Topics covered include:New trends in immunohistochemical, genome, and metabolomics imaging Computer-aided diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases based on CT image analysis Functional near-infrared spectroscopy and its applications in neurosciences Applications of vibrational spectroscopic imaging in personal care studies Induced optical natural fluorescence spectroscopy for Giardia lamblia cysts Nanoimaging and polarimetric exploratory data analysis Fluorescence bioimaging with applications to chemistry Medical imaging instrumentation and techniques
The book also discusses future applications, directions, opportunities, and challenges of optical biomedical spectroscopy and imaging in technical industry, academia, and government. This valuable resource introduces key concepts of computational methods used in optical biomedical spectroscopy and imaging in a manner that is easily understandable to beginners and experts alike.
The book explores a variety of topics, including:A novel FE-based thermo-electrical-mechanical-coupled model to study mechanical stress, temperature, and electric fields in nano- and microelectronics The integration of distributed element, lumped element, and system-level methods for the design, modeling, and simulation of nano- and micro-electromechanical systems (N/MEMS) Challenges in the simulation of nanorobotic systems and macro-dimensions The simulation of structures and processes such as dislocations, growth of epitaxial films, and precipitation Modeling of self-positioning nanostructures, nanocomposites, and carbon nanotubes and their composites Progress in using FEM to analyze the electric field formed in needleless electrospinning How molecular dynamic (MD) simulations can be integrated into the FEM Applications of finite element analysis in nanomaterials and systems used in medicine, dentistry, biotechnology, and other areas
The book includes numerous examples and case studies, as well as recent applications of microscale and nanoscale modeling systems with FEMs using COMSOL Multiphysics® and MATLAB®. A one-stop reference for professionals, researchers, and students, this is also an accessible introduction to computational FEMs in nanotechnology for those new to the field.
Computational Nanotechnology: Modeling and Applications with MATLAB® provides expert insights into current and emerging methods, opportunities, and challenges associated with the computational techniques involved in nanoscale research. Written by, and for, those working in the interdisciplinary fields that comprise nanotechnology—including engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine—this book covers a broad spectrum of technical information, research ideas, and practical knowledge. It presents an introduction to computational methods in nanotechnology, including a closer look at the theory and modeling of two important nanoscale systems: molecular magnets and semiconductor quantum dots.
Topics covered include:
Modeling of nanoparticles and complex nano and MEMS systems
Theory associated with micromagnetics
Surface modeling of thin films
Computational techniques used to validate hypotheses that may not be accessible through traditional experimentation
Simulation methods for various nanotubes and modeling of carbon nanotube and silicon nanowire transistors
In regard to applications of computational nanotechnology in biology, contributors describe tracking of nanoscale structures in cells, effects of various forces on cellular behavior, and use of protein-coated gold nanoparticles to better understand protein-associated nanomaterials. Emphasizing the importance of MATLAB for biological simulations in nanomedicine, this wide-ranging survey of computational nanotechnology concludes by discussing future directions in the field, highlighting the importance of the algorithms, modeling software, and computational tools in the development of efficient nanoscale systems.
The book covers conversions to different units of measure (standard and/or metric) and other topics as required by specific businesses and industries, providing a go-to resource on the topic. Building on these foundations, it then explores concepts in arithmetic, introductory algebra, equations, inequalities, and modeling, graphs and functions, measurement, geometry, and trigonometry, all the while supporting these concepts with practical applications in a variety of technical and career vocations, including automotive, allied health, welding, plumbing, machine tool, carpentry, auto mechanics, HVAC, and many other fields. In addition, the book provides practical examples from a vast number of technologies.Presents foundational math concepts in a concise, engaging wayCovers conversions to different units of measure (standard and/or metric) and other topics as required by specific businesses and industriesReviews basic mathematics, including whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, percentages, ratios, and proportionsConnects concepts with recent applications in technology, engineering, manufacturing, and scienceIncludes many practice and review problems
Written in a manner that is easily digestible to beginners and useful to seasoned professionals, Computational Nanotechnology Using Finite Difference Time Domain describes the key concepts of the computational FDTD method used in nanotechnology. The book discusses the newest and most popular computational nanotechnologies using the FDTD method, considering their primary benefits. It also predicts future applications of nanotechnology in technical industry by examining the results of interdisciplinary research conducted by world-renowned experts.
Complete with case studies, examples, supportive appendices, and FDTD codes accessible via a companion website, Computational Nanotechnology Using Finite Difference Time Domain not only delivers a practical introduction to the use of FDTD in nanotechnology but also serves as a valuable reference for academia and professionals working in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, material science, quantum science, electrical and electronic engineering, electromagnetics, photonics, optical science, computer science, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, and aerospace engineering.
Air traffic control (ATC) directs aircraft in the sky and on the ground to safety, while the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) comprises all systems and phases that assist in aircraft departure and landing. The Aeronautical Telecommunications Network: Advances, Challenges, and Modeling focuses on the development of ATN and examines the role of the various systems that link aircraft with the ground. The book places special emphasis on ATC—introducing the modern ATC system from the perspective of the user and the developer—and provides a thorough understanding of the operating mechanism of the ATC system. It discusses the evolution of ATC, explaining its structure and how it works; includes design examples; and describes all subsystems of the ATC system.
In addition, the book covers relevant tools, techniques, protocols, and architectures in ATN, including MIPv6, air traffic control (ATC), security of air traffic management (ATM), very-high-frequency (VHF) digital link (VDL), aeronautical radio and satellite communications, electromagnetic interference to aeronautical telecommunications, quality of service (QoS)-satisfied ATN routing mechanism speed dynamic environments, and service-oriented architecture (SOA)-based ATN transmission control algorithm. It also incorporates published research and technical reports to illustrate existing problems, highlight current methods and opportunities, and consider future directions and trends.
Provide an overview of ATN Illustrate the composition of the ATC system Explain how to design an ATC system Reveal how to use an ATC system to control in-flight airplanes Present the results of author research on spatial mitigation Introduce the electromagnetic interference effects and response measures of aviation communications equipment Analyze the protective measures of aircraft and ground stations against electromagnetic interference
The Aeronautical Telecommunications Network: Advances, Challenges, and Modeling highlights the advances, challenges, and modeling of ATN, and implements strategies for integrating existing and future data communications networks into a single internetwork serving the aeronautical industry. This book can aid readers in working to ensure the effective management of air traffic and airspace, and the safety of air transport.
•Includes numerous computer illustrations and tutorials using MATLAB® and Maple®
•Covers the major topics of vector geometry, differentiation, and integration in several variables
•Instructors’ ancillaries available upon adoption
Millions of students trust Schaum's Outlines to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills.
Use Schaum's Outlines to:Brush up before tests Find answers fast Study quickly and more effectively Get the big picture without spending hours poring over lengthy textbooks
Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time--and get your best test scores!
This Schaum's Outline gives you:A concise guide to the standard college course in fluid dynamics 480 problems with answers or worked-out solutions Practice problems in multiple-choice format like those on the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam
Already, scientists have constructed prototypes for circuit boards built of millions of precisely arranged atoms. The advent of this kind of atomic precision promises to change the way we make things—cleanly, inexpensively, and on a global scale. It allows us to imagine a world where solar arrays cost no more than cardboard and aluminum foil, and laptops cost about the same.
A provocative tour of cutting edge science and its implications by the field's founder and master, Radical Abundance offers a mind-expanding vision of a world hurtling toward an unexpected future.
The world of nanotechnology is ever changing and evolving; this fun and friendly guide demystifies the topic for anyone interested in how molecule-sized machines and processes affect our everyday lives. The authors begin with explaining the background of nanotechnology and then examine industries that are affected by this technology. Aiming to educate and simultaneously dispel common myths, the book explores the many nanotechnology-enabled consumer products available on the market today, ranging from socks to face lotion to jet skis to floor cleaners, to name a few.Serves as a fun and friendly introduction to the fascinating topic of nanotechnology Discusses the various issues involving nanotechnology in the areas of environment, medicine, defense, and others Provides real-world examples of everyday nanotechnology use such as floor cleaners, flash memory drives, face lotion, computer processors, and more
Written in the accessible, humorous For Dummies style, Nanotechnology For Dummies, 2nd Edition provides an easy-to-understand overview of nanotechnology and its real-world implementation.
Winner of a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Book Award 2011
"... takes the revolutionary concepts and techniques that have traditionally been fodder for graduate study and makes them accessible for all. ... outstanding introduction to the broad field of nanotechnology provides a solid foundation for further study. ... Highly recommended."
—N.M. Fahrenkopf, University at Albany, CHOICE Magazine 2011
Give your students the thorough grounding they need in nanotechnology. A rigorous yet accessible treatment of one of the world’s fastest growing fields, Nanotechnology: Understanding Small Systems, Third Edition provides an accessible introduction without sacrificing rigorous scientific details. This approach makes the subject matter accessible to students from a variety of disciplines. Building on the foundation set by the first two bestselling editions, this third edition maintains the features that made previous editions popular with students and professors alike.
See What’s New in the Third Edition:
Updated coverage of the eight main facets of nanotechnology Expanded treatment of health/environmental ramifications of nanomaterials Comparison of macroscale systems to those at the nanoscale, showing how scale phenomena affects behavior New chapter on nanomedicine New problems, examples, and an exhaustive nanotech glossary
Filled with real-world examples and original illustrations, the presentation makes the material fun and engaging. The systems-based approach gives students the tools to create systems with unique functions and characteristics. Fitting neatly between popular science books and high-level treatises, the book works from the ground up to provide a gateway into an exciting and rapidly evolving area of science.
Helping you overcome these hurdles, Hydraulic Power System Analysis demonstrates modern computer-aided analytical techniques used to model nonlinear, dynamic fluid power systems. Following an overview of fluid power, the authors examine various relevant fluid properties, energy calculations, and steady state and dynamic analysis along with a review of automatic control theory. Turning to modeling, the next few chapters address valves and motors and then apply dynamic modeling to examples relating to pumps, hydrostatic transmissions, and valves. The book includes a unique chapter showing how to combine flow resistance equations with the differential equations governing dynamic system performance. The final chapter translates electrical circuit theory concepts to noise attenuation in fluid power systems.
Illustrated with many equations, practical computer modeling examples, and exercises, Hydraulic Power System Analysis provides a much-needed modernization of dynamic modeling for fluid power systems using powerful computational tools.
It explains micro-engineering issues (design, systems, materials, market and industrial development), technologies, facilities, organization, competitiveness, and innovation with an analysis of future potential.
The machining, forming, and joining of miniature / micro-products are all covered in depth, covering: grinding/milling, laser applications, and photo chemical etching; embossing (hot & UV), injection molding and forming (bulk, sheet, hydro, laser); mechanical assembly, laser joining, soldering, and packaging.
• Presents case studies, material and design considerations, working principles, process configurations, and information on tools, equipment, parameters and control
• Explains the many facets of recently emerging additive / hybrid technologies and systems, incl: photo-electric-forming, liga, surface treatment, and thin film fabrication
• Outlines system engineering issues pertaining to handling, metrology, testing, integration & software
• Explains widely used micro parts in bio / medical industry, information technology and automotive engineering.
• Covers technologies in high demand, such as: micro-mechanical-cutting, lasermachining, micro-forming, micro-EDM, micro-joining, photo-chemical-etching, photo-electro-forming, and micro-packaging
What’s New in This Edition:
Includes more than 150 full-color images which significantly improve the reader’s ability to understand pump drawings and curves
Introduces a new chapter on pump case studies in a format that provides case study background, analysis, solutions, and lessons learned
Presents important new updates and additions to other chapters
Includes a ten-step procedure for determining total pump head
Discusses allowable and preferred operating ranges for centrifugal pumps
Provides charts covering maximum and normally attainable pump efficiencies, performance corrections for slurry pumps, and mechanical seal flush plans
Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition is appropriate for readers with all levels of technical experience, including engineering and pump industry professionals, pump operators and maintenance technicians, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering, and students in engineering technology programs.
The editors have built Advances in Molecular Nanotechnology Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Molecular Nanotechnology in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Molecular Nanotechnology Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility.
This innovative textbook contains numerous examples and practical applications, and is fully illustrated with photographs. Dr Chanson introduces the basic principles of open channel flow and takes readers through the key topics of sediment transport, hydraulic modelling and the design of hydraulic structures.
·Comprehensive coverage of the basic principles of key application areas of the hydraulics of open channel flow
·New exercises and examples added to aid understanding
·Ideal for use by students and lecturers in civil and environmental engineering
Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of present applications and past experience. This book also examines the relevance of design and feed-stock parameters to the operation of a CFB boiler; designs of mechanical components, including cyclones, air distributor grids, and solid recycle systems; and special problems CVB boilers present with construction materials.
The Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual is the most comprehensive textbook for the Mechanical PE exam. This book's time-tested organization and clear explanations start with the basics to help you quickly get up to speed on common mechanical engineering concepts. Together, the 76 chapters provide an in-depth review of NCEES Mechanical PE exam topics. The extensive index contains thousands of terms, most indexed in a variety of ways, in anticipation of how you'll search for them.
Features of the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual: • over 120 appendices containing essential support material • over 375 clarifying example problems • thousands of equations, figures, and tables • industry-standard terminology and nomenclature • equal support of U.S. customary and SI units
After you pass your exam, the Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual will continue to serve as an invaluable reference throughout your mechanical engineering career.
Topics Covered: • Dynamics and Vibrations: Kinematics; Kinetics; Power Transmission Systems; Vibrating Systems • Materials: Engineering Materials Properties and Testing; Thermal Treatment of Metals • Fluids: Fluid Properties; Fluid Statics; Fluid Flow Parameters; Fluid Dynamics; Hydraulic Machines • Power Cycles: Vapor, Combustion, and Nuclear Power Cycles; Refrigeration and Gas Compression Cycles • HVAC: Psychrometrics; Fans, Ductwork, and Ventilation; Heating and Cooling Loads; Air Conditioning Systems • Heat Transfer: Natural Convection; Evaporation; Condensation; Forced Convection; Radiation • Machine Design: Basic and Advanced Machine Design; Pressure Vessels • Thermodynamics: Inorganic Chemistry; Fuels and Combustion; Properties of Substances • Control Systems: Modeling and Analysis of Engineering Systems • Plant Engineering: Manufacturing Processes; Instrumentation and Measurements; Materials Handling and Processing; Fire Protection Systems; Environmental Pollutants and Remediation; Hazardous Material Storage and Disposal • Fundamentals: Math Review; Probability; Statics; Engineering Economic Analysis • Law and Ethics: Engineering Law; Ethics
What's New in This Edition: • 36 chapters with new material, and 46 chapters with revisions to existing material • 300 new equations, and 128 updated equations • 27 new tables, and 31 updated tables • 7 new examples, and 34 updated examples • 10 new appendices, and 27 updated appendices • 35 new figures, and 28 updated figures • 1,094 new index entries, and 108 updated index entries
Written by experts from around the world, the handbook covers all major classes of hydraulic fluids in detail, delving into chemistry, design, fluid maintenance and selection, and other key concepts. It also offers a rigorous overview of hydraulic fluid technology and evaluates the ecological benefits of water and its use as an important alternative technology. This complete overview discusses pumps and motors, valves, and reservoir design, as well as fluid properties and associated topics. These include air entrainment, modulus, lubrication and wear assessment by bench and pump testing, biodegradability, and fire resistance. Contributors also present particularly important material on biodegradable fluids and the use of water as a hydraulic fluid.
As the foremost resource on the design, selection, and testing of hydraulic systems and fluids used in engineering applications, this book contains new illustrations, data tables, and practical examples, all updated with essential information on the latest methods. To streamline presentation, relevant content from the first edition has been integrated into this new version, where appropriate. The result is a reference that helps readers develop an unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including essential hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants.
This book provides an introduction into the wide range of activities that are possible in aqueous mixtures. It is organized to facilitate understanding of the main features, outlines the main applications, and gives access to further informationSummarizes fundamental properties of water for engineering applicationsCompares process and reactor designsEvaluates processes from thermodynamic, economic, and social impact viewpoints
Within this context, readers will find valuable information that explores refrigeration and heat pump systems using natural refrigerants, polygeneration systems, the energy efficiency of thermal systems, the utilization of low temperature waste heat, and cleaner production.
The book also examines the technical, economic, and environmental reasons of R718 refrigeration/heat pump systems and how they are competitive with traditional systems, serving as a valuable reference for engineers who work in the design and construction of thermal plants and systems, and those who wish to specialize in the use of R718 as a refrigerant in these systems.Describes existing novel R718 turbo compressor and ejector refrigeration/heat pump systems and technologiesProvides procedures calculating and optimizing cycles, system components, and system structuresEstimates the performance characteristics of the thermal systemsExposes the possibilities for wider applications of R718 systems in the field of refrigeration and heat pumps
Nanotechnology: Ethics and Society provides a conceptually clear and straightforward ethical framework, in which pragmatic questions can be raised regarding the impact of nano-related technologies. The book focuses on general issues related to nanotechnology in nanomaterials and manufacturing as well as impacts on the marketplace and workforce. After an overview of the nanotechnology revolution, the text illustrates key concepts in the assessment model and then applies this model to a case study related to human enhancement technologies. It also offers an ethical agenda for addressing the challenges of nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology promises to be the next great technological revolution. This important volume provides a framework for deciding how best to take advantage of nanotechnology opportunities while also minimizing the harm of negative effects.
This comprehensive book is an earnest endeavour to apprise the readers with a thorough understanding of all important basic concepts and methods of fluid mechanics and hydraulic machines. The text is organised into sixteen chapters, out of which the first twelve chapters are more inclined towards imparting the conceptual aspects of fluids mechanics, while the remaining four chapters accentuate more on the details of hydraulic machines. The book is supplemented with solutions manual for instructors containing detailed solutions of all chapter-end unsolved problems. Primarily intended as a text for the undergraduate students of civil, mechanical, chemical and aeronautical engineering, this book will be of immense use to the postgraduate students of hydraulics engineering, water resources engineering, and fluids engineering.
• The book describes all concepts in easy-to-grasp language with diagrammatic representation and practical examples.
• A variety of worked-out examples are included within the text, illustrating the wide applications of fluid mechanics.
• Every chapter comprises summary that presents the main idea and relevant details of the topics discussed.
• Almost all chapters incorporate objective type questions of previous years’ GATE examinations, along with their answers and in-depth explanations.
• Previous years’ IES conventional questions are provided at the end of most of the chapters.
• A set of theoretical questions and numerous unsolved numerical problems are provided at the chapter-end to help the students from practice pointof-view.
• Every chapter consists of a section Suggested Reading comprising a list of publications that the students may refer for more detailed information.
The material is presented in the simplest possible way, including a few mathematical equations, but not mathematical derivations. It also outlines as simply as possible the major contributions to modern technology of physics-based nanophysical devices, such as the atomic clock, global positioning systems, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, readers are able to establish a connection between nanotechnology and day-to-day applications, as well as with advances in information technology based on fast computers, the internet, dense data storage, Google searches, and new concepts for renewable energy harvesting.
Also of interest to professionals working in law, finance, or teaching who wish to understand nanotechnology in a broad context, and as general reading for electrical, chemical and computer engineers, materials scientists, applied physicists and mathematicians, as well as for students of these disciplines.
CMOS Processors and Memories is divided into two parts: processors and memories. In the first part we start with high performance, low power processor design, followed by a chapter on multi-core processing. They both represent state-of-the-art concepts in current computing industry. The third chapter deals with asynchronous design that still carries lots of promise for future computing needs. At the end we present a “hardware design space exploration” methodology for implementing and analyzing the hardware for the Bayesian inference framework. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational cost and exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology CMOL. The first part concludes with hybrid CMOS-Nano architectures.
The second, memory part covers state-of-the-art SRAM, DRAM, and flash memories as well as emerging device concepts. Semiconductor memory is a good example of the full custom design that applies various analog and logic circuits to utilize the memory cell’s device physics. Critical physical effects that include tunneling, hot electron injection, charge trapping (Flash memory) are discussed in detail. Emerging memories like FRAM, PRAM and ReRAM that depend on magnetization, electron spin alignment, ferroelectric effect, built-in potential well, quantum effects, and thermal melting are also described.
CMOS Processors and Memories is a must for anyone serious about circuit design for future computing technologies. The book is written by top notch international experts in industry and academia. It can be used in graduate course curriculum.
The material added to this new edition will provide insights gathered over 45 years of studying fluid mechanics. Many of these insights, such as universal dimensionless similarity scaling for the laminar boundary layer equations, are available nowhere else. Likewise for the generalized vector field derivatives. Other material, such as the generalized stream function treatment, shows how stream functions may be used in three-dimensional flows. The CFD chapter enables computations of some simple flows and provides entrée to more advanced literature.
*New and generalized treatment of similar laminar boundary layers.
*Generalized treatment of streamfunctions for
three-dimensional flow .
*Generalized treatment of vector field derivatives.
*Expanded coverage of gas dynamics.
*New introduction to computational fluid dynamics.
*New generalized treatment of boundary conditions in fluid mechanics.
*Expanded treatment of viscous flow with more examples.
The most valuable and reader-friendly reference available for engineers concerned with the optimization of liquid transportation through pipelines
This book also:
· Adopts a novel inductive pedagogy where commonly understood examples are introduced early and theory is developed to explain and predict readily recognized phenomena
· Introduces new techniques as needed to address specific problems, in contrast to traditional texts’ use of a deductive approach, where abstract general principles lead to specific examples
· Elucidates readers’ understanding of the "heat transfer takes time" idea—transient analysis applications are introduced first and steady-state methods are shown to be a limiting case of those applications
· Focuses on basic numerical methods rather than analytical methods of solving partial differential equations, largely obsolete in light of modern computer power
· Maximizes readers’ insights to heat transfer modeling by framing theory as an engineering design tool, not as a pure science, as has been done in traditional textbooks
· Integrates practical use of spreadsheets for calculations and provides many tips for their use throughout the text examples
Two physically different dampers (magnetorheological and controlled-friction) are analysed from the perspectives of mechatronics and control. Ride comfort, road holding, road damage and human-body modelling (nonlinear visceral response in particular) are studied.
A multidisciplinary approach is adopted throughout the book. Sound mathematical modelling is balanced by a large and detailed section on experimental implementation, where a variety of automotive applications are described offering a well-rounded view of the application of such systems. The implementation of control algorithms with regard to real-life engineering constraints is emphasised.
The applications described include semi-active suspensions for a saloon car, seat suspensions for vehicles not equipped with a primary suspension, and control of heavy-vehicle dynamic-tyre loads to reduce road damage and improve handling.
Engineers and practitioners working in noise and vibration; automotive engineers working in vehicle design, research and development; biomechanical engineers, physicists and life-scientists interested in human-body responses to vibration; and graduate students in vehicle studies, mechanics of vibration, dynamics and control will find this book of material assistance in their work.
This book has applications for professionals and students in many subsets of the mechanical engineering discipline, with carryover into thermal sciences; which include fluid mechanics, combustion and heat transfer; dynamics and vibrations, as well as structural mechanics and materials engineering.An important, long overdue new chapter on Wind Turbines, with a focus on blade aerodynamics, with useful worked examplesIncludes important material on axial flow compressors and pumpsExample questions and answers throughout