensive discussions of the potential applications of the data to clinical problems, particularly that of cell motility in cancer.
In its early days, tissue engineering was driven by material scientists who designed novel bio-resorbable scaffolds on which to seed cells and grow tissues. This ground-breaking work generated high expectations, but there have been significant stumbling blocks holding back the widespread use of these techniques in the clinic. These challenges, and potential ways of overcoming them, are given thorough coverage in the discussions that follow each chapter.
The key questions addressed in this book include the following. How good must cartilage repair be for it to be worthwhile? What is the best source of cells for tissue engineering of both bone and cartilage? Which are the most effective cell scaffolds? What are the best preclinical models for these technologies? And when it comes to clinical trials, what sort of outcome measures should be used? With contributions from some of the leading experts in this field, this timely publication will prove essential reading for anyone with an interest in the field of tissue engineering.
Immunoinformatics facilitates the understanding of immune function by modelling the interactions among immunological components. Biological research provides ever deeper insights into the complexity of living organisms while computer science provides an effective means to store and analyse large volumes of complex data. Combining the two fields increases the efficiency of biological research and offers the potential for major advances in the study of biological systems.
This book encompasses key developments in immunoinformatics, including immunological databases, sequence analysis, structure modelling, mathematical modelling of the immune system, simulation of laboratory experiments, statistical support for immunological experimentation and immunogenomics.
The difficulties in effective application of bioinformatic tools in immunology arise at both ends of the spectrum: most immunologists have only a limited comprehension of sophisticated data analysis and applicability and limitations, while the average computer scientist lacks knowledge of the depth and complexity of biological data. The purpose of this book, therefore, is to present contributions from a multidisciplinary team of biologists and computer scientists to explore the issues related to better understanding of immune function and, in particular, to help apply new computer science methods to immunological research.
Related Novartis Foundation symposia:
247 In Silico Simulation of Biological Processes
Chair: Denis Noble
252 Generation and effector functions of regulatory lymphocytes
Chair: Jean-François Bach
It is hoped that a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to disease pathogenesis may ultimately lead to more rational and appropriate treatments.
This book includes contributions from virtually all the major scientists studying gramicidin channels and is the only compilation of work in this field. It discusses crystallographic, spectroscopic, electrophysiological and computational studies, especially in the light of the recent availability of high-resolution structural data, and it compares these with insights derived from larger systems. As well as drawing together much new and exciting work in this field, it provides pointers to promising new research directions.
On a global basis, the dietary supplement industry has enjoyed rapid growth, becoming a multi-billion dollar enterprise over the last 10 years. This growth has been associated with significant changes in both the types of products available and the reasons for using these products.
In many cases, these changes have occurred without the benefit of a sound scientific basis for evaluating the safety and efficacy of these products under the new conditions of use and frequently the same limited scientific evidence is used, even though current product composition, user populations, purported beneficial effects, and conditions of use may differ significantly from the available evidence or historical usage.
This book presents systematic examinations of the scientific data that are available and/or needed to substantiate and evaluate the safety and efficacy of dietary supplements. A series of case studies that are illustrative of the types of scientific challenges that have been encountered in substantiating safety and efficacy for various product types are employed to point out some of the successes but also frustrations that have occurred in recent years. Discussions among presenters and participants identify the lessons learned from these experiences and formulate ideas for improved approaches to identifying research needs and for enhancing the quality and relevance of the scientific evidence available for policy decisions.
Dietary Supplements and Health constitutes a useful resource for nutritionists, biochemists, public health researchers and anyone interested in herbal, alternative medicines.
#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER
Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. She was a poor black tobacco farmer whose cells—taken without her knowledge in 1951—became one of the most important tools in medicine, vital for developing the polio vaccine, cloning, gene mapping, and more. Henrietta's cells have been bought and sold by the billions, yet she remains virtually unknown, and her family can't afford health insurance. This phenomenal New York Times bestseller tells a riveting story of the collision between ethics, race, and medicine; of scientific discovery and faith healing; and of a daughter consumed with questions about the mother she never knew.
In the current debate about creationism and intelligent design, there is an element of the controversy that is rarely mentioned-the evidence. Yet the proof of evolution by natural selection is vast, varied, and magnificent. In this succinct and accessible summary of the facts supporting the theory of natural selection, Jerry A. Coyne dispels common misunderstandings and fears about evolution and clearly confirms the scientific truth that supports this amazing process of change. Weaving together the many threads of modern work in genetics, paleontology, geology, molecular biology, and anatomy that demonstrate the "indelible stamp" of the processes first proposed by Darwin, Why Evolution Is True does not aim to prove creationism wrong. Rather, by using irrefutable evidence, it sets out to prove evolution right.
"Intelligent Design" is being taught in our schools; educators are being asked to "teach the controversy" behind evolutionary theory. There is no controversy. Dawkins sifts through rich layers of scientific evidence—from living examples of natural selection to clues in the fossil record; from natural clocks that mark the vast epochs wherein evolution ran its course to the intricacies of developing embryos; from plate tectonics to molecular genetics—to make the airtight case that "we find ourselves perched on one tiny twig in the midst of a blossoming and flourishing tree of life and it is no accident, but the direct consequence of evolution by non-random selection." His unjaded passion for the natural world turns what might have been a negative argument, exposing the absurdities of the creationist position, into a positive offering to the reader: nothing less than a master’s vision of life, in all its splendor.
In The Disappearing Spoon, bestselling author Sam Kean unlocked the mysteries of the periodic table. In THE VIOLINIST'S THUMB, he explores the wonders of the magical building block of life: DNA.
There are genes to explain crazy cat ladies, why other people have no fingerprints, and why some people survive nuclear bombs. Genes illuminate everything from JFK's bronze skin (it wasn't a tan) to Einstein's genius. They prove that Neanderthals and humans bred thousands of years more recently than any of us would feel comfortable thinking. They can even allow some people, because of the exceptional flexibility of their thumbs and fingers, to become truly singular violinists.
Kean's vibrant storytelling once again makes science entertaining, explaining human history and whimsy while showing how DNA will influence our species' future.
It took Charles Darwin more than twenty years to publish this book, in part because he realized that it would ignite a firestorm of controversy. On the Origin of Species first appeared in 1859, and it remains a continuing source of conflict to this day. Even among those who reject its ideas, however, the work's impact is undeniable. In science, philosophy, and theology, this is a book that changed the world.
In addition to its status as the focus of a dramatic turning point in scientific thought, On the Origin of Species stands as a remarkably readable study. Carefully reasoned and well-documented in its arguments, the work offers coherent views of natural selection, adaptation, the struggle for existence, survival of the fittest, and other concepts that form the foundation of modern evolutionary theory. This volume is a reprint of the critically acclaimed first edition.
“Rich in dexterous innuendo, laugh-out-loud humor and illuminating fact. It’s compulsively readable.” —Los Angeles Times Book Review In ?Bonk, ?the best-selling author of Stiff turns her outrageous curiosity and insight on the most alluring scientific subject of all: sex. Can a person think herself to orgasm? Why doesn't Viagra help women-or, for that matter, pandas? Can a dead man get an erection? Is vaginal orgasm a myth? Mary Roach shows us how and why sexual arousal and orgasm-two of the most complex, delightful, and amazing scientific phenomena on earth-can be so hard to achieve and what science is doing to make the bedroom a more satisfying place.
In the first book of its kind, journalist Donna Jackson Nakazawa examines nearly 100 debilitating autoimmune diseases—such as multiple sclerosis, lupus, Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis—that cause the body to destroy itself, mistakenly attacking healthy cells as the immune system fights off bacteria, viruses, and other invaders. As Nakazawa share the vivid, heartbreaking stories, including her own, of people living with these mysterious, chronic, and often hard-to-diagnose illnesses, she explores the alarming and unexpected connection between this deadly crisis and the countless environmental triggers we’re exposed to every day: heavy metals, toxins, pesticides, viruses, chemicals in the foods we eat, and more.
With the help of leading experts, Nakazawa explores revolutionary preventions, treatments, and cures emerging around the world and offers practical advice for protecting your immune system and reducing your risk of autoimmune disease in the future.
In fifteen easy-to-read chapters, featuring the humorous style and engaging analogies developed by Dr. Sompayrac, How the Immune System Works explains how the immune system players work together to protect us from disease – and, most importantly, why they do it this way.
Rigorously updated for this fifth edition, How the Immune System Works includes the latest information on subjects such as vaccines, the immunology of AIDS, and cancer. A highlight of this edition is a new chapter on the intestinal immune system – currently one of the hottest topics in immunology.
Whether you are completely new to immunology, or require a refresher, How the Immune System Works will provide you with a clear and engaging overview of this fascinating subject. But don’t take our word for it! Read what students have been saying about this classic book:
"What an exceptional book! It's clear you are in the hands of an expert."
"Possibly the Best Small Text of All Time!"
"This is a FUN book, and Lauren Sompayrac does a fantastic job of explaining the immune system using words that normal people can understand."
"Hands down the best immunology book I have read... a very enjoyable read."
"This is simply one of the best medical textbooks that I have ever read. Clear diagrams coupled with highly readable text make this whole subject easily understandable and engaging."
Now with a brand new website at www.wiley.com/go/sompayrac featuring Powerpoint files of the images from the book