The Feeling Childthoughtfully discusses the key principles of children’s emotional and behavioural development alongside descriptions of everyday practice. It clearly explains how a child’s early experiences influence their particular behaviours towards different people and different situations.
Throughout the book, Maria Robinson considers the key characteristics of effective learning and shows how play is one of the key mechanisms that children use in their discovery of themselves and the world around them. These characteristics are then applied to integral aspects of early years practice to help practitioners to:
support children to come to new understandings in safe yet challenging ways
understand the ways in which children may approach or withdraw from learning opportunities
reflect on their own teaching methods to encourage children’s engagement, motivation and creativity through effective observation and planning
engage with parents and carers to help support children’s learning at home whilst maintaining the values of the family.
celebrate the uniqueness of each child and provide learning experiences that are appropriate for individuals with particular learning needs, be they physical, emotional or cognitive to ensure that every child has an equal opportunity to succeed.
Emphasising the importance of understanding the theory that underpins children’s emotional development, this accessible text shows practitioners how they can use this knowledge to provide learning opportunities that nourish children’s thinking and creative skills.
From the beloved TV disciplinarian and bestselling author of Supernanny comes an amazingly simple five-step program of Toddler Rules to help parents tame tantrums, prevent bad behavior, and create long-term peace and stability in the home.
Jo Frost has always had a natural gift for connecting with kids, and for helping parents navigate milestones with practical know-how and ease. With the success of her hit TV shows Supernanny, Extreme Parental Guidance, and Family S.O.S. with Jo Frost, she’s proven her ability to expertly rein in unacceptable conduct and bring peace and stability to millions of homes worldwide. Now, in this invaluable book, she shows you how to identify and eliminate toddler tantrums, and curb behaviors in other child rearing areas. Frost’s effective five-step program for disciplined parenting addresses such challenges as
• Sleep: winning those nightly battles—going to bed and staying there
• Food: what to cook, trying new things, and enjoying meal times
• Play: sharing toys, defusing squabbles, developing social skills
• Learning: listening, language, and development
• Manners: teaching respect, showing examples, and positive praise
The key to achieving success with these Toddler Rules is Frost’s proven S.O.S. method: Step Back, Observe, Step In. Complete with troubleshooting tips for living tantrum-free, this welcome, honest, straightforward guide has all you need to help your children grow, thrive, and make family time even more precious.
Praise for Jo Frost’s Toddler Rules
“The indomitable Frost shares both her wisdom and experience for parents of toddlers. The five rules . . . are presented in her charming and conversational tone and provide not only a foundation for sanity but sure scaffolding to greater learning and happier parenting. . . . Frost is a favorite with many, and her engaging manner carries into her written work.”—Library Journal (starred review)
“Common-sense and practical advice on raising young children by an expert in the field . . . A full chapter devoted to handling temper tantrums is an added bonus for parents in crisis mode.”—Kirkus Reviews
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Seven-year-old Venus Fox never spoke, never listened, never even acknowledged the presence of another human being in the room with her. Yet an accidental playground “bump” would release a rage frightening to behold. The school year that followed would be one of the most trying, perplexing, and ultimately rewarding of Torey Hayden’s career, as she struggled to reach a silent child in obvious pain. It would be a strenuous journey beset by seemingly insurmountable obstacles and darkened by truly terrible revelations—yet encouraged by sometimes small, sometimes dazzling breakthroughs—as a dedicated teacher remained committed to helping a “hopeless” girl, and patiently and lovingly leading her toward the light of a new day.
Carol Garhart Mooney has been an early childhood educator for more than forty years. She is also the author of Theories of Attachment, Use Your Words, and Swinging Pendulums.
“From its clear explanation of the developing brain of a baby to its enlightened presentation on the art of reflective childcare, I see how many times I will use this work as a resource. . . . Building on key research from infant development, psychology, and neuroscience, Maguire-Fong invites reflection on what it means to teach and to learn when working with infants and toddlers.”
—From the Foreword by J. Ronald Lally, codirector of the Center for Child and Family Studies at WestEd, and author of For Our Babies
“Mary Jane Maguire-Fong explores deeply the connections between state-of-the-art science on young children's development, public policies affecting families, and best practice in the care and education of very young children. [This] is filled with so many great ideas, evocative illustrations, and practical considerations—all knit together in an almost lyrical narrative style. A wonderful, necessary read for anyone interested in supporting our youngest children.”
—Ross A. Thompson, Distinguished Professor, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis
“Here is everything you ever wanted to know about very young children as ‘born researchers’—how they engage with the world so new to them and invite us to play with them in shared meaning-making. This book explores every aspect of early development and invites us to learn with the children, as we order time, space, and stuff to respond to their curiosity.”
—Elizabeth Jones, faculty emerita, Pacific Oaks College
With more than 130,000 copies in print, this valuable resource for pre- and inservice educators features:Fresh information about how children think and learn, how their language develops, and how their families, their culture, and their environment influence and help to shape them. Observations that reflect the increasingly diverse population in contemporary early childhood classrooms. The imperative for teachers to widen their lens in order to meet the needs of young children with a range of developmental capacities, abilities, and behaviors.
“Responds to new knowledge about how children think, learn and develop language, and about the influences of families, culture, and other environmental influences.”
—Zero to Three (previous edition)
Child development expert Penny Warner offers 150 illustrated ideas for games and activities designed to stimulate your preschooler's learning and development. Preschooler Play & Learn is designed to help children reach their full potential and have a good time along the way.
The Most Complete Book of Games and Learning Activities for Preschoolers!
Child development expert Penny Warner offers 150 illustrated ideas for games and activities designed to stimulate your preschooler's learning and development. For each game and activity, Preschooler Play & Learn includes: recommended ages, a detailed list of easy-to-find materials, a bulleted list of the skills that preschoolers will learn, step-by-step instruction, clear illustrations, variations for added fun and enhanced learning, and safety tips and other helpful hints. Preschooler Play & Learn is designed to help children reach their full potential and have a good time along the way.
With effective communication as its theme, From Parent to Partner explores the reasons and basis for developing ongoing partnerships with parents and families of children in childcare settings and provides the tools and strategies to build the support network within which these partnerships thrive.
This primer for those just beginning their school careers was devised with the contributions of over 2,000 parents, educators and students, distilled into a user-friendly volume specifically designed for parents to use with their children. Eighty pages of four-color illustrations enliven the new, bold design of this latest title in a series adopted by hundreds of schools nationwide and appreciated by thousands of adults looking to instill in children a lifetime love of learning.
What can the richly imagined, impressively adaptable fantasy world of these children tell us about childhood, development, education, and even life itself? For fifty years, teacher and writer Vivian Gussin Paley has been exploring the imagery, language, and lore of young children, asking the questions they ask of themselves.
In The Boy on the Beach she continues to do so, going deeper into the mystery of play as she follows Eli and Marianne through the kindergarten year, finding more answers and more questions. How does their teacher, Mrs. Olson, manage to honor and utilize the genius of play to create an all-inclusive community in which boys and girls like each other and listen to each other’s stories? Why is Paley’s fellow teacher Yu-ching in Taiwan certain that her children pretend to be kittens in order to become necessary to the group? And why do teachers in London see their childrens’ role-playing as the natural end to loneliness in the school community?
Rich with the words of children and teachers themselves, The Boy on the Beach is vintage Paley, a wise and provocative appreciation of the importance of play and enduring curiosity about the nature of childhood and the imagination.
Chapters focus on children’s ways of communicating through varied modes, including the use of nonverbal expression; languages such as Spanish, English, and the variant of English known as African American Language; and multiple media. Throughout the text there is a resistance to labels such as “at risk” and a much-needed advocacy for child-sensible practices in a world where diversity is indeed the “new norm.”
Celia Genishiis professor of education and chair of the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University.Anne Haas Dysonis a professor of education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
“Contemporary early childhood educators find themselves in contexts that are fundamentally inimical to the time-honored wisdom in our field.Children, Language and Literacyspeaks to all of us with a commitment to the very young and strengthens our collective resolve to work in increasingly more effective ways with children, families, and the next generation of teachers.” —Mary Renck Jalongo, Editor,Early Childhood Education Journal
“Genishi and Dyson animate sociocultural theories of language learning by inviting us into the intimacy of children’s worlds. This book will become a treasure on the required reading lists for early childhood, ESOL, and language arts courses.”
—JoBeth Allen, University of Georgia, Athens
“If our standards-based economy requires us to make all children the same, to drain the joy out of learning, and to move lockstep through a set curriculum, we have forgotten what early childhood classrooms are all about. Genishi and Dyson remind us.”
—Beth Graue, Interim Director, Wisconsin Center for Education Research
“Celia Genishi and Anne Haas Dyson call on us to rethink children’s language and literacy instruction in the changing and diverse landscape of U.S. education. That call must be answered and they help us immensely understand how to do so.”
—Eugene García, Vice President, Education Partnerships, Arizona State University
Nine-year-old Cassandra, kidnapped by her father and found starving, dirty, and picking through garbage cans—is a child prone to long silences and erratic, violent behavior.
Charming, charismatic four-year-old Drake will speak only in private to his mother—while his tough, unbending grandfather's demands for an immediate cure threatens to cause irreparable harm.
And though she had never worked with adults, Hayden agrees to help fearful and silent eighty-two-year-old massive stroke victim Gerda—discovering in the process that a treatment's successes could prove nearly as heartbreaking as its limitations.
Born in 1928 in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, Fred Rogers began his television career in 1951 at NBC. In 1954, he became program director for the newly founded WQED-TV in Pittsburgh, the first community-supported television station in the United States. From 1954 to 1961, Rogers and Josie Carey produced and performed in WQED's The Children's Corner, which became part of the the Saturday morning lineup on NBC in 1955 and 1956.
It was after Fred Rogers was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1963, with a special charge of serving children and their families through television, that he developed what became the award-winning PBS series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.
Fred Rogers began his television career in 1951 at NBC, and in 1954, he became program director for the newly founded WQED-TV in Pittsburgh, the first community-supported television station in the United States. From 1954 to 1961, Rogers and Josie Carey produced and performed in WQED's The Children's Corner, which became part of the the Saturday morning lineup on NBC in 1955 and 1956. It was after Fred Rogers was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1963, with a special charge of serving children and their families through television, that he developed what became the award-winning PBS series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.
What Your First Grader Needs to Know
What will your child be expected to learn in the first grade? How can you help him or her at home? How can teachers foster active, successful learning in the classroom? This book answers these all-important questions and more, offering the specific shared knowledge that hundreds of parents and teachers across the nation have agreed upon for American first graders. Featuring a new Introduction, filled with opportunities for reading aloud and fostering discussion, this first-grade volume of the acclaimed Core Knowledge Series presents the sort of knowledge and skills that should be at the core of a challenging first-grade education. Inside you’ll discover
• Favorite poems—old and new, such as “The Owl and the Pussycat,” “Wynken, Blynken, and Nod,” and “Thirty Days Hath September”
• Beloved stories—from many times and lands, including a selection of Aesop’s fables, “Hansel and Gretel,” “All Stories Are Anansi’s,” “The Tale of Peter Rabbit,” and more
• Familiar sayings and phrases—such as “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” and “Practice makes perfect”
• World and American history and geography—take a trip down the Nile with King Tut and learn about the early days of our country, including the story of Jamestown, the Pilgrims, and the American Revolution
• Visual arts—fun activities plus full-color reproductions of masterworks by Leonardo da Vinci, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Georgia O’Keeffe, and others
• Music—engaging introductions to great composers and music, including classical music, opera, and jazz, as well as a selection of favorite children’s songs
• Math—a variety of activities to help your child learn to count, add and subtract, solve problems, recognize geometrical shapes and patterns, and learn about telling time
• Science—interesting discussions of living things and their habitats, the human body, the states of matter, electricity, our solar system, and what’s inside the earth, plus stories of famous scientists such as Thomas Edison and Louis Pasteur
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Sally Moomaw, EdD, has spent much of her career researching and teaching STEM education. She is an assistant professor at the University of Cincinnati and the author of several early education books.
After 35 years as an education consultant, Rae Pica knows the importance of understanding the natural course of child development. In this collection, she keeps kids front and center as she provides thought-provoking commentary and actionable insights on topics such as the Common Core, the self-esteem movement, and standardized testing. Sure to inspire discussion, this pocket-size powerhouse of educational philosophy includes 29 short essays on topics critical to best practice in child development and education Opinions of experts supported by research and anecdotal evidence Real-life stories shared by teachers and parents References to related articles and interviews with experts
Carol Garhart Mooney, also the author of the best-selling Theories of Childhood, has worked as a preschool teacher and college instructor of early childhood education for over thirty years.
*dramatically reconceptualizes the field experience by asking preservice and inservice teachers to be active and critical researchers of classroom practices and processes;
*provides a coherent framework for analyzing both structural and cultural aspects of schooling;
*provides specific exercises to help preservice and inservice teachers evaluate and understand the intersections of race, class, gender, and culture in "real life" school settings; and
*grounds the observations of everyday school life within critical, feminist, and poststructuralist discourses.
New in the Second Edition: A new section,"No Child Left Untested," has been added to help preservice teachers explore the implications of a very changed post-September 11world in which xenophobia, violence, patriotism, citizenship, and democracy have taken on new meanings. The introduction to the book as a whole, the section introductions, the retained activities in existing sections, and the references have been throughly updated.
See also Teaching with the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts, Grades 3-5.
The book first contextualizes the historical and research base of early childhood curriculum, and then turns to discussions of various schools of theory and philosophy that have served to support curriculum development in early childhood education. An examination of current curriculum frameworks is offered, both from the US and abroad, including discussion of the Project Approach, Creative Curriculum, Te Wh?riki, and Reggio Emilia. Finally, the book closes with chapters that enlarge the topic to curriculum-being-enacted through play and that summarize key issues while pointing out future directions for the field. Offering a broad foundation for examining curriculum in early childhood, readers will emerge with a stronger understanding of how theories and philosophies intersect with curriculum development.
What Your Preschooler Needs to Know
Designed for parents to enjoy with children, filled with opportunities for reading aloud and fostering curiosity, this beautifully illustrated anthology offers preschoolers the fundamentals they need to prepare for a happy, productive time in school—and for the rest of their lives. Hundreds of thousands of children have benefited from the acclaimed Core Knowledge Series, developed in consultation with parents, educators, and the most distinguished developmental psychologists. In addition to valuable advice for parents, such as what it means for a child to be ready for kindergarten, special sidebars throughout the book help parents make reading aloud fun and interactive, suggesting questions to ask, connections to make, and games to play to enrich their preschooler’s learning experience. Inside you will discover
• Favorite poems and rhymes—all beautifully illustrated, to be read and recited together, from Robert Louis Stevenson’s “At the Seaside” to limericks by Edward Lear and tongue twisters by Jack Prelutsky, plus fun “clap along!” and “fingerplay” verses that parents and children can act out together
• Beloved stories and fables—stories such as “The Three Little Pigs” and the African folktale “Why Flies Buzz” will open whole new worlds of learning and discovery
• Visual arts—beautiful full-color reproductions of classic works that foster early appreciation of art history while igniting discussions about shapes, colors, and different styles and media
• Music—dozens of songs to sing and dance to, including such “move around” songs as “Head and Shoulders, Knees and Toes” and “The Wheels on the Bus”
• History—a delightful introduction to American history, from the first Thanksgiving to Martin Luther King, Jr., with activities and stories parents and children can enjoy together
• Science—from exploring the wonder of animals to the physical properties of light, air, and water—fun activities that will let children observe, experience, and enjoy the natural world
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Physical education is a critical part of every early childhood curriculum. Children need to move to channel their energies in creative, beneficial ways and to learn habits for lifelong health and fitness. Preschoolers and Kindergartners Moving & Learning provides 80 developmentally appropriate activities that contribute to a well-rounded curriculum in any classroom or program.
The book contains
An updated introduction reflecting new research and trends in early childhood health and fitness and information on how movement benefits children’s learning and development
Twenty lesson plans, each with one body parts activity, one nonlocomotor activity, one locomotor skill experience, and one activity exploring an element of movement, for a total of 80 activities
Extension ideas and adaptations to use with children who have special needs
Curriculum connections for each activity and explanations about how activities are aligned with and meet early learning standards from NAEYC and AAHPERD
Original music to add joy and energy to the activities
This book explains how the Montessori approach works offering guidance on planning and assessment methods alongside practical activities for practitioners to try. Throughout there are practical examples involving children of different ages in a wide range of settings to show how Montessori principles have been implemented. .
This new edition has been fully updated to include:
The revised areas of learning in the EYFS and how these link to Montessori practice
An examination of early effective learning
Approaches to effective learning in Montessori settings
A new chapter on Montessori approaches to the assessment requirements of the EYFSquestions for reflection
This convenient guide will help early years practitioners, students and parents to really understand what the Montessori approach means to their setting and children.
Organizing books fall short of addressing the unique needs of adults with ADD. They fail to understand the clinical picture of ADD and how it impacts the organizing process often making their advice irrelevant or frustrating when put into application. Books about ADD may address organization/disorganization but do so in a cursory fashion and on a very small scale in what are usually long books on the subject. This is a book that has ADD-Friendly advice with the ADDer in mind. This collaboration brings forth the best underlying understanding with the most effective and practical remedy from ADD experts in two important fields -- professional organization and clinical psychology. Finally, it offers organizing advice that ranges from self-help to utilizing the help of non-professionals, to using professional assistance. Thus it permits the reader to decide where they are at personally in the organizing process, and what level of support will be most beneficial to their unique situation.
Marion O'Donnell explores the key aspects of Montessori education: child development; the learning environment; the role of the teacher; the role of the learner and parental involvement. Within each key aspect, Marion considers the implications for Montessori education, the views of critics and supporters, the implications for education today and the implications for research. Each aspect is considered within an international context, drawing on research and practice in Europe, the USA, South America, Australia and Asia.
Akiko Hayashi and Joseph Tobin embed themselves in the classrooms of three different teachers at three different schools to examine how teachers act, think, and talk. Drawing on extended interviews, their own real-time observations, and hours of video footage, they focus on how teachers embody their lessons: how they use their hands to gesture, comfort, or discipline; how they direct their posture, gaze, or physical location to indicate degrees of attention; and how they use the tone of their voice to communicate empathy, frustration, disapproval, or enthusiasm. Comparing teachers across schools and over time, they offer an illuminating analysis of the gestures that comprise a total body language, something that, while hardly ever explicitly discussed, the teachers all share to a remarkable degree. Showcasing the tremendous importance of—and dearth of attention to—this body language, they offer a powerful new inroad into educational study and practice, a deeper understanding of how teaching actually works, no matter what culture or country it is being practiced in.
Book Features:The principles, guidelines, and strategies needed for school- and program-wide transformation. Activities for working with teachers and families to integrate an anti-bias approach. Strategies for supporting and strengthening the leader’s ability to initiate and sustain anti-bias education change, including resources to increase staff skills for implementing anti-bias education with children. Tools for assessing anti-bias education progress and managing mandated standards and assessments.
“A concise and powerful message for anti-bias leaders in early childhood education everywhere. A truly inspired gift of lessons from the movement, for the movement.”
—Carol Brunson Day, President of the Board, National Association for the Education of Young Children
“If you are an educator wanting to see more equity and inclusiveness in the world, at times discouraged confused, or overwhelmed with how to manage the conflict that always emerges in the change process, you’ll find reassurance, resources, and strategic thinking to engage in this anti-bias work.”
—Margie Carter, author, The Visionary Director, and international early childhood consultant
"It is never too early to prepare children to deal effectively with issues of race, class, gender, family, and ability and equity. This book is a tool box for building early childhood programs that foster sentiments of justice and fairness in leaders, teachers, and young children, and help them to act on these values.”
—Herbert Kohl, educator and bestselling author of The Herb Kohl Reader: Awakening the Heart of Teaching
The updated new edition of this valuable resource offers an exciting collection of 200 ready-to-use worksheets to help adolescents build the social skills they need to interact effectively with others and learn how to apply these skills to various real-life settings, situations, and problems. The book provides 20 complete teaching units focusing on 20 basic social skills, such as being a good listener, "reading" other people, and using common sense.
Lisa Murphy has been involved with early childhood education for over twenty years, teaching and working with children in various environments. She presents hundreds of workshops and keynotes at national and international audiences each year on various topics related to early childhood education.
As the founder and CEO of Ooey Gooey, Inc., Lisa's mission is to assist in the transformation of early childhood education by offering the best workshops and trainings, the most up-to-date materials and resources, and insightful conversations and connections through the power of social media. She is recognized for her ability to link hands-on activities to educational standards, her outspoken advocacy, and her commitment to creating child-centered and play-based early childhood environments.
Authored by two past presidents of the Educational Law Association, this essential guide translates legalese into your language and allows you to focus on your core competency: providing excellent education for students with special needs. Updated to reflect significant court decisions and new developments, the book features:Extensive coverage of IDEA’s reauthorization, Section 504 and the ADA, and FAPE and LRE New analysis of parent and student rights Guidance on discipline A preventative approach to special education litigation Focus on federal and state interpretations of the law
A collection of Rinaldi’s most important works, this book is organized thematically with a full introduction contextualising each piece. It closes with an interview by series editors Peter Moss and Gunilla Dahlberg, looking at Rinaldi’s current work and reflections on Reggio's past, present and future.
Much of this material is previously unpublished and focuses on a number of questions:What were the ideas and legacy of Loris Malaguzzi? What is unique about Reggio Emilia? What are the issues in education today and what does it mean to be a teacher? How can educators most effectively make use of creativity?
See also the authors' Coaching Students with Executive Skills Deficits, which provides instructions and tools for implementing an evidence-based coaching model. Also from Dawson and Guare: an academic planner for students, Smart but Scattered parenting guides, and a self-help guide for adults.
This book is in The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series.
By helping the reader to develop their understanding of the complex relationships between play and learning, this book examines current theoretical perspectives on play, alongside examples of recent and innovative play research from a range of disciplinary and methodological perspectives. With contributions from leading play scholars, it brings together theory, research, policy and practice in relation to play and learning in early years settings. The emphasis is on the relationship between play and learning, and play and pedagogy, and the need to understand these dimensions more substantially in order to teach with confidence.
Included are chapters on:
- the influence of play on thinking, problem-solving and creativity
- cooperative play and learning
- play, risk and outdoor learning
- learning to play in cultural context
There are chapter objectives, reflective points, reflective tasks and suggestions for further reading throughout, to facilitate critical thinking and encourage independent study. Suitable for early years practitioners, early childhood students at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, and all those who work with and care for young children, this is an exciting and thought-provoking book.
Gillian Eriksson, Coordinator: Gifted Education Program, School of Teaching,
Learning and Leadership, University of Central Florida
'This expanded edition builds on Margaret's approach to teaching and learning, making us think how we can best include gifted and talented children in our early years settings. By providing opportunities for young children to learn from each other and from their communities and families, gifted and talented young learners can be appropriately challenged and recognised within an inclusive setting'
-Peter Merrotsy, Senior Lecturer in Gifted and Talented Education,
University of New England, Australia
Combining theoretical perspectives with practical activities, this book offers clear guidance on how to ensure you and your setting can identify and provide for very young children in your care who are gifted and talented. With an emphasis on providing the best learning opportunities for all, there is specialist advice for all staff working in early years settings.
New to this new edition is:
- information on recent research and new thinking in the field
- international views of gifted and talented young children
- links to the early years curriculum
- new activities and ideas
- extended coverage for young children aged 3 to 6
There are lots of ideas for things to try out in your setting, and photocopiable practical activities for parents to try out at home.
Margaret Sutherland is a Lecturer in Additional Support Needs at the University of Glasgow and Director of the Scottish Network for Able Pupils (SNAP).
Refusal to talk
Managing Extreme Behaviours in the Early Years, the fifth of the Tried and Tested Strategies series, is a ready-to-hand and easy to read guide for those dealing with problem behaviour and who do not always have the time to search for solutions.
A companion to the curriculum, this trainer’s guide serves as an indispensable handbook for trainers and administrators interested in introducing staff to the curriculum—from planning to implementation. Special sections outline the curriculum and introduce scientific reasoning to adults, and eight workshops detail the complete curriculum for staff members. The guide also includes strategies for supporting teachers over time through mentoring and guided discussions.
This revised edition emphasizes:
child development and learning
attachment/key person relationships
planning the environment for babies
understanding every child
working with parentsThis book will be useful to those on initial training courses, such as Foundation degrees, NVQ, BA Education and Early Childhood Studies, and for managers and practitioners undertaking CPD.