Fallows learned, for example, that the abrupt, blunt way of speaking that Chinese people sometimes use isn't rudeness, but is, in fact, a way to acknowledge and honor the closeness between two friends. She learned that English speakers' trouble with hearing or saying tones-the variations in inflection that can change a word's meaning-is matched by Chinese speakers' inability not to hear tones, or to even take a guess at understanding what might have been meant when foreigners misuse them.
In sharing what she discovered about Mandarin, and how those discoveries helped her understand a culture that had at first seemed impenetrable, Deborah Fallows's Dreaming in Chinese opens up China to Westerners more completely, perhaps, than it has ever been before.
One of The Economist's 2011 Books of the Year
People speak different languages, and always have. The Ancient Greeks took no notice of anything unless it was said in Greek; the Romans made everyone speak Latin; and in India, people learned their neighbors' languages—as did many ordinary Europeans in times past (Christopher Columbus knew Italian, Portuguese, and Castilian Spanish as well as the classical languages). But today, we all use translation to cope with the diversity of languages. Without translation there would be no world news, not much of a reading list in any subject at college, no repair manuals for cars or planes; we wouldn't even be able to put together flat-pack furniture.
Is That a Fish in Your Ear? ranges across the whole of human experience, from foreign films to philosophy, to show why translation is at the heart of what we do and who we are. Among many other things, David Bellos asks: What's the difference between translating unprepared natural speech and translating Madame Bovary? How do you translate a joke? What's the difference between a native tongue and a learned one? Can you translate between any pair of languages, or only between some? What really goes on when world leaders speak at the UN? Can machines ever replace human translators, and if not, why?
But the biggest question Bellos asks is this: How do we ever really know that we've understood what anybody else says—in our own language or in another? Surprising, witty, and written with great joie de vivre, this book is all about how we comprehend other people and shows us how, ultimately, translation is another name for the human condition.
Korean grammar is notoriously difficult for foreigners to master but is essential for those wishing to learn Korean. Easy-to-use 500 Basic Korean Verbs is the only comprehensive guide to the correct usage of Korean verbs available for English-speaking learners.
Each of the 500 most important Korean verbs is presented in a convenient single-page format that gives the verb's meaning and pronunciation and displays the verb's 48 key tenses, speech levels, and moods (all accompanied by romanizations). Also included are a handy guide to the Korean language and verb conjugation and reference tables of basic Korean verb types, along with 3 indexes (Romanized, Hangeul, and English).
500 Basic Korean Verbs Includes: Conjugations by tense, speech levels, and mood. "Model verb" system quickly identifies each verb's pattern. Sample sentences demonstrating the verb's correct usage. Free downloadable audio provides pronunciations for the verbs and 1,000 example sentences. Korean characters (Hangul) as well as romanized pronunciations to help English speakers. Two-color design makes quick reference easy.
Now that Stephen Colbert, a Catholic from South Carolina and host of the "Colbert Report," is using Yiddish to wish viewers a bright and happy Chanukah, people have finally started to realize that there's nothing in the world that can't be improved by translating it into Yiddish. Wex's JUST SAY NU is the book that's going to show them how.
In this masterpiece of his youth, Dante assembles a selection of his love poems within a prose framework that situates them chronologically and autobiographically. The result is a history of his love for Beatrice, the muse he encountered in childhood who continued to influence him long after her marriage and early death. Upon completing this work in 1294, the future author of The Divine Comedy pledged to write of Beatrice "what has never before been written of any woman."
Instructors and students of Italian, as well as anyone interested in the masterworks of world literature, will appreciate this dual-language edition. It features a new English translation, in addition to an informative introduction and helpful notes.
Research Methodologies in Translation Studies is divided into four different chapters, according to whether the research focuses on the translation product, the process of translation, the participants involved or the context in which translation takes place. An introductory chapter discusses issues of reliability, credibility, validity and ethics. The impact of our research depends not only on its quality but also on successful dissemination, and the final chapter therefore deals with what is also generally the final stage of the research process: producing a research report.
* Thoroughly revised and expanded by over 30% with 3400 new entries
* Expanded coverage of areas greatly impacted by genomics
* Includes new terms that relate to the recent elucidation of underlying mechanisms of cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, relationship between mitochondria and disease, metabolic control, and stem cell biology
* Consistently provides the most complete short definitions of technical terminology for anyone working in life sciences today
* Extensively cross-referenced
* Provides multiple definitions, notes on word origins, and other useful features
Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in Polish in a broad range of situations. No prior knowledge of the language is required.
Colloquial Polish is exceptional; each unit presents a wealth of grammatical points that are reinforced with a wide range of exercises for regular practice. A full answer key, a grammar summary, bilingual glossaries and English translations of dialogues can be found at the back as well as useful vocabulary lists throughout.
Key features include:
A clear, user-friendly format designed to help learners progressively build up their speaking, listening, reading and writing skills
Jargon-free, succinct and clearly structured explanations of grammar
An extensive range of focused and dynamic supportive exercises
Realistic and entertaining dialogues covering a broad variety of narrative situations
Helpful cultural points explaining the customs and features of life in Poland
An overview of the sounds of Polish
Balanced, comprehensive and rewarding, Colloquial Polish is an indispensable resource both for independent learners and students taking courses in Polish.
Audio material to accompany the course is available to download free in MP3 format from www.routledge.com/cw/colloquials. Recorded by native speakers, the audio material features the dialogues and texts from the book and will help develop your listening and pronunciation skills.
An oversight of the Finnish language, explaining its key features. Useful to anyone who wants to just know something about Finnish. And if you wish to learn the language, this book gives you a good starting point and also helps to deal with the specialties of Finnish.
Linda Jaivin has been translating from Chinese for more than thirty years. While her specialty is subtitles, she has also translated song lyrics, poetry and fiction, and interpreted for ABC film crews, Chinese artists and even the English singer Billy Bragg as he gave his take on socialism to some Beijing rockers. In Found in Translation she reveals the work of the translator and considers whether different worldviews can be bridged. She pays special attention to China and the English-speaking West, Australia in particular, but also discusses French, Japanese and even the odd phrase of Maori. This is a free-ranging essay, personal and informed, about translation in its narrowest and broadest senses, and the prism – occasionally prison – of culture.
“About six years ago, President George W. Bush was delivering a speech at a G8 summit, when, made impatient by the process of translation, he interrupted his German interpreter: ‘Everybody speaks English, right?’ ...” – Linda Jaivin, Found in Translation
*register and dialect
*revision and editing.
The course now covers texts from a wide range of sources, including:
*journalism and literature
*commercial, legal and technical texts
*songs and recorded interviews.
This is essential reading for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of French on translation courses. The book will also appeal to wide range of language students and tutors.
This classic work was translated from the Latin by Robert Graves, renowned classicist, historian, and historical novelist. Combining his extensive expertise in classical history with deft writing skill and an ability to spin a good tale, Graves’ excellent translation makes this classic work accessible to modern audiences.
Based on detailed analysis of translation problems, Thinking German Translation features new material taken from a wide range of sources, including:business and politics press and publicity engineering tourism literary and consumer-oriented texts.
Addressing a variety of translation issues such as cultural difference, register and dialect, Thinking German Translation is essential reading for all students wishing to perfect their translation skills. It is also an excellent foundation for those considering a career in translation.
Further resources, including a free teacher's handbook for the course, are available on the companion website at http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/0415341469/resources/default.asp
Bert Esselink has been active in localization for over a decade. After graduating in technical translation and taking university classes in programming and computational linguistics he worked for several years as software localizer, localization engineer, and technical project manager at International Software Products. In 1996 he joined ALPNET in Amsterdam as localization manager before taking on the role of globalization manager, developing internal production quality standards. In January 2000 Bert joined Lionbridge to head up their European globalization consulting services.
Leading translation theorist Susan Bassnett traces the history of translation, examining the ways translation is currently utilized as a burgeoning interdisciplinary activity and extending her analysis into developing areas such as developing technologies and new media forms.
Translation Studies, fourth edition displays the importance of translation across disciplines, and is essential reading for students and scholars of translation, literary studies, globalisation studies and ancient and modern languages.
The purpose of the book is to provide the interpreter with a map of the terrain and to suggest methods that will help insure an accurate result. The author, herself a practicing court interpreter, says: The structure of the book follows the structure of the work as we do it.
The book is intended as a basic course book, as background reading for practicing court interpreters and for court officials who deal with interpreters.
The third edition has been revised and updated throughout, offering:
extensive up-to-date information about new translation technologies
discussions of the emerging "sociological" and "activist" turns in translation studies
new exercises and examples
updated further reading sections
a website containing a teacher’s guide, the chapter ‘The Translator as Learner’ and additional resources for translators
Offering suggestions for discussion, activities, and hints for the teaching of translation, the third edition of Becoming a Translator remains invaluable for students and teachers of Translation Studies, as well as those working in the field of translation.
Incorporating the results of extensive fieldwork in key global news organizations such as Reuters, Agence France Press and Inter Press Service, this book addresses central issues relating to the new pressures on translation arising from globalization, analyzing new texts from major news agencies as well as alternative media organizations. Co-written by Susan Bassnett, a leading figure in the field of translation studies, this book presents close readings of different English versions of key Arabic texts circulated in Western media to demonstrate the ways in which a cultural and religious 'Other' is framed in different media.
Although primarily written as a practitioner's explanation rather than a theorist's speculation, the book includes notes on concepts such as units of meaning, translation units and discourse structure, as well as stances on more polemical issues such as the use of omission and the ethics of interpreting mistakes. The book concludes with a comment on the pleasure of conference interpreting, as well as a glossary and suggested further readings. In all, it fills a major gap in English-language publications on interpreting, providing an introduction for beginners, a down-to-earth guide for students, and a handy compendium for teachers.
The first edition of this book was published in the series Translation Theories explained, at a time when St. Jerome had no separate series for books on practice as such. Happily, it has now found its rightful place in the Practices series. Modifications with respect to the first edition include an updated reading list, an index, and guideline tasks for training sessions. The popularity of the book since its first appearance in 1998 suggests that little else needs to be changed.
The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation and authenticity. The case of Gujarati - a case study of a relatively marginalized language - is a unique addition that demonstrates the micro-issues involved in translation and the politics of language.
Rita Kothari teaches English at St. Xavier's College, Ahmedabad (Gujarat), where she runs a translation research centre on behalf of Katha. She has published widely on literary sociology, postcolonialism and translation issues. Kothari is one of the leading translators from Gujarat. Her first book (a collaboration with Suguna Ramanathan) was on English translation of Gujarati poetry (Modern Gujarati Poetry: A Selection, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1998). Her English translation of the path-breaking Gujarati Dalit novel Angaliyat is in press (The Stepchild, Oxford University Press). She is currently working on an English translation of Gujarati short stories by women of Gujarat, a study of the nineteenth-century narratives of Gujarat, and is also engaged in a project on the Sindhi identity in India.
Part I: Terminology and Lexicography. Takes us through terminological problems and solutions in Europe, the former Soviet Union and Egypt.
Part II focuses on LSP for second language learners and lexical analysis.
Part III treats translator training in a historical context, as well as new methods from cognitive and corpus linguistics.
Part IV is about the application of language engineering in Machine Translation, corpus linguistics and multilingual text generation.
Austermühl explains all these tools and resources in a clear, step-by-step way, suggesting learning tasks and activities for each chapter and guiding the reader through the jargon. Examples are drawn from English, French, German and Spanish. The book can be used as a text in regular classes on computer-assisted translation, in translation practice classes, as well as for self-learning by professionals wishing to update their skills.
The book is the result of the many courses the author has taught to students of Arabic-English translation, and will help bilingual speakers become familiar with translation techniques and develop practical translation skills to the same standard as that expected of a university graduate. It presents a remarkable selection of examples of English/Arabic translation. Through lexical research, glossary building and an introduction to key theoretical concepts in translation, the reader will gain a better understanding of what graduate-level translation involves.
Key features include:
A focus on Arabic-English translation in both directions, preparing students for the real-life experiences of practitioners in the field
In-depth discussion of the core issues of phraseology, language variation and translation, legal translation and translation technology in Arabic and English translation
Authentic sample texts in each chapter, taken from a variety of sources from across the Arabic-speaking world to provide snapshots of real-life language use
Source texts followed by examples of possible translation strategies, with extensive commentaries, to showcase the best translation practices and methodologies
A range of supporting exercises to enable students to practise their newly acquired knowledge and skills
Inclusion of a wide range of themes covering both linguistic and genre issues, offering multidimensional perspectives and depth and breadth in learning
List of recommended readings and resources for each of the topics under discussion
Comprehensive glossary and bibliography at the back of the book.
Lucid and practical in its approach, Arabic-English-Arabic-English Translation: Issues and Strategies will be an indispensable resource for intermediate to advanced students of Arabic. It will also be of great interest to professional translators working in Arabic-English-Arabic translation.
By offering a re-reading of seminal works of the Russian literary canon that thematize translation, alongside studies of the circulation and reception of specific translated texts, Translation and the Making of Modern Russian Literature models the long overdue integration of translation into literary and cultural studies.
The aim of the book is twofold: first, to provide an advanced and comprehensive model for investigating translation problems in the form of Extralinguistic Cultural References (ECRs). Second, to empirically explore current European television subtitling norms, and to look into future developments in this area.
This book will be of interest to anyone interested in gaining access to state-of-the-art tools for translation analysis, or in learning more about the norms of subtitling, based on empirically reliable and current material.
This volume is a compilation of work by researchers, developers and practitioners of post-editing, presented at two recent events on post-editing: The first Workshop on Post-editing Technology and Practice, held in conjunction with the 10th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas, held in San Diego, in 2012; and the International Workshop on Expertise in Translation and Post-editing Research and Application, held at the Copenhagen Business School, in 2012.
The book covers theories of equivalence, purpose, description, uncertainty, localization, and cultural translation. This second edition adds coverage on new translation technologies, volunteer translators, non-lineal logic, mediation, Asian languages, and research on translators’ cognitive processes. Readers are encouraged to explore the various theories and consider their strengths, weaknesses, and implications for translation practice. The book concludes with a survey of the way translation is used as a model in postmodern cultural studies and sociologies, extending its scope beyond traditional Western notions.
Features in each chapter include:
An introduction outlining the main points, key concepts and illustrative examples.
Examples drawn from a range of languages, although knowledge of no language other than English is assumed.
Discussion points and suggested classroom activities.
A chapter summary.
This comprehensive and engaging book is ideal both for self-study and as a textbook for Translation theory courses within Translation Studies, Comparative Literature and Applied Linguistics.
Adapted from the successful French-based Thinking Translation (1992), the course has been piloted and refined at the Universities of St Andrews and Glasgow. A Tutor's Handbook is available, which contains invaluable guidance on using the course.
Individual chapters offer detailed treatmemnt of topis such as the relationship between author and translator, wordplay and language games, syntax, cultural biotes, understanding and meaning, and the process of translation.
Pontieros essays shed light on the process of literary translation and its impact on cultural perception. This process is exemplified by Pontiero the translator and analyst, some of the authors he collaborated with, publishers editors and literary critics and, finally, by an unpublished translation of a short story by José Saramago, Coisas.
Spik in Glyph? Translation, Wordplay and Resistance in Chicano Poetry, pp 141-160 Tace Hedrick (Comparative Literature, Penn State Harrisburg, USA)This paper examines the nature of contemporary bilingual Chicano poetry from the 1970s to the present, particularly in terms of the poetic use of bilingual wordplay and the questions it raises about the uses and possibilities of translation. Using Walter Benjamin's essay 'The Task of the Translator' as a touchstone, and positing a metaphorical link between translation and transfer, the paper looks at bilingual wordplay as a kind of bridging-over or translation of one language into the other, crossing and breaking down borders and hierarchies between the two languages. To illustrate this, cultural practices and uses of bilingualism are examined from both a sociolinguistic and a poetic point of view, with examples of how puns, (mis)pronunciations, slang, loanwords, and mixtures of Spanish and English are used in bilingual poetry for formal and polemical effect.
Meaningful Literary Names:Their Forms and Functions, and their Translation, pp 161-178 Luca Manini (Montalto, Italy)Proper nouns, which have a special status within the language system as opposed to common nouns, can be used as characterizing devices in literary texts and so become a meaningful element in the texture of such works. Names can in this way be endowed with an extra semantic load that makes them border on wordplay. The presence of meaningful literary names is likely to cause problems when the text is to be translated, the question being not only whether the transposition of such names in the target language is technically possible, but also to what extent this would be viewed as an appropriate procedure. This paper, which reflects research in progress, explores the issue by analyzing a two-part corpus of texts: The first part consists of twentieth-century Italian translations of English Restoration comedies and the second of Italian translations of Dickens's novels. There are occasional references to other English literary texts from the medieval and Renaissance periods as well. Technical problems of translating proper nouns are taken into consideration, along with other factors which may influence the translator's choices, such as genre, intended audience, cultural tradition and general norms of translation.
The Pitfalls of Metalingual Use in Simultaneous Interpreting, pp 179-198 Sergio Viaggio (United Nations, Vienna, Austria)For the simultaneous interpreter, puns and other instances of metalingual use, involving as they do an interplay of form, content and pragmatic intention, may represent a formidable challenge. The intepreter's most efficient tool is his or her adroitness at determining the pun's or the metalingual comment's relevance on the basis of an instant analysis of the communication situation, with particular attention to the speaker's pragmatic intention and intended sense, as well as the audience's needs and expectations. Actual examples from United Nations meeting are used to illustrate the different factors affecting the rendition of wordplay and metalanguage and some suggestions are made towards improving the training of interpreters.
Caught in the Frame: A Target-Culture Viewpoint on Allusive Wordplay, pp 199-218Ritva Leppihalme (University of Helsinki, Finland)Allusive wordplay-stretches of preformed linguistic material (or frames) that have undergone lexical, grammatical, or situational modification - is so culture-specific that it is not only hard for translators working from a foreign language to translate but easy for them to miss altogether. This paper discusses examples of allusive wordplay in English fiction and journalism and reports on an experiment designed to investigate the recognition of frames and carried out on twenty-one Finnish university students of English. Student translations of some of the examples are also discussed. It is argued that a translator who wants to produce a coherent target text and to avoid 'culture bumps' (Archer 1986) must above all pay attention to the function of the wordplay in the relevant context. Passages that include modified frames will often need to be rewritten, as attempts to evoke source-culture frames are unlikely to work with target-culture readers to whom such frames are unfamiliar. Target-culture frames, on the other hand, my be puzzling in a text which is set in the source-culture context.
'Curiouser and Curiouser': Hebrew Translation of Wordplay in 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland', pp 219-234 Rachel Weissbrod (The Open University of Israell) In 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland', wordplay has a central role in producing an ambivalent text, that is, one which can function at one and the same time in children's literature and in adult literature. This paper examines, from a norm-oriented approach, how instances of wordplay were treated in three Hebrew translations. The first translation, published in 1923, was subject to a norm which required acceptability at the socio-cultural level. Instances of wordplay were accordingly replaced by completely new ones that were rooted in Jewish tradition. In the second translation, published in 1951, the treatment of wordplay was determined by a different norm, one which required a rephrasing of Carroll's work in an elevated style. Only in the third translation, published in 1987, was the translator sufficiently free from socio-cultural and stylistic dictates to cope with Carroll's wordplay with all the means available. In this last translation, elements which are foreign to Carroll's world or style are introduced only insofar as they helped the translator replace the original wordplay.
Translating Jokes for Dubbed Television Situation Comedies, pp 235-257 Patrick Zabalbeascoa (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain) This paper examines Catalan and Spanish dubbed versions of English TV comedy series such as 'Yes, Minister', with special attention to wordplay as a particular instance of the more general problem of translating comedy for television. The objective is to show that producing foreign-language dubbed versions of audiovisual texts has enough in common with other types of translating assignments to be included within translation studies, as well as to contribute to the area of quality assessment and evaluation of translations by proposing that the criteria for judging a translation should be clear, flexible and realistic, and should take into account the translator's limitations and working environment. The paper also proposes a classification of jokes, with further examples from translations of British situation comedy into Catalan, and presents the concept of 'stylebook' as a helpful bridge between general statements about translation and specific contextualized translating assignments.
Dante's Puns in English and the Question of Compensation, pp 259-276 Edoardo Crisafulli (University College, Dublin, Ireland) After a comparative analysis of the source and target texts, this paper attempts to put forward an explanation to account for H. F. Cary's avoidance policy as he deals with Dante's puns in his early nineteenth-century translation of the 'Divina Commedia'. The aim is to consider the findings of the analysis in relation to the issue of compensation. No discussion of translation can avoid dealing with this issue, but there is evidence that compensation cannot be called upon to account for all the foregrounding devices in the target text. In particular, the relationship between compensation and the translator's ideology must be taken into account. The paper concludes by suggesting some conditions which might make it easier to identify instances of compensation. Harvey's (1995) descriptive framework is employed with a view to improving its explanatory power.
No-Man's Land on the Common Borders of Linguistics, Philosophy & Sinology: Polysemy in the Translation of Ancient Chinese Texts, pp 277-304 Seán Golden (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain)This paper treats polysemy as the driving force of ancient Chinese rhetoric, inherent in the language and its system of writing, not just as an embellishment but as the very basis of discourse, and intrinsic to the multiple meanings expressed by the text; in this way, text may represent a worldview that is radically different from the Western one and that is encoded syntactically, semantically, rhetorically, and visually (in the case of the Chinese written character) in the language. This challenges the comprehension of ancient Chinese texts by translators and their reproduction in languages that share neither the worldview nor the multiple codes involved. From the no-man's land on the common borders of linguistics, philosophy and sinology, the translator may glimpse the horizon of understanding within which the original operates, while knowing that the readership of a translation is looking at a different horizon. Better understanding of this fact by the translator should contribute to a better interpretation of the multiple meanings contained in the original and to a translation that maintains as many meanings as possible.
Revisiting the Classics
A Question of Form. The Problems of Translating Expressive Text: Review of Rudolf Zimmer's Probleme der Übersetzung formbetonter Sprache (Peter Fawcett, UK)
Suzanne Jill Levine: The Subversive Scribe (Tom Conley, USA) Frank Heibert: Das Wortspiel als Stilmittel und seube Übersetzung (Cees Koster, The Netherlands) Brigitte Schultze & Horst Turk (eds): Differente Lachkulturen? Fremde Komik und ihre Übersetzung (Dirk Delabastita, Belgium) Jacqueline Henry: La traduction des jeux de mots (Ronald Landheer, The Netherlands) Dirk Delabastita: There's a Double Tongue (Dirk De Geest, Belgium)
Wordplay and the Didactics of Translation (Michel Ballard, France)
Wordplay and Translation: A Selective Bibliography (Dirk Delabastita, Belgium & Jacqueline Henry, France)
In the three decades since Katharina Reiss wrote, the terminology of translation studies has evolved on many fronts. Erroll Rhodes' translation strikes an optimal balance between remaining faithful to the original presentation and using terminology that today's reader would generally understand and value.