Written by a noted authority in the field, this revised edition of HP's bestselling automotive book-for over 20 years-is a detailed, instructional manual on the theory, technique, equipment, and proper procedures of metal inert gas (MIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding.
Innovation in Global Industries challenges this thinking. The book, a collection of individually authored studies, examines in detail structural changes in the innovation process in 10 service as well as manufacturing industries: personal computers; semiconductors; flat-panel displays; software; lighting; biotechnology; pharmaceuticals; financial services; logistics; and venture capital. There is no doubt that overall there has been an acceleration in global sourcing of innovation and an emergence of new locations of research capacity and advanced technical skills, but the patterns are highly variable. Many industries and some firms in nearly all industries retain leading-edge capacity in the United States. However, the book concludes that is no reason for complacency about the future outlook. Innovation deserves more emphasis in firm performance measures and more sustained support in public policy.
Innovation in Global Industries will be of special interest to business people and government policy makers as well as professors, students, and other researchers of economics, management, international affairs, and political science.
Compiled as a ready reference for inventors, students of mechanics, artisans, and other workers, this volume features only minimal text. Its true value lies in its wealth of illustrated information, offering the quickest and most satisfactory method of conveying the exact conditions of mechanical action and construction.
The initial chapter presents a broad outline of computer-controlled systems, followed by a computer-oriented view based on the behavior of the system at sampling instants. An introduction to the design of control systems leads to a process-related view and coverage of methods of translating analog designs to digital control. Concluding chapters explore implementation issues and advanced design methods.
Comparable in many ways to the Pulitzer Prize–winning book The Soul of a New Machine by Tracy Kidder, Showstopper gets deep inside the process of software development, the lives and motivations of coders and the pressure to succeed coupled with the drive for originality and perfection that can pull a diverse team together to create a program consisting of many hundreds of thousands of lines of code.
"This thoughtful and detailed work outlines what is required inorder to achieve the desired end results in a networked world whereteamwork and collaboration are increasingly important to globallydispersed workforces."
—John Chambers, Chairman and CEO, Cisco
Praise for the Second Edition
"This is a superbly written book and could make an excellentreference and text for related university courses."
—E. Lile Murphree, Jr., PhD, former Chairman,Department of Engineering Management, The George WashingtonUniversity
"Provides a superb exposition of the role that social andpsychological phenomena play in today's organizations."
—Fred E. Fiedler, Professor of Psychology Emeritus,University of Washington, Seattle
As the economy shifts from producing goods to producinginformation, the role of researchers in shaping the future hasbecome immense. By taking advantage of modern technology, thehighly trained and predominantly autonomous researchers from aroundthe globe collect and share information better than ever—yet,there is still a lack of an effective centralized structure for anR&D organization manager to integrate the efforts from manydisparate individuals into a unified plan.
Managing Research, Development, and Innovation, ThirdEdition covers the management skills and leadership theoriesessential to generating products and excelling in today's globaleconomy. Topics of interest include how to design jobs, organizehierarchies, resolve conflicts, motivate employees, and create aninnovative work environment. Discover how superior managementskills can increase funding, generate profit, and improve theeffectiveness of technologically based organizations. This newrevised edition:
Covers all aspects of the research and developmentprocess—with focus on the human management function
Includes two new chapters covering the innovation processcritical to research and development of new products andservices
Outlines the challenging issues related to diversity in scienceand technology organizations and provides insights as to howdiversity can be used to enhance creativity
Managing Research, Development, and Innovation, ThirdEdition is the most complete, insightful book of its kind.Useful for professionals and graduate students alike, the textdemonstrates in clear, straightforward prose how good managementskills will shape the future.
Recognizing the importance of sustainability to its work, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been working to create programs and applications in a variety of areas to better incorporate sustainability into decision-making at the agency. To further strengthen the scientific basis for sustainability as it applies to human health and environmental protection, the EPA asked the National Research Council (NRC) to provide a framework for incorporating sustainability into the EPA's principles and decision-making.
This framework, Sustainability and the U.S. EPA, provides recommendations for a sustainability approach that both incorporates and goes beyond an approach based on assessing and managing the risks posed by pollutants that has largely shaped environmental policy since the 1980s. Although risk-based methods have led to many successes and remain important tools, the report concludes that they are not adequate to address many of the complex problems that put current and future generations at risk, such as depletion of natural resources, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. Moreover, sophisticated tools are increasingly available to address cross-cutting, complex, and challenging issues that go beyond risk management.
The report recommends that EPA formally adopt as its sustainability paradigm the widely used "three pillars" approach, which means considering the environmental, social, and economic impacts of an action or decision. Health should be expressly included in the "social" pillar. EPA should also articulate its vision for sustainability and develop a set of sustainability principles that would underlie all agency policies and programs.
Our Common Journey examines these momentous questions to draw strategic connections between scientific research, technological development, and societies' efforts to achieve environmentally sustainable improvements in human well being. The book argues that societies should approach sustainable development not as a destination but as an ongoing, adaptive learning process. Speaking to the next two generations, it proposes a strategy for using scientific and technical knowledge to better inform future action in the areas of fertility reduction, urban systems, agricultural production, energy and materials use, ecosystem restoration and biodiversity conservation, and suggests an approach for building a new research agenda for sustainability science.
Our Common Journey documents large-scale historical currents of social and environmental change and reviews methods for "what if" analysis of possible future development pathways and their implications for sustainability. The book also identifies the greatest threats to sustainability--in areas such as human settlements, agriculture, industry, and energy--and explores the most promising opportunities for circumventing or mitigating these threats. It goes on to discuss what indicators of change, from children's birth-weights to atmosphere chemistry, will be most useful in monitoring a transition to sustainability.
It provides a complete treatment of best practices in alarm management. The technology and approaches found here provide the opportunity to completely understand the what, the why, and the how of successful alarm systems.
No modern industrial enterprise, particularly in such areas as chemical processing, can operate without a secure and reliable infrastructure of alarms and controls—they are an integral part of all production management and control systems. Improving alarm management is an effective way to provide operators with high-value support and guidance to successfully manage industrial plant operations.Readers will find: Recommendations and guidelines are developed from fundamental concepts to provide powerful technical tools and workable approaches; Alarms are treated as indicators of abnormal situations, not simply sensor readings that might be out of position; Alarm improvement is intimately linked to infrastructure management, including the vital role of plant maintenance to alarm management, the need to manage operators’ charter to continue to operate during abnormal situations vs. cease operation, and the importance of situation awareness without undue reliance upon alarms.
The ability to appreciate technical issues is important, but this book requires no previous specific technical, educational, or experiential background. The style and content are very accessible to a broad industrial audience from board operator to plant manager. All critical tasks are explained with workflow processes, examples, and insight into what it all means. Alternatives are offered everywhere to enable users to tailor-make solutions to their particular sites.
While certain processes have improved or become more efficient, and certain practices have been outlawed or amended, the sheer scale of global consumption and its attendant impacts continue to be major challenges we face in the transition to sustainability. Third-party certification systems have emerged over the last 15 years as a tool with some promise. There has been anecdotal evidence of success, but to date the overall impact of certified goods and services has been small. Moreover, definitions of sustainable vary across sectors and markets, and rigorous assessments of these programs have been few and far between.
In order to take a step in learning from this field of practice, the National Academies' Science and Technology for Sustainability Program held a workshop to illuminate the decision making process of those who purchase and produce certified goods and services. It was also intended to help clarify the scope and limitations of the scientific knowledge that might contribute to the economic success of certified products. The workshop, summarized in this volume, involved presentations and discussions with approximately 40 invited experts from academia, business, government, and nongovernmental organizations.
Key Features & Benefits
Teaches safe & effective size-up techniques for shoring operations
Detailed shoring construction
Outlines the risks involved in stabilization
Suitable for all firefighters, military, and construction personnel, as well as urban search and rescue teams Finally, a complete resource on shoring and stabilization of emergency scenes. This new book takes the reader step-by-step through the basic principles of emergency shoring operations so they may learn to operate in a safe and efficient atmosphere while conducting search and rescue operations in unstable environments. O'Connell thoroughly covers the engineering aspects involved in shoring and stabilization, carefully explaining how to maintain the strength and integrity of any and all structurally damaged or unstable elements such as beams, joists, girders, columns, arches, headers, or bearing walls. This book includes a glossary and covers the basic terminology and instructions for shoring.
Key Features & Benefits
Teaches safe & effective size-up techniques for shoring operations
Detailed shoring construction
Outlines the risks involved in stabilization
Suitable for all firefighters, military, and construction personnel, as well as urban search and rescue teams
Linear programming is an extremely effective problem-solving tool, with applications in business, agriculture, government, manufacturing, transportation, engineering, and many other areas. This very readable book presents an elementary introduction to linear programming in a refreshing, often humorous style.
Requiring no math beyond high-school algebra, the book shows how linear programming can help anyone reach the optimum solution for a host of diverse problems. Chapter One introduces the basic concepts of linear programming and discusses its relationship to other mathematical models. Chapter Two discusses the formulation of linear-programming problems, including detailed treatment of problems involving diet, catering, assignment, and activity analysis. Chapter Three briefly introduces solution techniques for linear-programming problems, emphasizing the graphical approach. The final chapter describes and formulates a number of important applications, including network problems, traveling-salesman problems and the relationship between linear programming and the theory of games.
Finally, a useful appendix offers precise statements of definitions, theorems and techniques, as well as additional computational procedures. Enlivened with over 70 excellent illustrations, this book represents a very accessible introduction to basic linear programming.
The book is far from complete and we will update it regularly with new content.
At the request of the U.S. Department of Education, the National Research Council convened a committee of experts from many disciplines to synthesize research on literacy and learning in order to improve instruction for those served in adult education in the U.S. The committee's report, Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Options for Practice and Research, recommends a program of research and innovation to gain a better understanding of adult literacy learners, improve instruction, and create the supports adults need for learning and achievement.
Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Developing Reading and Writing, which is based on the report, presents an overview of what is known about how literacy develops the component skills of reading and writing, and the practices that are effective for developing them. It also describes principles of reading and writing instruction that can guide those who design and administer programs or courses to improve adult literacy skills. Although this is not intended as a "how to" manual for instructors, teachers may also find the information presented here to be helpful as they plan and deliver instruction.
Organized around seven elements—firm strategy, technology, investment, supply networks, production, markets, and government—Theyel’s framework provides inventors, managers, investors, scholars, and policymakers with a comprehensive understanding of how industries emerge, helping them to be more successful at influencing the birth and growth of new industries. Understanding industry emergence is important because new industries can offer the advancement of technology, improvements in human health and the environment, growth of firms, creation of jobs, and economic development.
With learning objectives, theory, tools, case studies, and end-of-chapter questions, Industry Emergence will be a useful resource for students and professionals in engineering, science, business, and policy.
Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade provides a comprehensive, up-to-date analysis of the link between standards, product testing and certification, and U.S. economic performance. The book includes recommendations for streamlining standards development, increasing the efficiency of product testing and certification, and promoting the success of U.S. exports in world markets.
The volume offers a critical examination of organizations involved in standards and identifies the urgent improvements needed in the U.S. system for conformity assessment, in which adherence to standards is assessed and certified. Among other key issues, the book explores the role of government regulation, laboratory accreditation, and the overlapping of multiple quality standards in product development and manufacturing.
In one of the first treatments of this subject, Standards, Conformity Assessment, and Trade offers a unique and highly valuable analysis of the impact of standards and conformity assessment on global trade.
As the last several decades have seen a dramatic rise in the application of LCA in decision making, the interest in the life cycle concept as an environmental management and sustainability tool continues to grow. The LCA Student Handbook offers a look at the role that life cycle information, in the hands of companies, governments and consumers, may have in improving the environmental performance of products and technologies. It concisely and clearly presents the various aspects of LCA in order to help the reader better understand the subject.
The international success of the sustainability paradigm needs the participation of many stakeholders, including citizens, corporations, academia, and NGOs. The handbook links LCA and responsible decision making and how the life cycle concept is a critical element in environmental sustainability. It covers issues such as building capacity in developing countries and emerging economies so that they are more capable of harnessing the potential in LCA for sustainable development. Governments play a very important role with the leverage they have through procurement, regulation, international treaties, tax incentives, public outreach, and other policy tools. This compilation of points to the clear trend for incorporating life cycle information into the design and development processes for products and policies, just as quality and safety concerns are now addressed throughout product design and development.The Life Cycle Assessment Student Handbook is not just for students. It is also a valuable resource for practitioners looking for a desktop reference on LCA or for any engineer, manager, or policy-maker wishing to learn about LCA.
Weaving a dramatic narrative that explains how breakdowns in these systems result in such disasters as the chain reaction crash of the Air France Concorde to the meltdown at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, Chiles vividly demonstrates how the battle between man and machine may be escalating beyond manageable limits -- and why we all have a stake in its outcome.
Included in this edition is a special introduction providing a behind-the-scenes look at the World Trade Center catastrophe. Combining firsthand accounts of employees' escapes with an in-depth look at the structural reasons behind the towers' collapse, Chiles addresses the question, Were the towers "two tall heroes" or structures with a fatal flaw?
The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs.
While this book provides an essential call-to-action for congress and policy makers, it also serves as a vital tool for law enforcement agencies, criminal prosecutors and attorneys, and forensic science educators.
Identifying the Culprit makes the case that better data collection and research on eyewitness identification, new law enforcement training protocols, standardized procedures for administering line-ups, and improvements in the handling of eyewitness identification in court can increase the chances that accurate identifications are made. This report explains the science that has emerged during the past 30 years on eyewitness identifications and identifies best practices in eyewitness procedures for the law enforcement community and in the presentation of eyewitness evidence in the courtroom. In order to continue the advancement of eyewitness identification research, the report recommends a focused research agenda.
Identifying the Culprit will be an essential resource to assist the law enforcement and legal communities as they seek to understand the value and the limitations of eyewitness identification and make improvements to procedures.
Capturing Change in Science, Technology, and Innovation assesses and provides recommendations regarding the need for revised, refocused, and newly developed indicators of STI activities that would enable NCSES to respond to changing policy concerns. This report also identifies and assesses both existing and potential data resources and tools that NCSES could exploit to further develop its indicators program. Finally, the report considers strategic pathways for NCSES to move forward with an improved STI indicators program. The recommendations offered in Capturing Change in Science, Technology, and Innovation are intended to serve as the basis for a strategic program of work that will enhance NCSES's ability to produce indicators that capture change in science, technology, and innovation to inform policy and optimally meet the needs of its user community.
Systems Engineering Management, Fifth Edition is a practical guide to the tools and methodologies used in the field. Using a "total systems management" approach, this book covers everything from initial establishment to system retirement, including design and development, testing, production, operations, maintenance, and support. This new edition has been fully updated to reflect the latest tools and best practices, and includes rich discussion on computer-based modeling and hardware and software systems integration. New case studies illustrate real-world application on both large- and small-scale systems in a variety of industries, and the companion website provides access to bonus case studies and helpful review checklists. The provided instructor's manual eases classroom integration, and updated end-of-chapter questions help reinforce the material. The challenges faced by system engineers are candidly addressed, with full guidance toward the tools they use daily to reduce costs and increase efficiency.
System Engineering Management integrates industrial engineering, project management, and leadership skills into a unique emerging field. This book unifies these different skill sets into a single step-by-step approach that produces a well-rounded systems engineering management framework.Learn the total systems lifecycle with real-world applicationsExplore cutting edge design methods and technologyIntegrate software and hardware systems for total SEMLearn the critical IT principles that lead to robust systems
Successful systems engineering managers must be capable of leading teams to produce systems that are robust, high-quality, supportable, cost effective, and responsive. Skilled, knowledgeable professionals are in demand across engineering fields, but also in industries as diverse as healthcare and communications. Systems Engineering Management, Fifth Edition provides practical, invaluable guidance for a nuanced field.
Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of materials information in engineering design and manufacture. This text then explains how computerized CAD/CAM systems change the ways in which this information has been effectively used. Other chapters consider the organizational and technical aspects of data interchange in general. This book discusses as well the requirements in representing materials information in databases. The final chapter deals with integrated design environments with respects to their capabilities for utilizing materials information.
This book is intended to be suitable for anyone who is planning the construction, management, or use of any kind of engineering materials property information system.
These changes will have a potentially enormous impact for the U.S. national security policy, which for the past half century was premised on U.S. economic and technological dominance. As the U.S. monopoly on talent and innovation wanes, arms export regulations and restrictions on visas for foreign S&T workers are becoming less useful as security strategies. The acute level of S&T competition among leading countries in the world today suggests that countries that fail to exploit new technologies or that lose the capability for proprietary use of their own new technologies will find their existing industries uncompetitive or obsolete. The increased access to information has transformed the 1950s' paradigm of "control and isolation" of information for innovation control into the current one of "engagement and partnerships" between innovators for innovation creation. Current and future strategies for S&T development need to be considered in light of these new realities.
This book analyzes the S&T strategies of Japan, Brazil, Russia, India, China, and Singapore (JBRICS), six countries that have either undergone or are undergoing remarkable growth in their S&T capabilities for the purpose of identifying unique national features and how they are utilized in the evolving global S&T environment.
Jim Kirkpatrick, PhD
Senior Consultant, Kirkpatrick Partners, USA
Daniel Bixby’s approach to Product Training for technical experts is practical, relevant and exactly what anyone who is required to train others on technical content really needs. He writes with candor and with a sense of ease, making the reader feel as though he is right there with you helping to develop your training competency. A must read for anyone on your team required to provide technical training to others!
Chief Human Resources Officer, USA
An expert guide to developing and delivering technical product training programs
While there are many books on talent development, leadership training, and internal training program development, there are precious few offering subject matter experts (SME’s) guidance on training others to get the most out of their products. Written by a training expert with many years of experience working at top technology companies, Product Training for the Technical Expert fills that yawning gap in the training literature by providing technical experts with a comprehensive handbook on becoming effective product training instructors.
When new technology is rapidly transformed into products for popular consumption, technical experts, such as engineers, and other subject matter experts, are the ones tasked with instructing the public on their use. Unfortunately, most them have little or no prior experience or training in adult education and don’t have a clue about how to transfer their knowledge to others. In this book, author Daniel W. Bixby draws upon his vast experience developing and delivering training programs at Honeywell, Delphax, Telex, Bosch, and TE Connectivity, among other technology companies, to arm SMEs with the knowledge and skills they need to add “Product Training Specialist” to their resumes.Addresses an area of training too often overlooked and ignored in the professional literature Equips SMEs with the tools they need to become effective product instructors Covers both the educational and business aspects of product training for SMEs Packed with tables, illustrations, problem-and-solution sets, tutorials, enlightening real-world examples, worksheets, and group or self-study questions Features a companion website with worksheets and other valuable tools: www.wiley.com/go/bixbycert A must-have professional development resource for students and experienced technical experts alike
Product Training for the Technical Expert is an ideal guide forengineers, product managers, product marketing managers, and technical instructors looking to expand their repertoires and hone their skills. It also makes an excellent course text for graduate-level engineering programs.
In the past two decades, China and India have liberalized internal economic policy, treatment of foreign investment, and trade, and have experienced economic growth at sustained high rates. From the point of view of the United States, however, the most important development in the Chinese and Indian economies in the long term may be the strides they are making in developing their own domestic innovation capacities. After a long period of underinvestment, both countries have committed to growing their science and education systems to bolster research and further economic expansion.
Some observers of the recent growth have said that both countries are surging in their efforts to spur innovation; others have emphasized the potential of one country over the other; and still others have suggested that both China and India have a long way to go before achieving innovation-driven growth. With such a range of views, The National Academies set out to describe developments in both countries, in relation to each other and the rest of the world, by organizing a conference in Washington, D.C. The conference, summarized in this volume, discussed recent changes at both the macroeconomic level and also in selected industries, and explored the causes and implications of those changes.
Strengthening American Manufacturing: The Role of the Manufacturing Extension Partnership is the summary of a symposium convened to review current operations and some of the recent MEP initiatives in the broader context of global manufacturing trends and the opportunities for high-value manufacturing companies. Business leaders, academic experts, and state and federal officials addressed the metrics and impacts of MEP and identified potential areas of improvement. The meeting drew attention to the scale and focuses of MEP, and highlighted the role it plays in supporting and enabling U.S. manufacturers to compete more effectively in the global marketplace. This report includes an overview of key issues raised at this workshop and a detailed summary of the conference presentations.
SBIR at the Department of Defense considers ways that the Department of Defense SBIR program could work better in addressing the congressional objectives for the SBIR program to stimulate technological innovation, use small businesses to meet federal research and development (R & D) needs, foster and encourage the participation of socially and economically disadvantaged small businesses, and increase the private sector commercialization of innovations derived from federal R&D. An earlier report, An Assessment of the Small Business Innovation Research Program at the Department of Defense, studied how the SBIR program has stimulated technological innovation and used small businesses to meet federal research and development needs. This report builds on the previous one, with a revised survey of SBIR companies. SBIR at the Department of Defense revisits some case studies from the 2009 study and develops new ones, and interviews agency managers and other stakeholders to provide a second snapshot of the program's progress toward achieving its legislative goals.
Low emission open-top vapor degreasers, enclosed machines of the vacuum and pressurized type, cosolvent machines, and adsorption of "tailpipe emissions" are covered in detail and fully illustrated in color. This unique book covers material known by designers and manufacturers of solvent cleaning machines, but not collected and organized for the benefit of users.
The comprehensive coverage provided by John Durkee makes this book relevant and timely not only for readers who wish to know more about how solvent cleaning equipment works but also those who are under pressure from environmental regulators or corporate management to find effective alternatives and those engaged in non-solvent cleaning operations who are unsatisfied with their cleaning results.Clear, straightforward explanations of how various types of cleaning solvents should be managed to clean partsFull-color, hand-drawn illustrations and photographs of the important internal sections of solvent cleaning machinesDesign calculations of operating parameters in solvent cleaning machines
Flexible electronics refers to technologies that enable flexibility in the manufacturing process as well as flexibility as a characteristic of the final product. Features such as unconventional forms and ease of manufacturability provide important advantages for flexible electronics over conventional electronics built on rigid substrates. Today, examples of flexible electronics technologies are found in flexible flat-panel displays, medical image sensors, photovoltaic sheets, and electronic paper. Some industry experts predict that the market for global flexible electronics will experience a double digit growth rate, reaching $250 billion by 2025, but most experts believe that the United States is not currently poised to capitalize on this opportunity. Flexible Electronics for Security, Manufacturing, and Growth in the United States examines and compares selected innovation programs, both foreign and domestic, and their potential to advance the production of flexible electronics technology.
Enhancing Organizational Performance reviews the most popular current approaches to organizational change--total quality management, reengineering, and downsizing--in terms of how they affect organizations and people, how performance improvements can be measured, and what questions remain to be answered by researchers.
The committee explores how theory, doctrine, accepted wisdom, and personal experience have all served as sources for organization design. Alternative organization structures such as teams, specialist networks, associations, and virtual organizations are examined.
Enhancing Organizational Performance looks at the influence of the organization's norms, values, and beliefs--its culture--on people and their performance, identifying cultural "levers" available to organization leaders. And what is leadership? The committee sorts through a wealth of research to identify behaviors and skills related to leadership effectiveness. The volume examines techniques for developing these skills and suggests new competencies that will become required with globalization and other trends.
Mergers, networks, alliances, coalitions--organizations are increasingly turning to new intra- and inter-organizational structures. Enhancing Organizational Performance discusses how organizations cooperate to maximize outcomes.
The committee explores the changing missions of the U.S. Army as a case study that has relevance to any organization. Noting that a musical greeting card contains more computing power than existed in the entire world before 1950, the committee addresses the impact of new technologies on performance.
With examples, insights, and practical criteria, Enhancing Organizational Performance clarifies the nature of organizations and the prospects for performance improvement.
This book will be important to corporate leaders, executives, and managers; faculty and students in organizational performance and the social sciences; business journalists; researchers; and interested individuals.
Industrialization created cities of Dickensian squalor that were crowded, smoky, dirty, and disease-ridden. By the beginning of the twentieth century, urban visionaries were looking for ways to improve both living and working conditions in industrial cities. In Invented Edens, Robert Kargon and Arthur Molella trace the arc of one form of urban design, which they term the techno-city: a planned city developed in conjunction with large industrial or technological enterprises, blending the technological and the pastoral, the mill town and the garden city. Techno-cities of the twentieth century range from factory towns in Mussolini's Italy to the Disney creation of Celebration, Florida.
Kargon and Molella show that the techno-city represents an experiment in integrating modern technology into the world of ideal life. Techno-cities mirror society's understanding of current technologies, and at the same time seek to regain the lost virtues of the edenic pre-industrial village. The idea of the techno-city transcended ideologies, crossed national borders, and spanned the entire twentieth century. Kargon and Molella map the concept through a series of exemplars. These include Norris, Tennessee, home to the Tennessee Valley Authority; Torviscosa, Italy, built by Italy's Fascist government to accommodate synthetic textile manufacturing (and featured in an early short by Michelangelo Antonioni); Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela, planned by a team from MIT and Harvard; and, finally, Disney's Celebration—perhaps the ultimate techno-city, a fantasy city reflecting an era in which virtual experiences are rapidly replacing actual ones.