People often say they haven’t yet found a good dictionary to interpret their dreams, signs and symbols. The Source Code brings a whole new vision to the subject and will surely become one of the most important reference books in this field. It will be published simultaneously in English and French and found in bookstores and malls in many countries all over the world, including the UK and the USA. It’s written by Kaya, one of today’s most eminent specialists in dream interpretation, assisted by over 100 of his students, who are doctors, psychologists, nurses, therapists, linguists, teachers and specialists in many fields, in many different countries. The idea of uniting so many people for this extraordinary project came from the workshops Kaya has been giving on dream and symbol interpretation for over 12 years now. During these workshops, when Kaya asked students in groups of 4 to deepen and define symbols, he realized how advanced they were, and so he asked them to help him finish his work. Hence his publishing house, UCM set up work teams to carry out the necessary research so Kaya could then write the final metaphysical syntheses and definitions.
A book presenting the + and – of each symbol
The Dictionary, Dreams-Signs-Symbols, The Source Code, helps us discover, in great depth, over 870 pages, the most common words in dreams and signs. Each word is analyzed in detail with its physical and metaphysical characteristics, and a synthesis defining the + and – of each symbol is included. This provides the reader with an analytical, understandable vision of the various different possible interpretations. Just one word may occupy 2 or 3 explanatory pages, which makes this Dictionary very complete from all points of view. Readers will also find a detailed introduction explaining dream mechanics as well as the multiple angles and subtleties of dream and sign interpretation.
Extract from the Preface by Kasara (Kaya’s daughter)
The day we receive The Source Code, our life changes completely… Shortly after my birth, my father’s life completely changed. From one day to the next, he started having 10-50 dreams every night. He studied dreams in his dream. He could no longer tell the difference between dream and reality. To everyone’s surprise, he quit everything. He became the village fool, the incomprehensible hermit, and all to deepen his research and understanding of dreams. Everyone either laughed at him or didn’t understand. I lived through this change alongside him – those early years when we feel other people’s fear and mistrust because we aren’t like everyone else. The greatest philosophers and scholars of the past often lived as visionaries before being really understood, because they traced a new path, one which called into question our way of thinking and understanding of the world we live in.
My father went through many ordeals to offer us this unique book. You have no idea how psychologically difficult it was. I sometimes consoled him, hugging him, telling him it was going to be ok; everything was going to be all right. I have so much admiration and love for my father. He sacrificed his career, everything a man could wish for, in order to follow his inner guidance, the wind of change and transformation that took form in his dreams. Above all, he had the courage to turn the page, to completely change his life in order to get to know himself better, to better understand the Source Code and to transmit it to us today. Now, with this revolution of Knowledge for the science of our conscience, the great changes he undertook take on their full meaning. Surpassing all of the previous research into the meaning of dreams, Kaya opens the path to our autonomy of conscience; he helps us understand the multi-dimensions, the metaphysics that we all have within ourselves. He may have been ridiculed and denigrated as a man, but this whole path was all worthwhile to help people all over the world who are on a spiritual path today, seeking to make sense of their lives; therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists and doctors now use The Source Code to help patients better understand how their conscience works.
The pun is commonly dismissed as the lowest form of wit, and punsters are often unpopular for their obsessive wordplay. But such attitudes are relatively recent developments. In The Pun Also Rises, John Pollack-a former World Pun Champion and presidential speechwriter for Bill Clinton-explains why such wordplay is significant: It both revolutionized language and played a pivotal role in making the modern world possible. Skillfully weaving together stories and evidence from history, brain science, pop culture, literature, anthropology, and humor, The Pun Also Rises is an authoritative yet playful exploration of a practice that is common, in one form or another, to virtually every language on earth.
At once entertaining and educational, this engaging book answers fundamental questions: Just what is a pun, and why do people make them? How did punning impact the development of human language, and how did that drive creativity and progress? And why, after centuries of decline, does the pun still matter?
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The Europeanization of National Political Parties is the first empirical study to examine the effects of the European Union on the internal organizational dynamics of national political parties. It draws on the results of a major, cross-national project and is based on documentary analysis and some 150 interviews with senior party actors in six EU member states: Austria, Britain, France, Germany, Spain and Sweden.
Situated in the context of the debate on Europeanization, the contributors illustrate that national political parties have been surprisingly well equipped to handle the challenges of the increasing importance of multi-level governance in Europe. Following a rigorous analytical framework, the country studies examine thirty relevant political parties and systematically address a clearly defined set of empirical questions. The volume ends with two comparative chapters that analyze the findings from a cross-national perspective and that offer theoretical insights into the problems of party government amid increasing European integration.
This text will appeal to all those researching in the fields of European studies, political science and comparative politics.
Oscar Wilde once said the Brits have "everything in common with America nowadays except, of course, language."
Any visitor to Old Blighty can sympathize with Mr. Wilde. After all, even fluent English speakers can be at sixes and sevens when told to pick up the "dog and bone" or "head to the loo," so they can "spend a penny." Wherever did these peculiar expressions come from?
British author Christopher J. Moore made a name for himself on this side of the pond with the sleeper success of his previous book, In Other Words. Now, Moore draws on history, literature, pop culture, and his own heritage to explore the phrases that most embody the British character. He traces the linguistic influence of writers from Chaucer to Shakespeare and Dickens to Wodehouse, and unravels the complexity Brits manage to imbue in seemingly innocuous phrases like "All right." Along the way, Moore reveals the uniquely British origins of some of the English language’s more curious sayings. For example: Who is Bob and how did he become your uncle? Why do we refer to powerless politicians as “lame ducks”? How did “posh” become such a stylish word?
Part language guide, part cultural study, How to Speak Brit is the perfect addition to every Anglophile’s library and an entertaining primer that will charm the linguistic-minded legions.
Semantics is the study of the literal meaning of words and the meaning of the way words are combined. This engaging introduction to formal semantics assumes no prior knowledge, providing a solid understanding of a range of semantic phenomena. Truly wide-ranging in coverage, no other introductory textbook discusses a comparable range of topics. Areas covered include:
• a beginner's introduction to type theory and the lambda calculus
• generalized quantifier theory
• referential opacity
• thematic roles and lexical conceptual structure
• tense and aspect, including Discourse Representation Theory
• event semantics
Illustrated throughout with numerous practical examples, each chapter also contains exercises, graded to three different levels of difficulty, as well as suggestions for further reading.
Thoroughly revised and expanded, this second edition includes entirely new material on type theory, lambda calculus, semantic composition and discussion of time within a narrative. Comprehensive and accessible, Semantics is ideal for both undergraduate and postgraduate students working at a variety of levels.
Key features include:A consistent mentalist perspective on meaning Broad coverage of lexical and sentence semantics, including three new chapters discussing deixis, NP semantics, presuppositions, verb semantics and frames Examples from a wider range of languages that include German, Japanese, Spanish and Russian. Practical exercises on linguistic data Companion website including all figures and tables from the book, an online dictionary, answers to the exercises and useful links at routledge.com/cw/loebner
This book is an essential resource for all undergraduate students studying semantics.Sebastian Löbner is a Professor of Linguistics at the Institute for Language and Information at the University of Düsseldorf, Germany
* qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods
* research techniques and approaches
* ethical considerations
* sample studies
* a glossary of key terms
* resources for students
As well as covering a range of methodological issues, it looks at numerous areas in depth, including language learning strategies, motivation, teacher beliefs, language and identity, pragmatics, vocabulary, and grammar. Comprehensive and accessible, this is the essential guide to research methods for undergraduate and postgraduate students in applied linguistics and language studies.
The authors clear up once and for all the confusion between lay and lie and put to rest some common myths about language. The book's finale is a ten-minute writing lesson from which everyone, from rank amateur to seasoned pro, can benefit. These and dozens of other features make this book pure pleasure for language buffs, writers, and teachers. Sleeping Dogs Don't Lay is useful and authoritative as well as fun to read, with humorous touches often popping up where least expected and most needed.
In The Geometry of Meaning, Peter Gärdenfors proposes a theory of semantics that bridges cognitive science and linguistics and shows how theories of cognitive processes, in particular concept formation, can be exploited in a general semantic model. He argues that our minds organize the information involved in communicative acts in a format that can be modeled in geometric or topological terms—in what he terms conceptual spaces, extending the theory he presented in an earlier book by that name.
Many semantic theories consider the meanings of words as relatively stable and independent of the communicative context. Gärdenfors focuses instead on how various forms of communication establish a system of meanings that becomes shared between interlocutors. He argues that these “meetings of mind” depend on the underlying geometric structures, and that these structures facilitate language learning. Turning to lexical semantics, Gärdenfors argues that a unified theory of word meaning can be developed by using conceptual spaces. He shows that the meaning of different word classes can be given a cognitive grounding, and offers semantic analyses of nouns, adjectives, verbs, and prepositions. He also presents models of how the meanings of words are composed to form new meanings and of the basic semantic role of sentences. Finally, he considers the future implications of his theory for robot semantics and the Semantic Web.
These questions, and more, about our language catapulted Robert MacNeil and William Cran—the authors (with Robert McCrum) of the language classic The Story of English—across the country in search of the answers. Do You Speak American? is the tale of their discoveries, which provocatively show how the standard for American English—if a standard exists—is changing quickly and dramatically.
On a journey that takes them from the Northeast, through Appalachia and the Deep South, and west to California, the authors observe everyday verbal interactions and in a host of interviews with native speakers glean the linguistic quirks and traditions characteristic of each area. While examining the histories and controversies surrounding both written and spoken American English, they address anxieties and assumptions that, when explored, are highly emotional, such as the growing influence of Spanish as a threat to American English and the special treatment of African-American vernacular English. And, challenging the purists who think grammatical standards are in serious deterioration and that media saturation of our culture is homogenizing our speech, they surprise us with unpredictable responses.
With insight and wit, MacNeil and Cran bring us a compelling book that is at once a celebration and a potent study of our singular language.
Each wave of immigration has brought new words to enrich the American language. Do you recognize the origin of
1. blunderbuss, sleigh, stoop, coleslaw, boss, waffle?
2. dumb, ouch, shyster, check, kaput, scram, bummer?
3. phooey, pastrami, glitch, kibbitz, schnozzle?
4. broccoli, espresso, pizza, pasta, macaroni, radio?
5. smithereens, lollapalooza, speakeasy, hooligan?
6. vamoose, chaps, stampede, mustang, ranch, corral?
1. Dutch 2. German 3. Yiddish 4. Italian 5. Irish 6. Spanish
An invaluable overview of the philosophy of language by one of its most important practitioners, this book will be essential reading for all serious students of philosophy.
As an explicitly comparative semiotic study, the book uses familiar and unfamiliar case studies to show how drinks with similar material properties are semiotically organized into very different drinking practices, including ethnographic examples as diverse as the relation of coffee to talk (in ordering at Starbucks). Further chapters look at the dryness of gin in relation to the modern cocktail party and the embedding of beer brands in the ethnographic imagination of the nation. Rather than treat drinks as mere propos in the exclusively human drama of the social, the book promotes them to actors on the stage.
Sowing your wild oats, throwing in the towel, painting the town red...Harry Oliver reveals the fascinating stories behind these and other strange turns of phrase steeped in the weird and wonderful history and traditions of everyday life. From quirky terms to street and city names and more, this book answers the questions you never thought to ask.
? What ancient empire coined the phrase "green with envy"?
? Who was the first person to "get someone's goat"?
? Which writer first penned, "I'll eat my hat!"
Part 1 of the study presents the theoretical framework on which the model is based, and surveys the various concepts of translation theory and text linguistics. Part 2 describes the role and scope of source-text analysis in the translation process and explains why the model is relevant to translation. Part 3 presents a detailed study of the extratextual and intratextual factors and their interaction in the text, using numerous examples from all areas of professional translation. Part 4 discusses the applications of the model to translator training, placing particular emphasis on the selection of material for translation classes, grading the difficulty of translation tasks, and translation quality assessment. The book concludes with the practical analysis of a number of texts and their translations, taking into account various text types and several languages (German, English, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Dutch).
Insightful and cutting-edge, this research monograph will be of interest to researchers in discourse analysis, sociolinguistics and Japanese language.
The debate about semantic externalism is one of the most important but difficult topics in philosophy of mind and language, and has consequences for our understanding of the role of social institutions and the physical environment in constituting language and the mind. In this long-needed book, Jesper Kallestrup provides an invaluable map of the problem. Beginning with a thorough introduction to the theories of descriptivism and referentialism and the work of Frege and Kripke, Kallestrup moves on to analyse Putnam’s Twin Earth argument, Burge’s arthritis argument and Davidson’s Swampman argument. He also discusses how semantic externalism is at the heart of important topics such as indexical thoughts, epistemological skepticism, self-knowledge, and mental causation.
Including chapter summaries, a glossary of terms, and an annotated guide to further reading, Semantic Externalism an ideal guide for students studying philosophy of language and philosophy of mind.
While sharing many features typical of nineteenth-century novels, it marks the emergence of a new technique of writing consciousness that functioned as a precursor to the modernist practice of dialogic shifts across viewpoints. Through a detailed linguistic analysis, Sotirova shows that different characters' viewpoints are not simply juxtaposed in the narrative, but linked in a way that creates dialogic resonances between them. The dialogic linking is achieved through the use of devices that have parallel functions in conversational discourse - referring expressions, sentence-initial correctives and repetition. The book uses stylistics to resolve current controversies in narratology and Lawrence criticism.
In approaching the study of narrative viewpoint from the angle of discourse, Sotirova arrives at cutting-edge insights into Lawrence's work. This book will be required reading for stylisticians, narratologists, literary linguists and literary studies scholars.
What makes these forms distinctive as genres, and what ramifications does the technology have on the language? Myers looks at how blogs and wikis:
*allow for easier than ever publication
*can claim to challenge institutional hierarchies
*provide alternate perspectives on events
*challenge demarcations between the personal and the public
*construct new communities and more
Drawing on a wide range of popular blogs and wikis, the book works alongside an author blog that contains regularly updated links, references and a glossary. An essential textbook for upper level undergraduates on linguistics and language studies courses, it elucidates, informs and offers insights into a major new type of discourse. This coursebook will include a companion website.
The special status of proper names is captured in a unified pragmatic-semantic-syntactic theory: a proper name denotes a unique entity at the level of langue to make it psychosocially salient within a given basic level category. The meaning of the name, if any, does not determine its denotation. An important formal reflection of this characterization of names is their ability to appear in such close appositional constructions as the poet Burns or Fido the dog. The neurolinguistic finding that proper names constitute a separate category is introduced and interpreted within a general linguistic frame of reference. The different kinds of meanings associated with names (categorical, associative, emotive, and grammatical) are shown to be presuppositional in nature. In addition, the book proposes an entirely new classification of proper names as forming a continuum ranging from prototypical (personal and place names) to nonprototypical categories (brand and language names) to citations and autonyms, and a new diachronic classification of family names and nicknames.
This book fills an important gap in the current literature, because the most recent linguistic book in English on name theory dates back to 1973. It is explicitly interdisciplinary, taking into account linguistic, philosophical, neurolinguistic, sociolinguistic and dialect geographical aspects of proper names.
metaphor studies, comparing it critically to other contemporary paradigms of
metaphor in meaning. It incorporates cutting edge empirical data.
In both semantics and cognitive linguistics, metaphor has gained central status
over the past decades, chiefly on account of Lakoff and Johnson's 1980 book Metaphors We Live By, which has become a
standard point of reference.
Rather than advocating a 'pick and mix' combination of cognitive attitudes with
theory and data from other paradigms, the book argues for the methodologically
reflective comparison of theory traditions and acknowledgement of their
strengths and weaknesses. This critical
reflection on metaphor is an essential read for students of metaphor at an
advanced undergraduate or postgraduate level. Each chapter outlines areas for further reading and research, and the
book is built around data drawn from a multilingual research corpus of
metaphors compiled from existing research, other corpora and internet data.
How Theatre Means presents contemporary case studies and explores intersections between a wide range of theories and methods. Clear and accessible, this book brings a key analytical methodology to life for students, practitioners and scholars.
Part I introduces readers to practical and methodological problems of the intercultural transfer of metaphor through empirical (corpus-based and experimental) studies of translators' experiences and strategies in dealing with figurative language in a variety of contexts. Part II explores the universality-relativity dimension of cross- and intercultural metaphor on the basis of empirical data from various European and non-European cultures. Part III investigates the socio-economic and political consequences of figurative language use through case studies of communication between aboriginal and mainstream cultures, in the media, in political discourse and gender-related discourses.
Special attention is paid to cases of miscommunication and of deliberate re- and counter-conceptualisation of clichés from one culture into another. The results open new perspectives on some of the basic assumptions of the 'classic' cognitive paradigm, e.g. regarding metaphor understanding, linguistic relativity and concept-construction.
Broad coverage of semantic, pragmatic and philosophical approaches, providing the reader with a balanced and comprehensive overview of the topic;
Frequent examples to demonstrate how meaning is perceived and manipulated in everyday discourse, including the importance of context, scientific studies of human language, and theories of pragmatics;
Topics of debate and key points of current theories, including references to ongoing controversies in the field;
Annotated further reading, allowing students to explore topics in more detail.
Aimed at undergraduate students with little or no prior knowledge of linguistics, this book is essential reading for those studying this topic for the first time.
This book looks again at this well-known mass-produced image to explore how an image can take on cultural force in diverse parts of the globe and legitimate varying positions and mass action in unexpected global political contexts.
Analytically, the book develops a comparative analysis of how images become attached to a range of meanings that are absolutely inseparable from their contexts of use. Addressing the need for a fluid and responsive approach to the study of visual meaning-making, this book relies on multiple methodologies such as semiotics, research-creation, multimodal discourse analysis, ethnography and phenomenology and shows how each method has something to offer toward the understanding of the social and cultural work of images in our globally oriented cultures.
Paul Friedrich's The Language Parallax argues persuasively that the "locus and focus" of differences among languages lies not so much in practical or rational aspects as in the complexity and richness of more poetic dimensions—in the nuances of words, or the style and voice of an author. This poetic reformulation of what has been called "linguistic relativism" is grounded in the author's theory of the imagination as a main source of poetic indeterminacy. The reformulation is also based on the intimate relation of the concentrated language of poetry to the potential or possibilities for poetry in ordinary conversation, dreams, and other experiences. The author presents challenging thoughts on the order and system of language in their dynamic relation to indeterminacy and, ultimately, disorder and chaos.
Drawing on his considerable fieldwork in anthropology and linguistics, Friedrich interweaves distinct and provocative elements: the poetry of language difference, the indeterminacy in dialects and poetic forms, the discovery of underlying orders, the workings of different languages, the strength of his own poetry. The result is an innovative and organic whole.
The Language Parallax, then, is a highly original work with a single bold thesis. It draws on research and writing that has involved, in particular, English, Russian, and the Tarascan language of Mexico, as well as the personal and literary study of the respective cultures. Anthropologist, linguist, and poet, Friedrich synthesizes from his experience in order to interrelate language variation and structure, the creative individual, ideas of system-in-process, and questions of scientific and aesthetic truth. The result is a new view of language held to the light of its potentially creative nature.
- ritual repetition and the poetics of ritual performance
- magic and the belief in a natural (iconic) language
- Protestant literalism and iconoclasm
- disenchantment and secularization
- Holiness, arbitrariness, and agency
Building from the legacy of structuralism while interrogating several key doctrines of that movement, Semiotics of Religion both introduces the field to a new generation and charts a course for future research.
Professional Discourse gives a broad and multifaceted perspective on discourse in the professions. For each of these professions, the book explores the dual relationship between discourse and context, outlining how professional discourse is continuously reconstructed in relation to changing contextual frameworks.
The case studies discussed in the book are based on authentic texts and spoken data, collected within different environments and related to different domains. The book includes discussion of both theory and methodology, thus providing tools for exercises and future studies. The reader is introduced to a variety of analytical approaches, that of textlinguistics, pragmatics, genre studies, sociolinguistics, interactional sociolinguistics and sociology, psycholinguistics and cognitive psychology.
The book gives theoretically grounded and systematically investigated answers to questions of relevance for advanced learners, practitioners and academic scholars.
This book adopts an eclectic approach to the analysis of discourse, and explores topics such as evaluation, identity and intertextuality as they occur in online reviews of hotels, restaurants, recipes, films and other consumer products.
Comprehensive and accessible, An Introduction to Conversation Analysis is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students in sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, sociology and applied linguistics courses.
Sociolinguistic Metatheory is a book which explains foundational developments in linguistics by taking the past three decades of developments in sociolinguistics and relating them to contemporaneous developments in received linguistics. Sociolinguistic Metatheory takes the reader through the basic philosophical questions which drive linguistic research. It looks in detail at three models of sociolinguistics - Dell Hymes and the Ethnography of Communication, William Labov and Sociolinguistic Realism, and John Gumperz and Interactional Sociolinguistics - and focuses on such questions as: Where is language located? How is an utterance-based approach to linguistics different from a sentence-based approach? How do metatheoretical paradigm assumptions such as realism or relativism affect the development of linguistic theory? What interesting developments in linguistic theory and analysis have sociolinguistics provided?
In That’s Not English, the seemingly superficial differences between British and American English open the door to a deeper exploration of a historic and fascinating cultural divide. In each of the thirty chapters, Erin Moore explains a different word we use that says more about us than we think. For example, "Quite" exposes the tension between English reserve and American enthusiasm; in "Moreish," she addresses our snacking habits. In "Partner," she examines marriage equality; in "Pull," the theme is dating and sex; "Cheers" is about drinking; and "Knackered" covers how we raise our kids. The result is a cultural history in miniature and an expatriate’s survival guide.
American by birth, Moore is a former book editor who specialized in spotting British books—including Eats, Shoots & Leaves—for the US market. She’s spent the last seven years living in England with her Anglo American husband and a small daughter with an English accent. That’s Not English is the perfect companion for modern Anglophiles and the ten million British and American travelers who visit one another’s countries each year.
* dispersion plots
* building and annotating corpora
Illustrated with a number of real-life examples of corpus-based DA from a range of sources and covering a variety of subjects, this is an informative introduction to using corpus linguistics as a methodology in discourse analysis.
Fate, Time, and Language presents Wallace's brilliant critique of Taylor's work. Written long before the publication of his fiction and essays, Wallace's thesis reveals his great skepticism of abstract thinking made to function as a negation of something more genuine and real. He was especially suspicious of certain paradigms of thought-the cerebral aestheticism of modernism, the clever gimmickry of postmodernism-that abandoned "the very old traditional human verities that have to do with spirituality and emotion and community." As Wallace rises to meet the challenge to free will presented by Taylor, we witness the developing perspective of this major novelist, along with his struggle to establish solid logical ground for his convictions. This volume, edited by Steven M. Cahn and Maureen Eckert, reproduces Taylor's original article and other works on fatalism cited by Wallace. James Ryerson's introduction connects Wallace's early philosophical work to the themes and explorations of his later fiction, and Jay Garfield supplies a critical biographical epilogue.
This work presents a provocative theory: that drawings and sequential images are structured the same as language. Building on contemporary theories from linguistics and cognitive psychology, it argues that comics are written in a visual language of sequential images that combines with text. Like spoken and signed languages, visual narratives use a lexicon of systematic patterns stored in memory, strategies for combining these patterns into meaningful units, and a hierarchic grammar governing the combination of sequential images into coherent expressions. Filled with examples and illustrations, this book details each of these levels of structure, explains how cross-cultural differences arise in diverse visual languages of the world, and describes what the newest neuroscience research reveals about the brain's comprehension of visual narratives. From this emerges the foundation for a new line of research within the linguistic and cognitive sciences, raising intriguing questions about the connections between language and the diversity of humans' expressive behaviours in the mind and brain.
• The latest addition to Jan Venolia's Right! series, which has sold more than 600,000 copies.
• With the growing influence of email and other instant communication on the English language, a modern reference is more important than ever.
• Small and portable, this book is easier to carry and to use than some of the larger, bulkier reference works.
• The cover design for WRITE RIGHT! and REWRITE RIGHT! was selected to display in the AIGA (American Institute of Graphic Arts) 50 Books / 50 Covers Exhibition in 2001. The designer for this series (including The Right Word!) is Paul Kepple, director, Headcase Design, Philadelphia, PA.
Brings together, in one volume, influential but difficult to find papers by one of the most important researchers in formal semantics.
Includes a new introductory essay in which Partee reflects on how her research and the field of semantics have developed over the past 35 years.
Discusses critical themes in semantic theory.
This book identifies the interrelations between user text actions and the software environment framing them. It takes a critical perspective on Facebook and develops a model that grants methodological access to complex interlaced practices incorporating media, text and literacies.
It shows Facebook users employing idiosyncratic and Facebook-specific literacy practices, and gives weight to the larger hypothesis of the software service as an ideological setting designed to calculate and standardize human behaviour. Specifically, the book examines text action and automation within Facebook to determine how the software service intervenes in the communicative flow between/among profile owners and profile recipients. This is cutting edge work and of huge importance to modern fields of discourse analysis and computer-mediated communication.