Learn which types of plants and containers are most successful for a fairy garden, as well as how to develop a focal point for your enchanted mini Eden. Fairy Gardening 101 also provides important information on caring for your garden, on designing gardens for both indoors and outside, on using artificial plants to make your garden last a lifetime, and much more! You’ll also find inspirational photos from fairy gardeners around the globe as well as a list of suppliers. You don’t need to be a master gardener or to have a particularly green thumb to successfully plant and maintain your tiny fairy garden. All you need is a few miniature plants, some thoughtfully placed accessories, a fairy or two, and a love of whimsy and imagination.
• Soil management and making your own fertilizer
• Crop rotation and cover cropping
• Seed starting and timing/planning
• Raised beds and pest management
• Pvc trellising and planting spacers
• Raising chickens, making your own chicken plucker, and butchering
• Growing fruit/nut trees and vines
• Food preservation (canning and freezing)
• Fermenting wine, vinegar and cheese
With the full color photographs that made the original Mini Farming so popular, and step by step drawings, projects, graphs, and tables, you’ll have everything you need for your new or established mini farm at your fingertips. So dive in a learn how to begin and cultivate your own mini farm on less than a quarter acre.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Table of Contents
Introduction to Greenhouses
Choosing a site for your Greenhouse
Types of Greenhouses
Based on Shape
Based on Utility
Based on Construction Material
Based on Covering Materials
Elements of a Greenhouse
Concrete Slab Foundation
Plumbing and Wiring
Advantages of permanent floor
Advantages of temporary floor
Framing of Walls and Roof
Wall Framing Tips
Framing of Doors and Vents
Calculating Heat Requirements for your Greenhouse
Heat Conservation Tips
A greenhouse is a house made of glass or plastic where plants are grown; it is also called a hothouse or a glasshouse, which allows as much light as possible and protects the plants from winter and cold winds. One can use the greenhouse for the entire planting process i.e., from sowing the seeds to harvesting the produce.
Brandywine Cottage is David Culp's beloved two-acre Pennsylvania garden where he mastered the design technique of layering—interplanting many different species in the same area so that as one plant passes its peak, another takes over. The result is a nonstop parade of color that begins with a tapestry of heirloom daffodils and hellebores in spring and ends with a jewel-like blend of Asian wildflowers at the onset of winter.
The Layered Garden shows you how to recreate Culp's majestic display. It starts with a basic lesson in layering—how to choose the correct plants by understanding how they grow and change throughout the seasons, how to design a layered garden, and how to maintain it. To illustrate how layering works, Culp takes you on a personal tour through each part of his celebrated garden: the woodland garden, the perennial border, the kitchen garden, the shrubbery, and the walled garden. The book culminates with a chapter dedicated to signature plants for all four seasons.
Designed to supply herbs for a wide range of flavors as well as a pleasing balance of colors, there are gardens to suit every taste and cooking trend, including a French chef’s repertoire, an Italian trattoria’s menu, the aromatic seasonings of Asia, the closer-to-home flavors of American barbecue, and the piquant profiles for a Tex-Mex feast. There are herbs for flavoring fish and game, soups and salads, bread and other baked goods, and, for the mixologists among us, even herbs for the home cocktail bar.
Herb Gardening from the Ground Up offers historical insight, provides starting-from-scratch, season-to-season basics for planting in the present, and looks forward to the bright future of urban and suburban growing trends.
Indoor plants play a large role in the design and feel of a space. Focusing on indoor gardening--from small containers and vertical installations with air plants to unique tabletop creations--Rooted in Design provides readers with the means to create beautiful and long-lasting indoor landscapes. Tara Heibel and Tassy De Give, owners of the successful Sprout Home gardening stores, offer expert advice for choosing plant varieties and pairing them with unique design ideas. Sharing practical tips honed through hundreds of plant design classes, Heibel and DeGive tell readers everything they need to know to care for their one-of-a-kind green creations.
From the Hardcover edition.
Keeping a healthy and verdant lawn can be a real challenge. Collins Practical Gardener Lawns looks at all imaginable aspects of starting and maintaining a lawn.
Whether your lawn is mainly for your family or intended as a show piece, Lawns will provide all the know-how you need to design, prepare for, create and keep a lawn tailored to your needs.
All the technical info is covered from ground roots up, including advice on sowing seeds, laying turf, buying equipment and making repairs. Individual design features are suggested, ranging from creating a wildflower meadow to planting bulbs through your lawn in eye-catching patterns and shapes.
Each listing in the A–Z directory of grass types features a visual chart listing the best varieties and optimum sowing times. Quick-access care charts provide a hit list of care requirements and the troubleshooting chart tells you how to identify and solve many common problems. Also featured is a directory of pests, diseases and how to treat them, which means when something does go wrong you have all the information at your fingertips to help put it right.
Full of information, advice and practical tips, this no-nonsense guide to lawns is the most informative reference of its kind!
• History of Lawns
• Types of lawn
• Designing a lawn
• Soil types
• Preparing for a new lawn
• Seed sowing techniques
• Laying turf
• Aftercare of newly laid lawn
• Lawn Maintenance – tools, irrigation
• Lawn repairs
• Other lawn features
• A–Z Lawn Grasses
• A–Z Lawn Weeds and Broadleaved Weeds
• Pests and diseases
• Common name plant index and subject index
The Perennial Matchmaker features 80 individual perennial profiles, close to 400 exquisite photographs of plant partnerships, and Ondra's insight into the wide array of plants that make great combinations, including annuals, bulbs, grasses, shrubs, and other perennials. Each plant profile gives dozens of ideas and suggestions for pairings, including region-specific choices, Ondra's top-choice perfect match, and an at-a-glance summary of the best color partners.
Whether you are just dreaming of your first perennial garden or are a long-time gardener who wants to elevate plantings for a more cohesive and exciting look, The Perennial Matchmaker is your go-to guide for creating stunning plant medleys.
Designing with Conifers shows readers exactly how to choose the best conifers for specific needs. Chapters cover shape, color, and conifers for specific sites and conditions, including front gardens, hedges and screens, topiary, dwarf conifers, shade gardens, Asian-style gardens, bonsai, and miniature railroad gardens. Also includes useful appendices that list of conifers for various problems and conditions, like conifers for areas plagued by deer and the best conifers for Christmas trees and Southern gardens. Each section is enlivened with gorgeous color photographs.
Whatever landscape situation or challenge a gardener designer faces, Designing with Conifers shows how to make the best choice from this beautiful, useful, and versatile group of plants.
Landscaping for Privacy brims with creative ideas for minimizing or even eliminating the nuisances that intrude on your personal outdoor space. Scores of real-world examples show you how to keep the outside world at bay by strategically placing buffers (such as berms or groups of small trees), barriers (such as fences), and screens (arbors or hedges, for example) around your property. And the helpful plant lists tell you precisely which varieties to choose in order to enhance your sense of seclusion.
If you've ever felt frustrated by the lack of privacy whenever you step outside your home, this inspiring book will steer you toward an achievable solution.
We’ve all seen gorgeous perennial gardens packed with color, texture, and multi-season interest. Designed by a professional and maintained by a crew, they are aspirational bits of beauty too difficult to attempt at home. Or are they?
The Know Maintenance Perennial Garden makes a design-magazine-worthy garden achievable at home. The new, simplified approach is made up of hardy, beautiful plants grown on a 10x14 foot grid. Each of the 62 garden plans combines complementary plants that thrive together and grow as a community. They are designed to make maintenance a snap. The garden plans can be followed explicitly or adjusted to meet individual needs, unlocking rich perennial landscape designs for individualization and creativity.
Discover a world of beauty and creativity! Chanticleer has been called the most romantic, imaginative, and exciting public garden in America. It is a place of pleasure and learning, relaxing yet filled with ideas to take home. And now those lessons are available for everyone in this stunning book! You’ll learn techniques specific to different conditions and plant palettes; how to use hardscape materials in a fresh way; and how to achieve the perfect union between plant and site. And Rob Cardillo’s exquisite photographs of exciting combinations will be sure to stimulate your own creativity. Whether you’re already under Chanticleer’s spell or have yet to visit, The Art of Gardening will enable you to bring the special magic that pervades this most artful of gardens into your own home landscape.
The team behind the inspirational design sites Gardenista.com and Remodelista.com presents an all-in-one manual for making your outdoor space as welcoming as your living room. Tour personality-filled gardens around the world and re-create the looks with no-fail planting palettes. Find hundreds of design tips and easy DIYs, editors’ picks of 100 classic (and stylish) objects, a landscaping primer with tips from pros, over 200 resources, and so much more.
If you are one of the millions of people with allergies or asthma, this totally unique book shows you how to avoid plants that trigger allergies and to create a garden that will actually protect you by trapping pollen and cleaning the air around you. This revolutionary approach combines the best of horticulturist Thomas Ogren’s previous books—Allergy-Free Gardening and Safe Sex in the Garden—into a full-color guide, including hundreds of new and updated plant listings and photographs.
Ogren’s innovative system for combating allergens is based on the crucial matter of plant sex. By replacing troublesome male plants in your yard with pollen-blocking female “pollen screens,” allergy sufferers can reduce or eliminate their symptoms. More than 3,000 plant listings are included, accompanied by an easy-to-use allergy ranking scale of 1 to 10. With many new pollen-free plants to choose from, as well as clearly marked “worst offenders” to avoid, this is the ultimate resource for home gardeners and professionals alike who want to build healthy, safe, and beautiful gardens that everyone can enjoy.
Creating Rain Gardens is a comprehensive book for the DIY-er, covering everything from rain barrels to simple living roofs, permeable patios, and other low-tech affordable ways to save water in the garden.
Water conservation experts Cleo Woelfle-Erskine and Apryl Uncapher walk homeowners through the process, with step-by-step instructions for designing and building swales, French drains, rain gardens, and ephemeral ponds—the building blocks of rain-catching gardens. From soil preparation, planting, troubleshooting, and maintenance, to selecting palettes of water-loving plants that provide four-season interest and a habitat for wildlife, Creating Rain Gardens covers everything a gardener needs to create a beautiful rain garden at home.
In The Bee-Friendly Garden, award-winning garden designer Kate Frey and bee expert Gretchen LeBuhn provide everything you need to know to create a dazzling garden that helps both the threatened honeybee and our own native bees. No matter how small or large your space, and regardless of whether you live in the city, suburbs, or country, just a few simple changes to your garden can fight the effects of colony collapse disorder and the worldwide decline in bee population that threatens our global food chain. There are many personal benefits of having a bee garden as well! Bee gardens:
· contain a gorgeous variety of flowers
· bloom continuously throughout the seasons
· are organic, pesticide-free, and ecologically sustainable
· develop healthy and fertile soil
· attract birds, butterflies, and other beneficial insects
· increase the quantity of your fruit and vegetable harvest
· improve the quality, flavor, and size of your produce
Illustrated with spectacular full-color photos, The Bee-Friendly Garden debunks myths about bees, explains seasonal flower progression, and provides detailed instructions for nest boxes and water features. From “super blooming” flowers to regional plant lists and plants to avoid, The Bee-Friendly Garden is an essential tool for every gardener who cares about the planet and wants to make their yard a welcoming habitat for nature’s most productive pollinator.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Americans pour 300 million gallons of gas and 1 billion hours every year into mowing their lawns, not to mention 70 million pounds of pesticides and $40 billion for lawn upkeep. No Wonder the anti-lawn movement is thriving, as today's eco-conscious consumers realize that their traditional lawns are water-hogging, chemical-ridden, maintenance-intensive burdens. Lawn Gone!, from award-winning gardening blogger Pam Penick, is the first basic introduction to low-water, easy-care lawn alternatives for beginning gardeners, written in a friendly style with an approachable package. It covers all the available time-saving options: alternative grasses, ground cover plants, artificial turf, hardscaping, mulch, and more. In addition, it includes step-by-step lawn-removal methods, strategies for dealing with neighbors and homeowner associations, and how to minimize your lawn if you're not ready to go all the way.
Easy Tips and Techniques for Growing Houseplants in Your Home
Table of Contents
How to Choose Houseplants
Different Types of Containers
Watering your plants
Rule of hand Watering Tips
Going for a long holiday – What about my indoor plants?
Feeding Your Plants
Re-potting a plant
What Is the Best Potting Mixture
Training and Pruning Your Plants
Cleaning Your Plants
Common pests and their treatment
Index of common names and botanical names of popular houseplants.
Millenniums ago, a man deciding to build a garden was fortunate because he had all that land right outside his door. All he had to do is clear out a piece of land, and mark it with a boundary wall. After that, he could go hunting for attractive looking plants in the wild, and bring them back home. With a little bit of care and cherishing, he would soon have a tame garden of his own.
But today, a large number of us are not so fortunate. Space is at a premium. Concrete jungles have taken the place of what was once nature’s backyard. And that is why man is looking for easy options to bring beautiful greenery inside his limited space.
And so this book is for all those, who want to know more about indoor plants, how to grow them, how to take care of them, which are the best plant varieties which flourish indoors and tips and techniques with which you can enjoy not only a relaxing hobby, but also greenery around you.
Until just after the Second World War, indoor household plants were limited to ferns, palms, and potted plants, which flowered in season. Surely plants like aspidistras were also popular for interior decoration but soon more and more wide-ranging varieties and species of foliage parted plants began to be known to keen gardeners.
This change is due chiefly to the architects who designed postwar buildings on severe lines. Gone were the rambling houses with huge gardens. Strictly utilitarian designs were utilized by architects to design these houses and flats.
Frankly speaking most of them were chicken coops. The introduction of houseplants in a large variety of colors and fonts provided a flash of color to those austere and severe designs. You could relieve the simplicity and the austerity of the home by growing houseplants indoors.
Thanks to the improved heating and lighting systems, many varieties which were once grown in hot houses, greenhouses and conservatories would now flourish indoors as houseplants. There are many plants which are easier to grow, and last for several years.
Sissinghurst has gone on to become one of the most visited and inspirational gardens in the world and this marvellous book, illustrated with drawings and original photographs throughout, shows us how it was created and how gardeners everywhere can use some of the ideas from both Sarah Raven and Vita Sackville-West. Sissinghurst is a magnificent portrait of a garden and a family.
Edible Herb Garden is an all-inclusive guide to herb gardening, with several delicious herb recipes included. It features information on growing an incredible selection of fragrant and savory herbs. Then, it provides recipes to prepare your bounty in meals as well as herb blends, herbed oils and vinegars and even herb-flavored vodka!
This information-rich book touches on herb garden design, herb gardening in containers, pest and disease control, and harvesting your herbs. It also includes an encyclopedia of culinary herb varieties.
Take your culinary creations to the next level with this beautiful herb gardening book and discover the rich flavors that await when you take herbs to their fullest potential as an ingredient.
This book is not a pond building guide and does not contain design plans, drawings, technical data and also does not give any "how to" information.
Concrete Garden Projects takes advantage of concrete's numerous assets, showcasing an inspiring array of creative options. The step-by-step instructions for dozens of easy, do-it-yourself décor ideas include containers of all shapes and sizes, elegant benches and stools, miniature ponds and birdbaths, stepping stones, a barbecue, and a fire pit. The authors use a variety of molds easily found or made, household items like bowls and baking pans, and simple wooden frames and boxes. At pennies per pound, and so simple to use—just mix with water and pour—concrete is the key to hand-crafted backyard décor.
Since its original publication twenty years ago, The Well-Tended Perennial Garden has helped home gardeners successfully plan, plant, and tend their gardens. Now Tracy Di-Sabato-Aust’s trusty advice and reassuring tone are back and better than ever in this completely revised new edition. Novice and experienced gardeners alike will benefit from Tracy’s thorough details on the essential practices of perennial care—included deadheading, pinching, and thinning—along with growing information for new species and cultivars, on-trend garden design advice, a monthly planting and maintenance schedule, and details on native plants and gardening for wildlife. The Well-Tended Perennial Garden is a must-have ally in the quest for a beautiful, well-maintained garden.
Climbing plants constitute a huge, and largely untapped, resource for today’s gardeners. Because their habit of growth is primarily vertical, they can be used for utilitarian as well as ornamental purposes like providing privacy, or screening eyesores.
In this comprehensive reference, renowned horticulturist Allan Armitage selects and profiles the most useful and attractive climbing plants for a wide range of sites and conditions, from well-known favourites like clematis, morning glories, and wisteria to more unusual plants like Dutchman’s pipe, passion flowers, and the tropical mandevillas. Each profile includes a general description (enlivened by Armitage’s trademark wry humour) along with the plant’s hardiness, plant family, best method of propagation, method of climbing, and etymology of botanical and common names.“Climbing plants are hugely underrated—this book with its lively expression of deep knowledge should encourage everyone to grow more of them.” —Noël Kingsbury
From the strange (plant obsessives, a bizarre debut as a television presenter) to the everyday (deadheading, sharing a garden), with frequent paeans to favourite plants and thoughtful pieces on show gardens and status, this is an intelligent, pugnacious and engaging book. It also unflinchingly conveys the challenges, the hard work, triumphs and failures behind the creation and development of a substantial contemporary garden.
In Agaves, plant expert Greg Starr profiles 75 species, with additional cultivars and hybrids, best suited to gardens and landscapes. Each plant entry includes a detailed description of the plant, along with its cultural requirements, including hardiness, sun exposure, water needs, soil requirements, and methods of propagation. Agaves can change dramatically as they age and this comprehensive guide includes photos showing each species from youth to maturity—a valuable feature unique to this book.
Today, roses are one of the most common flowers found in every corner and habitat of the world, whether they are sleek and stylish garden roses or exotic and stunning wild roses. In forests, over mountains and along coastlines, a different and exquisite variety of roses can be grown in perfect conditions. This book will teach you all you need to know about growing roses of all shapes and forms.
In Rodale's Basic Organic Gardening, general garden-building skills (from "Do I need to dig?" to "Where do I dig?") and specific techniques (from "How do I plant a seed?" to "How much should I water?") are presented in growing-season order--from garden planning and planting to growing and harvesting. Many other need-to-know topics like soil, compost, seeds, pest control, and weeds are explained in simple language to ensure success, even on a small scale, on the first try. More than 100 common garden terms are defined, and Smart Starts sidebars offer doable projects to build confidence and enthusiasm for expanding a garden when a gardener is ready. A flower, vegetable, and herb finder highlights easy care plants with good track records. Plus, there are no-dig garden methods, simple garden layouts, and tips and hints inspired by the most popular pageviews on OrganicGardening.com.
With a "no question is unwelcome" approach, a troubleshooting section lessens frustrations and encourages experimentation. Rodale's Basic Organic Gardening is everything a beginning gardener (or one who's new to gardening organically) needs to get growing and keep a garden going strong all season.
•making miniature gardens and terrariums that are just the right size for fairy friends
•butterfly and hummingbird gardens to attract these flying friends of fairies
•wind chimes and prisms to add music and light to your gardens
Sprinkled throughout are bits of fairy lore and garden wisdom. Written for children, or anyone with a child’s heart, and filled with color photographs, the Fairy Garden Handbook will turn curious kids into green thumbs in no time.
What has your perfect green lawn done for you lately? Is it really worth the time, effort, and resources you lavish on it? Armed with encouragement, inspiration, and cutting-edge advice from award-winning author Evelyn Hadden, you can liberate yourself at last!
In this ultimate guide to rethinking your yard, Hadden showcases dozens of inspiring, eco-friendly alternatives to that demanding (and dare we say boring?) green turf. Trade your lawn for a lively prairie or replace it with a runoff-reducing rain garden. Swap it for an interactive adventure garden or convert it to a low-maintenance living carpet.
This is one of the most comprehensive books on Planting Design. It fills in the blanks in this field and introduces poetry, painting, and symbolism into Planting Design. It covers in detail the two major systems in Planting Design: Formal Planting Design and Naturalistic Planting Design. It has numerous line drawings and photos to illustrate the Planting Design concepts and principles. Through in-depth discussions of historical precedents and practical case studies, it uncovers the fundamental design principles and concepts as well as underpinning philosophy for Planting Design. It is an indispensable reference book for Landscape Architecture students, designers, architects, urban planners, and ordinary garden lovers.
What Others Are Saying About Planting Design Illustrated...
-I found this book to be absolutely fascinating. You will need to concentrate while reading it but the effort will be well worth your time.-
-Bobbie Schwartz, Former President of APLD (Association of Professional Landscape Designers) and Author of The Design Puzzle: Putting the Pieces Together
-This is a book that you have to read, and it is more than well worth your time. Gang Chen takes you well beyond what you'll learn in other books about basic principles like color, texture, and mass.-
-Jane Berger, Editor & Publisher of gardendesignonline
-As a longtime consumer of gardening books, I am impressed with Gang Chen's inclusion of new information on planting design theory for Chinese and Japanese gardens. Many gardening books discuss the beauty of Japanese gardens, and a few discuss the unique charms of Chinese gardens, but this one explains how Japanese and Chinese history, geography, and artistic traditions bear on the development of each country's style. The material on traditional Western garden planting is thorough and inspiring, too. Planting Design Illustrated definitely rewards repeated reading and study; any garden designer will read it with profit.-
-Jan Whitner, Editor of the Washington Park Arboretum Bulletin
-Enhanced with an annotated bibliography and informative appendices, Planting Design Illustrated offers an especially -reader friendly- and practical guide that makes it a very strongly recommended addition to personal, professional, academic, and community library Gardening & Landscaping reference collections and supplemental reading lists.-
-Midwest Book Review
-Where to start? Planting Design Illustrated is, above all, fascinating and refreshing! Not something the lay reader encounters every day, the book presents an unlikely topic in an easily digestible, easy to follow way. It is superbly organized, with a comprehensive table of contents, bibliography, and appendices. The writing, though expertly informative, maintains its accessibility throughout and is a joy to read. The detailed and beautiful illustrations expanding on the concepts presented were my favorite portion. One of the finest books I've encountered in this contest in the past five years.-
-Writer's Digest 16th Annual International Self-Published Book Awards Judge's commentary
-The work in my view has incredible application to planting design generally and a system approach to what is a very difficult subject to teach, at least in my experience. Also featured is very beautiful philosophy of garden design principles bordering poetry. It's my strong conviction that this work needs to see the light of day by being published for the use of professionals, students & garden enthusiasts.-
-Donald C Brinkerhoff, FASLA, Chairman and CEO of Lifescapes International, Inc.
Contents of the Garden History Reference Encyclopedia
eTEXTS: The 100+ eTexts in the Encyclopedia are listed below
BIOGRAPHY: there is an alphabetical index with links to biographies of famous designers, writers and patrons who have guided the course of garden design history
GLOSSARY: there are explanations of garden history terms, with links to examples of their use in the eTexts
STYLES: there are diagrams of 24 key garden types and styles
TIMELINE: a combination of the 24 style diagrams with links to key persons and key examples
General histories of garden design
Garden History Guide. An overview of garden history from 2000 BC to 2000 AD (by Tom Turner). It introduces the subject and serves as a guide to the other resources in the Encyclopedia (approx 2,500 pages, 1.5m words and 2,000 illustrations).
Tom Turner Garden Design in the British Isles: History and styles since 1650 (1986, 2000) The Encyclopedia edition has been revised, with additional illustrations and hyperlinks to garden descriptions.
Marie-Luise Gothein History of garden art (English edition, 1928) Gothein's book, originally published in German (Geschichte der Gartenkunst, 1914 ), provides by far the best and by far the most comprehensive account of garden history from antiquity up to the start of the twentieth century.
eTexts relating to Ancient Egypt
Egyptian Book of the Dead (excerpts)
Herodotus journeyed to Egypt and down the Nile in the 5th century BC and included valuable information on sanctuaries, gardens, groves and statues.
A journey down the Nile in 1902, with romantic paintings of the people and the landscape
A visit to the Estate of Amun in 1909, with paintings capturing the mood of the ancient monuments
A journey down the Nile in 1914, with photographs of the monuments before they were restored and details of how the author's family hired a house boat and 'sailed away into a lotus land of sunshine and silent waters for five or six months'
eTexts relating to Ancient West Asia
The Song of Solomon from Old Testament of The Bible (also known as the Song of Songs). The greatest erotic love song in Western literature, making the association of gardens and love. It has been a profound influence on western thinking about gardens. 'The entire world, all of it, it not equal in worth to the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel.'
Excerpts from The Bible relating to gardens. The Garden of Eden was thought to have been in West Asia.
Excerpts from The Koran relating to gardens. Because gardens were so often used as a symbol of paradise, there are more references to gardens in The Koran than in The Bible.
eTexts relating to Ancient Greece
Plato's discussion of 'imitation' (mimesis) is explained and discussed. Book X of The Republic (c370 BC) is in the Encyclopedia . Plato's Theory of Forms led to the aesthetic principle that 'Art should Imitate Nature' which had a profound influence on western art in general and garden design in particular.
Homer, excerpts from the Iliad and Odyssey relating to gardens
Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough (1890). The chapter in the Encyclopedia describes 'The Ritual of Adonis'. It is written by the founder of modern anthropology and helps to explain the Adonis Cult, which provides evidence of plants being grown in Greek courtyard gardens, and of the spirit in which sacred groves were made in Ancient Greece.
eTexts relating to The Roman Empire
Vitruvius Pollio on landscape architecture and garden design (27 BC) from de Architectura. Vitruvius was a Roman and wrote the oldest western book on design to have survived. It lays down the principle that places should have 'commodity, firmness and delight'. Book 1, Chapters 1-7, are in the Encyclopedia .
Excerpts from Ovid's Metamorphosis (1-8 AD) and Art of Love (1 BC). Ovid's poetry provided a rich source of imagery for garden designers and for the artists who made garden sculpture.
Pliny the Younger's letters describing his own gardens (c100 AD). These letters are the best surviving descriptions of Roman gardens and of how their owners used them. Pliny owned many gardens and 500 slaves.
Cicero, excerpts from his letters relating to gardens
Virgil's Aenead, sections relating to gardens
Life of St Martin The first outstanding monastic leader in France was St Martin of Tours (c316-397). His account of how he destroyed the sacred groves of the pagan religion does much to explain why Europe has such scanty remains of this type of outdoor space.
Ibn Battuta's account of Constantinople c1300
eTexts relating to Medieval Gardens
Charlemagne's 'chapter' (capitulary) on gardens gave detailed instructions for the plants to be used in the royal gardens and for the management of his lands. They are key texts for the study of medieval gardens, c800 AD.
A note on 'Irminsul.' , the sacred tree of the Saxons, destroyed by the Christians.
Guillaume de Lorris' Romance of the Rose or Roman de la Rose (c1250). This is an allegorical poem, inspired by Ovid, in which gardens and roses are associated with romantic love ('Full many a time I smote and struck the door and listened for someone to let me in')
Excerpts from Boccaccio's Decameron (1353), with classical descriptions of medieval garden scenes. The tales are famed for their sexual intrigue and this aspect is more prominent than garden scenery in the illustrations in the Encyclopedia .
Albertus Magnus advice on how to make a pleasure garden (1206)
Walafried Strabbo's poem Hortulus. This is the literary classic of medieval garden literature, celebrating the delight of plants in monastic life and giving detailed information on the culture and uses of plants.
The Life of St Anthony, relating to the origin of monastic gardening
The Life of St Philbert, relating to the origin of the European monastic cloister. He was Abbot of Jumièges in France c750.
A set of quotations from The Bible which make reference to gardens.(61 No)
eTexts relating to Islamic Gardens
A set of quotations from The Koran which make reference to gardens (151 No)
The Spanish Ambassador's visit to Samarkand, in 1404, with his descriptions of Mughal gardens
Babur's Memoir, Babur admired the gardens he had seen and, after founding a Mughal Empire, made gardens he made in India
Persian gardens were in better condition in 1900 than in 2000, and better still in 1700. This gives a particular importance to past travellers descriptions of their use and form. There sections from the following accounts of visits to Persian gardens in the Encyclopedia (and engravings, to capture the flavour of Persian gardens as they were)
Montesquieu's Persian letters (1721) contained little information on Pesian gardens but did much to awaken interest in seraglios and the 'romance of the East'.
Washington Irving, the 'father of American literature' published a famous account of the Alhambra in 1832. He was a friend of Sir Walter Scott and has the same interest in welding history with imagination. This provides a glimpse of the Alhambra and Generalife when they were, beyond question, the finest gardens in Europe.
eTexts relating to Renaissance Gardens
Plotinus The Enneads Eighth Tractate: 'On the Intellectual Beauty'. Plotinus (205-270AD) was 'rediscovered' during the renaissance, in the Platonic Academy founded at Careggi, and came to have a profound influence on renaissance design methods
St Augustine's conversion took place in a garden in Milan (described in his Confessions) and was often chosen as a frontispiece to editions of his work. Augustine is regarded as the greatest Christian thinker of antiquity, the transmitter of Plato and Aristotle to medieval and renaissance Christianity.
Leon Battista Alberti On Garden Design (1485) from De re aedificatoria libri X (Ten Books on Architecture). Drawing from Pliny and Vitruvius, the humanist scholar set forth the principles for the design of renaissance villas. They were taken up by Donato Bramante and guided the course of garden design for two centuries.
Vasari's biographical note on Leon Battista Alberti describes his multi-faced genius.
Leonardo da Vinci note on the design of a water garden (from his Notebooks) with a reference to his interpretation of Vitruvius
Andrea Palladio's I Quattro Libri dell'Architecttura (The Four Books of Architecture) (1570) is one of the most influential design works ever published. The quotations in the Encyclopedia relate to the placing of buildings and Neoplatonism.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne's diary accounts of Italian Gardens (1580-1) let us view many still-famous Italian gardens through the eyes of a French renaissance traveller and writer. Montaigne invented the 'essay form'.
William Shakespeare's mention of gardens (30 No.) tell much of the gardens he knew. Despite his dates (1564-1616) these gardens are medieval, with only the slightest renaissance accent.
Francis Bacon's Essay 'On Gardens' (1625). This famous essay, by a philosopher and scientist, in Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe's words 'magisterially lays down the fundamental principles of gardening'. It begins with the words 'God Almighty first planted a garden' and praises wildness in gardens.
John Evelyn's diary accounts of gardens in France and Italy visited between 1644 and 1685. As with Montaigne's diary, they provide contemporary descriptions of French and Italian parks and gardens.
Andrew Marvell's The Garden (c1650) celebrates the delights in the symbolism of seventeenth century enclosed gardens. Marvell's Upon Appleton House, to my Lord Fairfax contains some garden description.
The Garden by Abraham Cowley 'I never had any other desire so strong, and so like to covetousness, as ....that I might be master at last of a small house and large garden
Sir Thomas Browne's essay on The Garden of Cyrus deals with the history of gardens, as viewed from 1658 (an extract is in the Encyclopedia )
eTexts relating to Enlightenment Gardens
René Descartes Descartes did not write either on aesthetics or on garden design, but historians continue to speak of the 'Cartesian Garden', by which they mean a geometrical garden. The Encyclopedia contains the text and a comment on his Discourse on the method of rightly conducting the reason, and seeking truth in the sciences.(1637) This short book laid the foundation for the philosophy of the Enlightenment and for Neoclassical aesthetics.
John James Theory and Practice of Gardening was published in 1712, based on A J Dezallier d'Arganville and Le Blond. It became the standard book on laying out a French baroque garden and provides a fascinating insight into how this was done. James also 'introduced the concept of the ha-ha and anticipated Pope's famous dictum on the genius of the place'. The Encyclopedia has 3 chapters, 4 plates and a discussion of James' book.
Alexander Pope's and his Essay on Criticism (1711) Epistle to Lord Burlington (1731). The former summarises contemporary attitudes to gardens and the latter summarises contemporary (rationalist-Neoclassical) aesthetic theory: based on Reason, Nature and the Genius of the Place.
John Serle's plan of Alexander Pope's garden at the time of his death, and his description of Pope's grotto (+ photographs of the grotto and its setting)
Sir Joshua Reynolds Discourses were delivered at the Royal Academy in London between 1769 and 1790 embody 'The basic ideas of neoclassical theory in the fine arts were set forth in definitive form, with clarity and grace'. The Encyclopedia contains relevant quotations.
eTexts relating to Romantic Gardens
William Temple's essay 'Upon the Gardens of Epicurus: or Of Gardening' (1685) is extravagantly praised by Nicholas Pevsner. He claims this essay 'started a line of thought and visual conceptions which were to dominate first England and then the World for two centuries.' The full text is in the Encyclopedia .
Jospeh Addison's Essay 161 made the key association of natural scenery with liberty and freedom. Essay 37 describes a perfect garden in which reason and nature go hand in hand. Essay 414 sees the works of nature as more delightful than artificial arrangements. Essay 417 supports Locke's theory of knowledge. Essay 477 describes Addison's own garden at Bilton.
William Shenstone A description of The Leasowes. This was one of the landscape gardens most admired in continental Europe, partly because it was the work of a poet and partly because it combined use and beauty - a ferme orneé. The full text of his publisher's description is in the Encyclopedia .
William Shenstone 'Unconnected thoughts on gardening'. The invention of the term 'landskip gardening' is attributed to Shenstone.
Edmund Burke An essay on the sublime and beautiful (1757). Taking an empiricist approach, Burke attacks Vitruvian and rationalist aesthetics. He also discusses garden design, praising Hogarth's 'line of beauty' (which Brown followed) and comparing 'smooth streams in the landscape' with ' in fine women smooth skins'.
Quotations from Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, describing the principles on which he worked.
Horace Walpole's essay 'On Gardening' (1780). The most brilliant and influential essay ever written on the development English park and garden design.
Thomas Jefferson's descriptions of English gardens
John Claudius Loudon's biography of Humphry Repton (1840). After Repton's own writings, this is the primary source of information on Humphry Repton's life and work.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau one of the letters from La Nouvelle Héloise deal's with Julie's garden. It is a romantic treatment of an ancient theme, making the association between women, sex and gardens (see above references the Song of Solomon, the Romance of the Rose and Boccaccio. Also the reference below to Goethe).
Uvedale Price On the Picturesque (1794) Excerpt from Chapter 1 and Chapter 4. Price was a widely respected authority on picturesque taste in gardens.
Humphry Repton 'A letter to Mr Price' (1795)
Humphry Repton Sketches and Hints (1795) This is Repton's first theoretical statement on his chosen professional (Introduction and Chapter 1 on Encyclopedia )
Humphry Repton Fragments on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1816) The Fragment reproduced (No 27) comes from the Red Book for Ashridge - a favourite project and the occasion for Repton's advocacy of what became the Mixed Style of garden design.
eTexts relating to Nineteenth Century Gardens
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Elective Affinities (1809). Like Rousseau, Goethe admired 'natural' gardens. He also drew gardens and designed gardens. The section reproduced in the Encyclopedia deals with the design of a romantic garden.
Jane Loudon's life of her husband John Claudius Loudon (1843). Jane was a novelist and her memoir is as touching as it is important as the key source of information on her husband - who was the most influential garden writer of the nineteenth century. Loudon's influence was particularly important in America.
Edward Kemp How to lay out a garden (1864 edn). Excerpts giving his views on styles of garden design and describing two gardens which he designed. It presents a somewhat depressing picture of the confusion which reigned in the mid-nineteenth century garden aesthetics - and continues to reign in many of the world's municipal parks departments..
Sir Walter Scott, excerpt from Waverly and from The Quarterly Review on gardens. Scott's remarks can be read in conjunction with those of his friends, Gilbert Laing Meason and Washington Irving. They introduced a romantic-historical dimension to garden design and appreciation.
Gustave Flaubert Bouvard and Pécuchet. Flaubert satirizes the bourgeois taste in garden design displayed by the characters whose names form the title of his last novel.
Famous Parks and Gardens of the World - the book was published anonymously and provides a good illustration of European gardening opinion in 1880. The Preface and Chapter 10 are in the Encyclopedia .
Ludwig II of Bavaria: the romantic gardens of the 'Mad King' were rich in historical associations.
eTexts relating to the History of Landscape Architecture
Guide to the History of Landscape Architecture, by Tom Turner
Gilbert Laing Meason. The full text of Meason's On the Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy (London 1828). Meason was the 'inventor' of the term Landscape Architecture, which has since come to be used by a world-wide profession, represented by the International Federation of Landscape Architects, by the American Society of Landscape Architects, by the UK Landscape Institute and numerous other national associations. Only 150 copies of his book were printed and its contents are not well known. This is the first time the book has been re-published. It is accompanied with an analysis of the text by Tom Turner. A clear appreciation of how landscape architecture began is regarded as central to comprehension of the modern profession.
Notes on the Top twenty theorists and designers in the history of landscape architecture and on the question What is landscape architecture?
John Claudius Loudon's included comments on Meason in his Gardener's Magazine (1828) and in his Encyclopedia of Architecture (1833). These comments transmitted the term to Andew Jackson Downing and, later, to Frederick Law Olmsted - setting the course of American landscape architecture.
Andrew Jackson Downing's Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. (Section 1, Section 2 and Section 9). Downing was 'the first American writer on landscape architectural topics' (Norman T Newton in Design on the Land) and an 'incalcuable' influence on American garden design and landscape architecture (Oxford Companion to Gardens). Loudon's writings were his starting point.
Frederick Law Olmsted's description of his winning design for the Central Park, New York, competition (1858). Olmsted 'the father of American landscape architecture' entered the profession as a result of the Greensward Plan for Central Park, done in partnership with the English architect Calvert Vaux.
Norman T Newton's account of the scope of landscape architecture, from Design on the land.
Geoffrey Jellicoe's account of the scope of landscape design, from the Landscape of Man
Ian McHarg: notes and links on the twentieth century's outstanding landscape planner.
eTexts relating to Arts and Crafts Gardens
William Morris' essay on Hopes and fears for art in which he criticises carpet bedding and makes the point that gardens should be works of art and of craft.
Thomas Huxley's discussion of Evolution and ethics (1859), in which he views his own garden as a 'work of art' in contrast to the 'state of nature' which existed before it was made.
William Robinson The Wild Garden (1881 edn Chapters 1-5, originally published by John Murray and reproduced with their permission). Robinson is described by Jekyll (in the reference below) as 'our great champion of hardy flowers'. He urged the use of hardy plants, instead of subtropical plants and carpet bedding, in garden design. He had a sharp dispute with Blomfield (below).
John D Sedding Garden craft old and new (1891) introduced his book with a chapter on The Theory of the Garden. There are 2 chapters in the Encyclopedia .
Reginald Blomfield's The Formal garden in England (1901 edn, originally published by MacMillan and reproduced with their permission). A contemporary review in The Times said 'Mr. Blomfield's historical sketch of the art of gardening in England is full of interest and instruction, and his polemic against the so-called landscape gardeners is vigorous, incisive, and to our mind convincing.' The book is undoubtedly polemical, but commendably scholarly. Blomfield was the son of a bishop and had a hatred of modernism.
Gertrude Jekyll's account of garden design (from Wall water and woodland gardens, 1901, originally published by Country Life and reproduced with their permission). Jekyll was the most influential writer on planting design in the twentieth century. This chapter is the clearest statement of her views on the history and theory of garden design.
eTexts relating to Design Methods
Design methodology: an overview by Tom Turner
Surface water drainage and management (from Landscape Design October 1985) arguing for 'privileging' water in the design procedure
Wilderness and plenty: construction and deconstruction (from Urban Design Quarterly September 1992) arguing that the professional structure of the construction industry would benefit from deconstruction.
'Feminine' landscape design: a tale of two tragedies (from a Sheffield Spring School lecture, April 1993) arguing for the 'way of the hunter' to be balanced by the 'way of the nester'
Postmodern landscapes (from Landscape Design May 1993) arguing for landscape and garden designers to take account of postmodern ideas and theories in their work
Pattern analysis (from Landscape Design October 1991) arguing for a design method based on pattern analysis, instead of the modernist Survey-Analysis-Design (SAD) method taught in most of the world's landscape and garden design schools.
Revolutions in the garden (from Tom Turner's City as landscape, Spons 1996). After looking at the design revolutions which have taken place in the 1690s, 1790s, and 1890s this essay finds the seeds of a fourth design revolution in the work of Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe, Charles Jencks, and Ian Hamilton Finlay.
The flowers of garden design theory (from Garden Design Journal Autumn 1999, published as 'Timeless with delight') this article suggests a design method which integrates knowledge drawn from various fields, including the fine arts, philosophy, the natural and social sciences.
PAKILDA: Pattern Assisted Knowledge Intensive Landscape Design Approach (from Landscape Design May 2001). Developing the method outlined in the Garden Design Journal, this article the recommends a design method for landscape design and planning.
Design history and theory (from a lecture delivered at the University of Uppsala in April 2002) this article relates the PAKILDA method to the set of design objectives outlined by Vitruvius in the first century: utilitas (Commodity), firmitas (Firmness) and venustas (Delight).
eTexts relating to Twentieth Century Gardens
There are histories of American Garden Design in the Encyclopedia , written in 1834, 1928 and 2001.
Geoffrey Jellicoe: a collection of information on his work, including an essay by Tom Turner on: Geoffrey Jellicoe, the subconscious and landscape design (1998)
Garden Revolutions: an essay in which it is argued that 'structuralism can infuse gardens with post-Postmodern ideas and beliefs. It is a layered approach to garden making. '
Cacti and Succulents for Cold Climates is filled with inspirational portraits of 274 plants that can be used to create drought-tolerant gardens, as well as tips from regional experts who have mastered the art of growing cacti in parts of the country not usually associated with high temperatures or a scarcity of water. Expert Leo Chance describes how to prepare planting beds, how to get plants well established, how to handle cacti during planting, how to protect plants from cold winters, and when and how much to water.
Following the cycle of the seasons, Gardening at Longmeadow will introduce readers to the garden from the earliest snowdrops of January through the first splashes of colour in the Spring Garden, the electric summer displays of the Jewel Garden, the autumn harvest in the orchard, and on to a Christmas feast sourced from the vegetable gardens.
Describing the magic of each area at different times of the year, Monty will explain the basics of what to do when and how to get the most from each plant. He'll talk through the essential techniques and more complex processes, accompanied by easy-to-follow, step-by-step photography.
Longmeadow is a gardeners' garden, but this will be a book for gardening enthusiasts of all skill levels who have been inspired by what they've seen, and who would like to achieve something similar for themselves.
Combining general guidelines with tips, techniques, and actions, this fully illustrated guide explains the many opportunities our landscapes provide for conserving energy. Readers will learn how to:Lower a home's heating and cooling costs Minimize fuel used in landscape construction, maintenance, and everyday use Choose landscape products and materials with lower embedded energy costs Make a positive difference without a major investment or change in lifestyle
Intended for homeowners, gardeners, landscape professionals, and students, the design ideas in this book will work in every type of setting—large or small, hilly or flat, urban or rural. Written in non-scientific language with clear explanations and an easy conversational style, Energy-Wise Landscape Design is an essential resource for everyone who wants to shrink their energy footprint while enhancing their property and adding value to their home.
Sue Reed is a registered landscape architect and a specialist in ecological landscape design who has helped hundreds of homeowners create comfortable, livable, and beautiful landscapes that save energy. She is also an experienced writer and teacher whose work specifically focuses on environmentally sound, energy-efficient, and sustainable landscape design.