First, there is a brief overview of the history and development of the spectroscope. This is followed by a short introduction to the theory of stellar spectra. The final parts of this section provide details of the necessary reference spectra required for instrument testing and spectral comparison. It concludes with a chapter covering the various types of spectroscopes available to the amateur.
Next, there is a series of "How to..." sections. These cover all aspects of setting up and using various types of commercially available and home-built spectroscopes. Transmission gratings are covered first, and then more complex models, all the way to the sophisticated Littrow design.
The final part of Astronomical Spectroscopy for Amateurs is about practical spectroscope design and construction. It contains a collection of detailed instructions covering the design and building of three different types of spectroscope, along with the necessary design theory (with minimal math). Developing an instrument in simple steps from the basic grating spectroscope, using standard "off the shelf" adaptors, the author describes how to build spectroscopes equal in performance to the better commercial units, constructed using basic hand tools for a fraction of the cost!
This is the only up-to-date practical spectroscopy book available to amateurs. For the first time, it also brings together an invaluable user knowledge base – a collection of observing, analyzing, and processing hints and tips that will allow the amateur to build up and develop important skills in preparing scientifically acceptable spectral data, which can make a valuable contribution to ProAm (professional/amateur) projects. It covers in detail all aspects of the design, construction techniques, testing, calibrating, and using a spectroscope – enough detail to enable the average amateur astronomer to successfully build and use his own spectroscope for a fraction of the current commercial cost.
This book is an ideal complement to Robinson’s Spectroscopy: the Key to the Stars (Springer 2007) and Martin’s Spectroscopic Atlas of Bright Stars (Springer, due 2009). Together, the three books form a complete package for all amateur astronomers who are interested in practical spectroscopy.
As Professor Chris Kitchin said, "If optical spectroscopy had not been invented then fully 75 percent of all astronomical knowledge would be unknown today, and yet the subject itself receives scant attention in astronomical texts." Olivier Thizy (of Shelyak Instruments, the builder of the LiHiResIII commercial spectroscope) writes on an Internet forum; "What is missing is tutorial books and "how to" books with amateur equipment? I believe spectroscopy is in general moving from builders to users (as CCD cameras did in the 1990's)... ...literature is following but slowly."
This is the practical spectroscopy book that amateur astronomers have been waiting for!
In addition to a history of the science behind the pursuit, directions are included for four easy-to-build projects, based around long-term NASA and Stanford Solar Center projects. The first three projects constitute self-contained units available as kits, so there is no need to hunt around for parts. The fourth – more advanced – project encourages readers to do their own research and track down items.
Getting Started in Radio Astronomy provides an overall introduction to listening in on the radio spectrum. With details of equipment that really works, a list of suppliers, lists of online help forums, and written by someone who has actually built and operated the tools described, this book contains everything the newcomer to radio astronomy needs to get going.
This book explains the basic principles of spectroscopy, including the fundamental optical constraints and all mathematical aspects needed to understand the working principles in detail. It covers the complete theoretical and practical design of standard and Echelle spectrographs. Readers are guided through all necessary calculations, enabling them to engage in spectrograph design. The book also examines data acquisition with CCD cameras and fiber optics, as well as the constraints of specific data reduction and possible sources of error. In closing it briefly highlights some main aspects of the research on massive stars and spectropolarimetry as an extension of spectroscopy. The book offers a comprehensive introduction to spectroscopy for students of physics and astronomy, as well as a valuable resource for amateur astronomers interested in learning the principles of spectroscopy and spectrograph design.
As fields like communications, speech and image processing, and related areas are rapidly developing, the FFT as one of the essential parts in digital signal processing has been widely used. Thus there is a pressing need from instructors and students for a book dealing with the latest FFT topics.
Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications provides a thorough and detailed explanation of important or up-to-date FFTs. It also has adopted modern approaches like MATLAB examples and projects for better understanding of diverse FFTs.
Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is designed for senior undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, engineers, and scientists in the field, and self-learners to understand FFTs and directly apply them to their fields, efficiently. It is designed to be both a text and a reference. Thus examples, projects and problems all tied with MATLAB, are provided for grasping the concepts concretely. It also includes references to books and review papers and lists of applications, hardware/software, and useful websites. By including many figures, tables, bock diagrams and graphs, this book helps the reader understand the concepts of fast algorithms readily and intuitively. It provides new MATLAB functions and MATLAB source codes. The material in Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is presented without assuming any prior knowledge of FFT. This book is for any professional who wants to have a basic understanding of the latest developments in and applications of FFT. It provides a good reference for any engineer planning to work in this field, either in basic implementation or in research and development.
Fulfilling emission limits and immunity requirements as well as handling apparently complex cases of incompatibility demands a deeper understanding of the physical interrelations and of Maxwell's theory.
Based on the authors’ experiences, the textbook provides some help in solving such interferential cases.
It contains many illustrative examples and more than 80 exercises with solutions.
Additional highlights include:
- Fundamental information on communications, signal and system theories
- Coverage of superheterodyne, direct-conversion, low-IF, and band-pass sampling radio architectures
- Frequency planning, system link budgeting, and performance evaluation of transmitters and receivers
- Nonlinearity effect analyses involving intermodulation, interferer blocking, spectrum regrowth and modulation
- Approaches for specifying RF ASICs on which mobile systems are built
- AGC systems, ADC dynamic range consideration and power management are addressed
- In-depth treatment of both theoretical and practical aspects of mobile station RF system design
This comprehensive reference work covers a wide range of topics from general principles of communication theory, as it applies to digital radio designs to specific examples on implementing multimode mobile systems. Wireless engineering professionals will definitely find this an invaluable reference book.
What’s New in This EditionThree new chapters on electromagnetic fields in transformers, transformer-system interactions and modeling, and monitoring and diagnostics An extensively revised chapter on recent trends in transformer technology An extensively updated chapter on short-circuit strength, including failure mechanisms and safety factors A step-by-step procedure for designing a transformer Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field
A blend of theory and practice, this comprehensive book examines aspects of transformer engineering, from design to diagnostics. It thoroughly explains electromagnetic fields and the finite element method to help you solve practical problems related to transformers. Coverage includes important design challenges, such as eddy and stray loss evaluation and control, transient response, short-circuit withstand and strength, and insulation design. The authors also give pointers for further research. Students and engineers starting their careers will appreciate the sample design of a typical power transformer.
Presenting in-depth explanations, modern computational techniques, and emerging trends, this is a valuable reference for those working in the transformer industry, as well as for students and researchers. It offers guidance in optimizing and enhancing transformer design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring to meet the challenges of a highly competitive market.
* The latest results on support vector machines including v-SVM's and their geometric interpretation
* Classifier combinations including the Boosting approach
* State-of-the-art material for clustering algorithms tailored for large data sets and/or high dimensional data, as required by applications such as web-mining and bioinformatics
* Coverage of diverse applications such as image analysis, optical character recognition, channel equalization, speech recognition and audio classification
—Tom Vanderbilt, New York Times bestselling author of Traffic
In Tubes, Andrew Blum, a correspondent at Wired magazine, takes us on an engaging, utterly fascinating tour behind the scenes of our everyday lives and reveals the dark beating heart of the Internet itself. A remarkable journey through the brave new technological world we live in, Tubes is to the early twenty-first century what Soul of a New Machine—Tracy Kidder’s classic story of the creation of a new computer—was to the late twentieth.
The early chapters provide a theoretical basis for measurements complete with extensive definitions and descriptions of component characteristics and measurement parameters. The latter chapters give detailed examples for cases of cable, connector and filter measurements; low noise, high-gain and high power amplifier measurements, a wide range of mixer and frequency converter measurements, and a full examination of fixturing, de-embedding, balanced measurements and calibration techniques. The chapter on time-domain theory and measurements is the most complete treatment on the subject yet presented, with details of the underlying mathematics and new material on time domain gating. As the inventor of many of the methods presented, and with 30 years as a development engineer on the most modern measurement platforms, the author presents unique insights into the understanding of modern measurement theory.
Key Features:Explains the interactions between the device-under-test (DUT) and the measuring equipment by demonstrating the best practices for ascertaining the true nature of the DUT, and optimizing the time to set up and measure Offers a detailed explanation of algorithms and mathematics behind measurements and error correction Provides numerous illustrations (e.g. block-diagrams for circuit connections and measurement setups) and practical examples on real-world devices, which can provide immediate benefit to the reader Written by the principle developer and designer of many of the measurement methods described
This book will be an invaluable guide for RF and microwave R&D and test engineers, satellite test engineers, radar engineers, power amplifier designers, LNA designers, and mixer designers. University researchers and graduate students in microwave design and test will also find this book of interest.
After an overview of EMI shielding theory and product design guidelines, the book extensively reviews the characterization methodology of EMI materials. Subsequent chapters focus on particular EMI shielding materials and component designs, including enclosures, metal-formed gaskets, conductive elastomer and flexible graphite components, conductive foam and ventilation structures, board-level shielding materials, composite materials and hybrid structures, absorber materials, grounding and cable-level shielding materials, and aerospace and nuclear shielding materials. The last chapter presents a perspective on future trends in EMI shielding materials and design.
Offering detailed coverage on many important topics, this indispensable book illustrates the efficiency and reliability of a range of materials and design solutions for EMI shielding.
Mixing Secrets For The Small Studio is a down-to-earth primer for small-studio enthusiasts who want chart-ready sonics in a hurry. Drawing on the back-room strategies of more than 100 famous names, this entertaining guide leads you step-by-step through the entire mixing process. On the way, you'll unravel the mysteries of every type of mix processing, from simple EQ and compression through to advanced spectral dynamics and 'fairy dust' effects. User-friendly explanations introduce technical concepts on a strictly need-to-know basis, while chapter summaries and assignments are perfect for school and college use.
* Learn the subtle editing, arrangement, and monitoring tactics which give industry insiders their competitive edge, and master the psychological tricks which protect you from all the biggest rookie mistakes.
* Find out where you don't need to spend money, as well as how to make a limited budget really count.
* Pick up tricks and tips from leading-edge engineers working on today's multi-platinum hits, including Michael Brauer, Serban Ghenea, the Lord-Alge brothers, Tony Maserati, Manny Marroquin, Dave 'Hard Drive' Pensado, Jack Joseph Puig, Mark 'Spike' Stent, Phil Tan, Andy Wallace, and many, many more...
Mike Senior is a professional engineer who has worked with Wet Wet Wet, The Charlatans, Reef, Therapy, and Nigel Kennedy. He specialises in adapting the techniques of top producers for those working on a budget. Since 2007 he has transformed dozens of amateur productions for Sound On Sound magazine's popular 'Mix Rescue' column, proving time and again that you can achieve commercial-grade results with affordable gear -- once you know how!
For the first time in history, the tools for cooperating on a global scale are not solely in the hands of governments or institutions. The spread of the internet and mobile phones are changing how people come together and get things done—and sparking a revolution that, as Clay Shirky shows, is changing what we do, how we do it, and even who we are. Here, we encounter a whoman who loses her phone and recruits an army of volunteers to get it back from the person who stole it. A dissatisfied airline passenger who spawns a national movement by taking her case to the web. And a handful of kids in Belarus who create a political protest that the state is powerless to stop. Here Comes Everybody is a revelatory examination of how the wildfirelike spread of new forms of social interaction enabled by technology is changing the way humans form groups and exist within them. A revolution in social organization has commenced, and Clay Shirky is its brilliant chronicler.
"Drawing from anthropology, economic theory and keen observation, [Shirky] makes a strong case that new communication tools are making once-impossible forms of group action possible . . . [an] extraordinarily perceptive new book." -Minneapolis Star Tribune
"Mr. Shirky writes cleanly and convincingly about the intersection of technological innovation and social change." -New York Observer
Offering a wealth of new material, this second edition begins with scalar wave propagation and analysis techniques, chiral and metamaterials, and photonic band gap structures. It examines Pontying vector and stored energy, as well as energy, group, and phase velocities; reviews k-space state variable formation with applications to anistropic planar systems; and presents full-field rigorous coupled wave analysis of planar diffraction gratings with applications to H-mode, E-mode, crossed gratings, single and multilayered diffraction grating analysis, and diffraction from anistropic gratings.
Later chapters highlight spectral techniques and RCWA as applied to the analysis of dynamic wave-mixing in PR materials with induced transmission and reflection gratings and demonstrate the RCWA algorithm to analyze cylindrical and spherical systems using circular, bipolar cylindrical, and spherical coordinates. The book concludes with several RCWA computational case studies involving scattering from spatially inhomogeneous eccentric circular cylinders, solved in bipolar coordinates. Many of these examples apply the complex Poynting theorem or the forwardscattering (optical) theorem to validate numerical solutions by verifying power conservation.
Using common computational tools such as Fortran, MATLAB, COMSOL, and RSOFT, the text offers numerous examples to illuminate the material, many of which employ a full-field vector approach to analyze and solve Maxwell’s equations in anisotropic media where a standard wave equation approach is intractable. Designed to introduce novel spectral computational techniques, the book demonstrates the application of these methods to analyze a variety of EM and optical systems.
New chapters discuss high-power PAs, bit error rate testing, and nonlinear modeling of heterojunction bipolar transistors, while other chapters feature new and updated material that reflects recent progress in such areas as high-volume testing, transmitters and receivers, and CAD tools.
The unique behavior and requirements associated with RF and microwave systems establishes a need for unique and complex models and simulation tools. The required toolset for a microwave circuit designer includes unique device models, both 2D and 3D electromagnetic simulators, as well as frequency domain based small signal and large signal circuit and system simulators. This unique suite of tools requires a design procedure that is also distinctive. This book examines not only the distinct design tools of the microwave circuit designer, but also the design procedures that must be followed to use them effectively.
Systems considerations including thermal, mechanical, reliability, power management, and safety are discussed in separate chapters. Engineering processes are also explored in articles about corporate initiatives, cost modeling, and design reviews. The book closes with a discussion of the underlying physics of electromagnetic propagation and interference.
In addition to new chapters on WiMAX and broadband cable, nearly every existing chapter features extensive updates and several were completely rewritten to reflect the massive changes areas such as radio navigation and electronic warfare.
Accomplished researcher and educator Carlo G. Someda uses a modern approach to the subject. Unlike other books in the field, it surveys all major areas of electromagnetic waves in a single treatment. The book begins with a detailed treatment of the mathematics of Maxwell's equations. It follows with a discussion of polarization, delves into propagation in various media, devotes four chapters to guided propagation, links the concepts to practical applications, and concludes with radiation, diffraction, coherence, and radiation statistics. This edition features many new and reworked problems, updated references and suggestions for further reading, a completely revised appendix on Bessel functions, and new definitions such as antenna effective height.
Illustrating the concepts with examples in every chapter, Electromagnetic Waves, Second Edition is an ideal introduction for those new to the field as well as a convenient reference for seasoned professionals.
Composed of contributions from noted industry experts around the world, Transformers: Analysis, Design, and Measurement offers invaluable information to help designers and users overcome these and other challenges associated with the design, construction, application, and analysis of transformers. This book is divided into three sections to address contemporary economic, design, diagnostic, and maintenance aspects associated with power, instrument, and high-frequency transformers.
Topics covered include:
Capability to withstand short circuits
Stray losses, screening, and local excessive heating hazard
Shell type and superconducting transformers
Links between design and maintenance
Component-related diagnostics and reliability
Economics of life-cycle cost, design review, and risk-management methods
Parameter measurement and prediction
This book is an essential tool for understanding and implementing solutions that will ensure improvements in the development, maintenance, and life-cycle management of optimized transformers. This will lead to enhanced safety and reliability and lower costs for the electrical supply. Illustrating the need for close cooperation between users and manufacturers of transformers, this book outlines ways to achieve many crucial power objectives. Among these, the authors focus on the growing demand for transformer miniaturization, increased transmitted power density, and use of advanced materials to meet the requirements of power materials running under higher operational frequencies.
Suggesting ways to redirect resources and exploit new technologies—such as computational modeling software—this book presents relatively inexpensive, simple, ready-to-implement strategies to advance transformers, improve power system integrity, reduce environmental impact, and much more.
This book will appeal to practising engineers and technicians working in the areas of RF, microwaves, communications, solid-state devices and radar. Senior students, researchers in microwave engineering and microelectronics and material scientists will also find this book a very useful reference.
The Handbook of Engineering Electromagnetics links theory to specific applications with an integrated approach to areas such as wireless communications, fiber optics, microwaves, radar, materials science, and even biomedical engineering. This book not only provides the necessary formulas, figures, and tables, but also the underlying theory and insight needed to formulate and solve real-world engineering problems. A team of international experts discusses fundamental concepts such as Maxwell equations, static fields, electromagnetic induction, transmission lines, waveguides, and electromagnetic compatibility. They also explore specific technologies, various numerical techniques used for computer-aided solutions, biological effects and safety standards, biomedical applications, and measuring electromagnetic properties of biological materials.
With tables and graphs integrated into the discussion, each chapter is a nearly self-contained oasis of practical and theoretical problem-solving information for individual applications, with references directing you to more in-depth information. Appendices provide brief compilations of key constants and units as well as a tutorial on vector analysis and coordinate systems.
Giannini and Leuzzi provide the theoretical background to non-linear microwave circuits before going on to discuss the practical design and measurement of non-linear circuits and components. Non-linear Microwave Circuit Design reviews all of the established analysis and characterisation techniques available and provides detailed coverage of key modelling methods. Practical examples are used throughout the text to emphasise the design and application focus of the book.Provides a unique, design-focused, coverage of non-linear microwave circuits Covers the fundamental properties of nonlinear circuits and methods for device modelling Outlines non-linear measurement techniques and characterisation of active devices Reviews available design methodologies for non-linear power amplifiers and details advanced software modelling tools Provides the first detailed treatment of non-linear frequency multipliers, mixers and oscillators Focuses on the application potential of non-linear components
Practicing engineers and circuit designers working in microwave and communications engineering and designing new applications, as well as senior undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in microwave and communications engineering and their libraries will find this a highly rewarding read.
Microwave and RF Product Applications helps resolve that deficiency. Editor Mike Golio culled its chapters from his bestselling RF and Microwave Handbook, incorporated critical updates contributed by the original authors, and organized the chapters into a practical, tightly focused reference. A complete table of contents at the front of the text makes finding specific answers quick and easy, and detailed lists of references in each chapter provide convenient access to the relevant expert literature.
For engineers in industry, government, or academia, Microwave and RF Product Applications provides insight and information that may be outside their area of expertise. For managers, marketers, and technical support personnel, it builds a better understanding of the fields that drive and are affected by their decisions.
This revolutionary textbook takes a unique approach to electromagnetic theory, comparing both conventional and modern theories. It explores both the Maxwell-Poynting representation as well as the Alternate representation, which the author demonstrates is generally simpler and more suitable for analyzing modern electromagnetic environments. Throughout the text, students and researchers have the opportunity to examine both of these theories and discover how each one can be applied to solve problems.
The text is divided into four parts:
Part I: Basic Electromagnetic Theory includes Maxwell's equations, quasistatics, power and energy, stress and momentum, and electromagnetic wave theorems and principles
Part II: Four-Dimensional Electromagnetism includes four-dimensional vectors and tensors and energy-momentum tensors
Part III: Electromagnetic Examples includes statics and quasistatics, accelerating charges, plane waves, transmission lines, waveguides, antennas and diffraction, and ferrites
Part IV: Backmatter includes a summary, appendices, and references
Designed to accommodate a broad range of interests and backgrounds, the text's companion DVD enables readers to reconfigure the material as an introductory-, intermediate-, or advanced-level text. Moreover, the text and its DVD offer a broad range of features that make it possible for readers to quickly grasp new concepts and apply them in practice:
Practice problems provide the opportunity to solve real-world problems using electromagnetic theory
Forty animations illustrate electric and magnetic field transients
Line drawings and computer-generated mathematical figures clarify complex concepts and procedures.
Maxima, a powerful symbolic mathematics program, helps readers explore four-dimensional electromagnetic theory as well as perform numerical and graphical analyses
Adaptable to multiple levels, this text can be used for both undergraduate and graduate coursework. It is also recommended as a reference for researchers in such fields as electrical engineering, laser physics, materials science, and biomedical engineering.
The book’s primary focus is on introducing practical techniques that will enable users to make optimal use of powerful commercial software packages and computational electromagnetics used in full wave analysis and antenna design. Going beyond particular numerical computations to teach broader concepts, the author systematically presents the all-important spectral domain approach to analyzing microstrip structures including antennas. In addition to a discussion of near-field measurement and the high-frequency method, this book also covers:
Elementary linear sources, including Huygen’s planar element, and analysis and synthesis of the discrete and continuous arrays formed by these elementary sources
The digital beam-forming antenna and smart antenna
Cavity mode theory and related issues, including the design of irregularly shaped patches and the analysis of mutual coupling
Based on much of the author’s own internationally published research, and honed by his years of teaching experience, this text is designed to bring students, engineers, and technicians up to speed as efficiently as possible. This text purposefully emphasizes principles and includes carefully selected sample problems to ease the process of understanding the often intimidating area of antenna technology. Paying close attention to this text, you will be able to confidently emulate the author’s own systematic approach to make the most of commercial software and find the creative solutions that every job seems to require.
The book brings together contributing authors from first-class institutions who have been working in international research and development (R&D) projects and are highly cited in the MIMO field. These experts examine ongoing R&D activities in the field of MIMO systems and its associated signal processing that is expected to be employed in 4G and 5G systems.
Covers the various wireless communication standards that make use of MIMO systems Explains the receiver processing associated with MIMO signal detection (including the case of massive MIMO systems) and presents the optimal precoding techniques Considers optimized MIMO schemes and processing for block transmission techniques, for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission techniques, and for single carrier-frequency domain equalization Examines MIMO processing and optimization for wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) Describes the ultra-wideband (UWB) transmission technique and the corresponding MIMO processing and optimizations Explains physical layer network coding techniques
From basic receiver design to more advanced processing, the book covers the spectrum of topics associated with MIMO systems and MIMO processing. It provides a comprehensive description of MIMO fundamentals and theory that is ideal for anyone looking to sharpen their skills on the subject, such as corporate/industrial employees or graduate students.
The book summarizes the most important enhancements related to the processing of MIMO systems for 4G systems, including its evolution and future trends. It also supplies a performance analysis of the various combinations of MIMO schemes for 4G systems to help you select the combination best suited for your particular needs.
Leveraging the authors’ extensive expertise and experience with CMOS on-chip metamaterials, this book shows that with the use of metamaterials, one can realize coherent THz signal generation, amplification, transmission, and detection of phase-arrayed CMOS transistors with significantly improved performance. Offering detailed coverage from device to system, the book hereby:Describes integrated circuit design with application of metamaterials in CMOS technology Includes real CMOS integrated circuit examples and chip demonstrations with measurement results Evaluates novel mm-wave and THz communication and imaging systems under CMOS-based system-on-chip integration
Design of CMOS Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Integrated Circuits with Metamaterials reflects the latest research progress and provides a state-of-the-art reference on CMOS-based metamaterial devices and mm-wave and THz systems.
Until recently, much of the communications technology in the former Eastern bloc countries was largely unknown. Due to the historically competitive nature of East/West relations, scientific groups operated independently, without the benefit of open communication on theoretical frameworks and experimental technologies. As these countries have begun to bridge the gap and work in a more cooperative environment, the need has grown for a comprehensive guide which assimilates all the information in this vast knowledge bank.
Ionosphere and Applied Aspects of Radio Communication and Radar meets the demand for an updated reference on this continually evolving global technology. This book examines the changes that have occurred in the past two or three decades. It thoroughly reviews ionospheric radio propagation, over-horizon and above-horizon radars, and miniature ionospheric stations used for investigating nonregular phenomena occurring in the ionosphere. In addition, it also comprehensively discusses land-satellite and satellite-satellite communications.
This volume also reviews an area that has been all but ignored in previous works: the effects of plasma irregularities on radio waves propagation through the inhomogeneous ionosphere. Here, a heavy focus is placed on the effects of these irregular phenomena. And due to the recent wireless revolution, more attention than ever has been aimed on improving the efficiency of land-satellite and satellite-satellite communication networks, which are fully addressed.
Included are— Transport processes and photochemistry reactions occurring in the regular homogeneous ionosphere Nonlinear phenomena occurring in the irregular ionosphere Instabilities in the inhomogeneous disturbed ionosphere Various ambient natural and artificial sources and corresponding plasma irregularities
Written by two leading scientists, this book will be an invaluable guide to anyone working in this ever-changing field.
As microelectronics features and devices become smaller and more complex, it is critical that engineers and technologists completely understand how components can be damaged during the increasingly complicated fabrication processes required to produce them.
A comprehensive survey of defects that occur in silicon-based metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technologies, this book also discusses flaws in linear bipolar technologies, silicon carbide-based devices, and gallium arsenide materials and devices. These defects can profoundly affect the yield, performance, long-term reliability, and radiation response of microelectronic devices and integrated circuits (ICs). Organizing the material to build understanding of the problems and provide a quick reference for scientists, engineers and technologists, this text reviews yield- and performance-limiting defects and impurities in the device silicon layer, in the gate insulator, and/or at the critical Si/SiO2 interface. It then examines defects that impact production yield and long-term reliability, including:
Vacancies, interstitials, and impurities (especially hydrogen)
Negative bias temperature instabilities
Defects in ultrathin oxides (SiO2 and silicon oxynitride)
Take A Proactive Approach
The authors condense decades of experience and perspectives of noted experimentalists and theorists to characterize defect properties and their impact on microelectronic devices. They identify the defects, offering solutions to avoid them and methods to detect them. These include the use of 3-D imaging, as well as electrical, analytical, computational, spectroscopic, and state-of-the-art microscopic methods. This book is a valuable look at challenges to come from emerging materials, such as high-K gate dielectrics and high-mobility substrates being developed to replace Si02 as the preferred gate dielectric material, and high-mobility substrates.
It is a significantly challenging task to generate and distribute high-speed clocks. Multiphase low-speed clocks with sharp transition are proposed to be a better option to accommodate the desired timing resolution. High Frequency Communication and Sensing: Traveling-Wave Techniques provides new horizons in the quest for greater speed and performance.
The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.
Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.
The overall coverage provides general knowledge about space-time processing and its applications for broad audiences. It also includes the most up-to-date review of the literature on space-time processing in general, and space-time block processing in particular. The authors also examine open issues and problems for future research in this area.
This book presents up to date information on all aspects of oscillator design, enabling a selection of the best oscillator topologies with optimized noise reduction and electrical performance. RF and Microwave Transistor Oscillator Design covers:analyses of non-linear circuit design methods including spectral-domain analysis, time-domain analysis and the quasilinear method; information on noise in oscillators including chapters on varactor and oscillator frequency tuning, CMOS voltage-controlled oscillators and wideband voltage-controlled oscillators; information on the stability of oscillations, with discussions on the stability of multi-resonant circuits and the phase plane method; optimized design and circuit techniques, beginning with the empirical and analytic design approaches, moving on to the high-efficiency design technique; general operation and design principles of oscillators, including a section on the historical aspects of oscillator configurations.
A valuable reference for practising RF and Microwave designers and engineers, RF and Microwave Transistor Oscillator Design is also useful for lecturers, advanced students and research and design (R&D) personnel.
Beginning with a review of basic EMs, the text:Describes the use of the separation of variables technique in Laplace, heat, and wave equations, covering rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems Explains the series expansion method, providing the solution of Poisson's equation in a cube and in a cylinder, and scattering by cylinders and spheres, as examples Addresses the conformal transformation technique, offering a visual display of conformal mapping and a brief introduction to the Schwarz–Christoffel transformation Employs worked-out problems to demonstrate various applications of Fourier sine and cosine, two-sided Fourier, Laplace, Hankel, and Mellin transform techniques Discusses perturbation techniques, supplying examples of perturbed results degenerating to their unperturbed versions as the perturbation parameters tend to zero
Analytical Techniques in Electromagnetics maintains a balanced view of techniques for solving EM problems, refusing to overemphasize the importance of analytical methods at the expense of numerical techniques. Carefully selected topics give readers an appreciation of the kinds of EM problems that can be solved exactly.