Gas-Liquid And Liquid-Liquid Separators is divided into six parts: Part one and two covers fundamentals such as: physical properties, phase behaviour and calculations. Part three through five is dedicated to topics such as: separator construction, factors affecting separation, vessel operation, and separator operation considerations. Part six is devoted to the ASME codes governing wall thickness determination of vessel weight fabrication, inspection, alteration and repair of separators500 illustrationsEasy to understand calculations methodsGuide for protecting downstream equipmentHelps reduce the loss of expensive intermediate endsHelps increase product purity
Designed for those new to FTIR, but with enough reference material to appeal to journeyman and expert spectroscopists, this book does not demand any extensive familiarity with chemistry or physics. Specializing in concise and comprehensible explanations of FTIR topics, the author introduces the field of infrared spectroscopy, including the strengths and weaknesses of FTIR as a chemical analysis technique. He then describes the instrument itself and explores topics such as how an interferometer generates a spectrum, optimization of spectral quality, and which tests are used to monitor instrument health.
The book discusses how to properly use spectral processing to increase the information of a spectrum without damaging the data and takes considerable care in instructing on sample preparation, as good sample preparation constitutes half the battle in extracting good data. The final chapters examine single analyte quantitative analysis and conclude with an overview of infrared microscopy.
Drawing on the experience and knowledge of the author as both a professor and practitioner, Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy offers up-to-date information given in clear, easily understood language to appeal to beginner and expert spectroscopists alike. The author maintains a website and blog with supplemental material. His training course schedule is also available online.
Divided into five chapters, the book starts by giving an introduction to the discovery of active nitrogen, the energy content, and the methods by which this may be produced. The succeeding part deals with light emissions from active nitrogen system. This discussion includes molecular spectrum of nitrogen, emission from atomic energy and condensed active nitrogen, emission from molecular species with electronic energy levels below and above 9.76 eV, and light-emitting systems of active nitrogen.
The next part focuses on theories on active nitrogen. The theories discussed are long-lived Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow and short-lived, energetic afterglows. Numerical representations are provided to test the validity of the theories. Lastly, the discussions end with chemical reactions of active nitrogen. Topics contained in this part are text on recombination of N(4S) atoms; rate constants for reactions presumably induced by direct N(4S) attack; reactions caused by excited nitrogen molecular attack; and mechanism for reactions of active nitrogen that seem to influence direct N(4S) attack.
The book is a valuable source of information for readers interested in the research on active nitrogen.
Since the publication of the highly successful first edition of Basic Gas Chromatography, the practice of chromatography has undergone several notable developments. Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Edition covers the latest in the field, giving readers the most up-to-date guide available, while maintaining the first edition's practical, applied approach to the subject and its accessibility to a wide range of readers.
The text provides comprehensive coverage of basic topics in the field, such as stationary phases, packed columns and inlets, capillary columns and inlets, detectors, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the same time, the coverage also features key additions and updated topics including:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Sampling methods Multidimensional gas chromatography Fast gas chromatography Gas chromatography analysis of nonvolatile compounds Inverse gas chromatography and pyrolysis gas chromatography
Along with these new and updated topics, the references, resources, and Web sites in Basic Gas Chromatography have been revised to reflect the state of the field. Concise and fundamental in its coverage, Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Edition remains the standard handbook for everyone from undergraduates studying analytical chemistry to working industrial chemists.
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
* Includes a solid introduction to the simulation of equilibrium processes and the simulation of complex kinetic processes.
* Provides examples of routines that are easily adapted to the processes investigated by the reader
* 'Model-based' analysis (linear and non-linear regression) and 'model-free' analysis are covered
This book is an easy-to-use compendium of problems encountered when using various commonly used analytical techniques. Emphasis is on impurities, by-products, contaminants and other artifacts. A separate entry is provided for each artifact. For specific chemicals, this entry provides the common name, mass spectrum, gas chromatographic data, CAS name and registry number, synonyms and a narrative discussion. More than 1100 entries are included. Mass spectral data are indexed in a 6-peak index (molecular ion, base peak, second peak, third peak) and there are also formula, author and subject indexes. An extensive bibliography contains complete literature citations.
The book is designed to be used. It will not only allow experienced analysts to profit from the mistakes of others, but it will also be invaluable to other scientists who use analytical instruments in their work.
Searching for the best laboratory instruments and systems can be a daunting and expensive task. A poorly selected instrument can dramatically affect results produced and indirectly affect research papers, the quality of student training, and an investigator's chances for advancement. Buying and Selling Laboratory Instruments offers the valuable insights of an analytical chemist and consultant with over four decades of experience in locating instruments based upon both need and price. It helps all decision makers find the best equipment, service, and support while avoiding the brand-loyalty bias of sales representatives so you can fully meet your laboratory's requirements.
The first section of the book guides buyers through the hurdles of funding, purchasing, and acquiring best-fit instruments at the least-expensive price. It explains how to find vendors that support their customers with both knowledgeable service and application support. Also offered is guidance on adapting your existing instruments to new applications, integrating new equipment, and what to do with instruments that can no longer serve in research mode.
The second section explains the sales process in detail. This is provided both as a warning against manipulative sales reps and as a guide to making the sale a win-win process for you and your vendor. It also shows you how to select a knowledgeable technical guru to help determine the exact system configuration you need and where to find the best price for it. Added bonuses are summary figures of buying sequence and sales tools and an appendix containing frequently asked questions and memory aids.
Buying and Selling Laboratory Instruments is for people directly involved in selecting and buying instruments for operational laboratories, from the principle investigator to the person actually delegated with investigating and selecting the system to be acquired. Sales representatives; laboratory managers; universities; pharmaceutical, biotech, and forensic research firms; corporate laboratories; graduate and postdoctoral students; and principle investigators will not want to be without this indispensible guide.
Designed to be completed in one semester, this text enables students to fully grasp and apply the core concepts of analytical chemistry and aqueous chemical equilibria. Moreover, the text enables readers to master common instrumental methods to perform a broad range of quantitative analyses. Author Brian Tissue has written and structured the text so that readers progressively build their knowledge, beginning with the most fundamental concepts and then continually applying these concepts as they advance to more sophisticated theories and applications.
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is clearly written and easy to follow, with plenty of examples to help readers better understand both concepts and applications. In addition, there are several pedagogical features that enhance the learning experience, including:Emphasis on correct IUPAC terminology "You-Try-It" spreadsheets throughout the text, challenging readers to apply their newfound knowledge and skills Online tutorials to build readers' skills and assist them in working with the text's spreadsheets Links to analytical methods and instrument suppliers Figures illustrating principles of analytical chemistry and chemical equilibria End-of-chapter exercises
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is written for undergraduate students who have completed a basic course in general chemistry. In addition to chemistry students, this text provides an essential foundation in analytical chemistry needed by students and practitioners in biochemistry, environmental science, chemical engineering, materials science, nutrition, agriculture, and the life sciences.
This book guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use telescopes (from small amateur models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and to observe objects in the sky. Mathematics to around Advanced Placement standard (US) or A level (UK) is assumed, although High School Diploma (US) or GCSE-level (UK) mathematics plus some basic trigonometry will suffice most of the time. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires no prior knowledge or experience.
This is a ‘how to’ book that provides the knowledge and background required to understand how and why telescopes work. Equipped with the techniques discussed in this book, the observer will be able to operate with confidence his or her telescope and to optimize its performance for a particular purpose. In principle the observer could calculate his or her own predictions of planetary positions (ephemerides), but more realistically the observer will be able to understand the published data lists properly instead of just treating them as ‘recipes.’ When the observer has obtained measurements, he/she will be able to analyze them in a scientific manner and to understand the significance and meaning of the results.
“Telescopes and Techniques, 3rd Edition” fills a niche at the start of an undergraduate astronomer’s university studies, as shown by it having been widely adopted as a set textbook. This third edition is now needed to update its material with the many new observing developments and study areas that have come into prominence since it was published. The book concentrates on the knowledge needed to understand how small(ish) optical telescopes function, their main designs and how to set them up, plus introducing the reader to the many ways in which objects in the sky change their positions and how they may be observed. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the most advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable the reader to see some of the developments possible from the basic observing techniques covered in the main parts of the book.
CMOS Processors and Memories is divided into two parts: processors and memories. In the first part we start with high performance, low power processor design, followed by a chapter on multi-core processing. They both represent state-of-the-art concepts in current computing industry. The third chapter deals with asynchronous design that still carries lots of promise for future computing needs. At the end we present a “hardware design space exploration” methodology for implementing and analyzing the hardware for the Bayesian inference framework. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational cost and exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology CMOL. The first part concludes with hybrid CMOS-Nano architectures.
The second, memory part covers state-of-the-art SRAM, DRAM, and flash memories as well as emerging device concepts. Semiconductor memory is a good example of the full custom design that applies various analog and logic circuits to utilize the memory cell’s device physics. Critical physical effects that include tunneling, hot electron injection, charge trapping (Flash memory) are discussed in detail. Emerging memories like FRAM, PRAM and ReRAM that depend on magnetization, electron spin alignment, ferroelectric effect, built-in potential well, quantum effects, and thermal melting are also described.
CMOS Processors and Memories is a must for anyone serious about circuit design for future computing technologies. The book is written by top notch international experts in industry and academia. It can be used in graduate course curriculum.
Why This Title
This title is written in a clear and logical manner that is accessible to environmental professionals of all disciplines. It contains hundreds of practical tips on planning, sampling, and interactions with analytical laboratories. Having this text as a desk reference will greatly improve skills in planning and sampling, and elevate understanding of chemical data to a new level.
This topic is of importance to a wide range of environmental professionals from a variety of disciplines (see audience). Written by a practicing professional for practicing professionals, this handbook provides everything an environmental professional needs to know to competently collect environmental chemical data.
Volume I focuses on physics and mechanics of micro- and opto-electronic structures and systems, i.e., on the science underpinnings of engineering methods and approaches used in microelectronics and photonics. Volume II deals with various practical aspects of reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic systems. Internationally recognized experts and world leaders in particular areas of this branch of applied science and engineering contributed to the book.
The section regarding GC Conditions, Derivatization, and Mass Spectral Interpretation of Specific Compound Types has the same number of compound types as the original edition, but the information in each section has been expanded to not only explain some of the spectra but to also explain why certain fragmentations take place. The number of Appendices has been increased from 12 to 17. The Appendix on Atomic Masses and Isotope Abundances has been expanded to provide tools to aid in determination of elemental composition from isotope peak intensity ratios. An appendix with examples on "Steps to follow in the determination of elemental compositions based on isotope peak intensities" has been added. Appendices on whether to use GC/MS or LC/MS, third-party software for use in data analysis, list of information required in reporting GC/MS data, X+1 and X+2 peak relative intensities based on the number of atoms of carbon in an ion, and list of available EI mass spectral databases have been added. Others such as the ones on derivatization, isotope peak patterns for ions with Cl and/or Br, terms used in GC and in mass spectrometry, and tips on setting up, maintaining and troubleshooting a GC/MS system have all been expanded and updated.Covers the practical instruction necessary for successful operation of GC/MS equipmentReviews the latest advances in instrumentation, ionization methods, and quantitationIncludes troubleshooting techniques and a variety of additional information useful for the GC/MS practitionerA true benchtop referenceA guide to a basic understanding of the components of a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS)Quick References to data interpretationReady source for information on new analyses
The characteristics of the given chromatographic procedure, relating to the topic in question, are classified according to the preliminary preparation/derivatization process(es), which means the simple methods, suitable for the analysis of the selected compound(s) in natural form, are followed by various derivatization proposals. Detailed protocols provide the reader with guidance in beginning tasks and on how to improve current methods. This book appeals to a wide audience and is recommended for those looking towards the wider reaches of identification and quantification of amino acids and amines.
* Provides a systematic, and comprehensive summary of chromatographic techniques and derivatization processes
* Compares advantages/disadvantages of various chromatographic techniques
* Readers can undertake practical tasks using detailed protocols given in the book
This comprehensive overview is mainly written for the practical analyst in the clinical laboratory but it is equally suited for teaching purposes.
On the threshold of the new millennium when plasma emission and mass spectrometry are so important and popular, the editor considered it timely to produce a book which covers all present atomic detectors and techniques where FA has been or can be advantageously employed. The book has been conceived in three separate parts: Part I gives the fundamental, instrumentation and potential of FIA as a most versatile sample presentation/introduction system for atomic spectrometry. Part II provides a modern account of fundamentals, possibilities and applications offered by flow analysis to atomic spectrometry for on-line sample pretreatments, separations and preconcentrations. Part III deals with applications of FA-ASD combinations to analytical problem-solving in most varied fields and situations.
This monograph integrates the most popular aspects of FIA, its new developments for sample on-line treatments and on-line non-chromatographic and chromatographic separations (all typical 'flow analysis') in connection with all branches of analytical atomic spectrometry. Thus, academics, researchers and routine users of analytical atomic spectrometry will find this book invaluable.
Medical Applications of Mass Spectrometry addresses the key issues in the medical applications of mass spectrometry at the level appropriate for the intended readership. It will go a long way to help the utilization of mass spectrometry in medicine.
The book comprises five parts. A general overview is followed by a description of the basic sampling and separation methods in analytical chemistry. In the second part a solid foundation in mass spectrometry and modern techniques of data analysis is presented. The third part explains how mass spectrometry is used in exploring various classes of biomolecules, including proteins and lipids. In the fourth section mass spectrometry is introduced as a diagnostic tool in clinical treatment, infectious pathogen research, neonatal diagnostics, cancer, brain and allergy research, as well as in various fields of medicine: cardiology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatric diseases, hemato-oncology, urologic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, gynecology and pediatrics. The fifth part covers emerging applications in biomarker discovery and in mass spectrometric imaging.
* Provides a broad look at how the medical field is benefiting from advances in mass spectrometry.
* Guides the reader from basic principles and methods to cutting edge applications.
* There is NO comparable book on the market to fill this fast growing field.
This book covers the basic principles of method development in GC- and LC-TOF-MS as well as the main operational parameters related to TOF-MS. The second part focuses on the relevant environmental applications, including quality control aspects as well as data collection. The third part is devoted to relevant applications in food analysis, including validation procedures for screening analysis as well as relevant databases.Outlines basic concepts and principles of gas and liquid chromatography TOF-MS and its application in food analysisIncludes quality control and data collection techniquesFocuses on environmental implications and safety concerns
In Separation, Preconcentration and Spectrophotometry in Inorganic Analysis, much attention has been paid to separation and preconcentration methods, since they play an essential role in increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of spectrophotometric methods. Separation and preconcentration methods have also been utilised in other determination techniques.
Spectrophotometric methods which are widely used for the determination of the elements in a large variety of inorganic materials are presented in the book whilst separation and preconcentration procedures combined with spectrophotometry are also described.
This book contains recent advances in spectrophotometry, detailed discussion of the instrumentation, and the techniques and reagents used for spectrophotometric determination of elements in a wide range of materials as well as a detailed discussion of separation and preconcentration procedures that precede the spectrophotometric detection.
Analytical chemists, technicians, and scientists in allied disciplines have come to regard Modern Practice of Gas Chomatography as the standard reference in gas chromatography. In addition to serving as an invaluable reference for the experienced practitioner, this bestselling work provides the beginner with a solid understanding of gas chromatographic theory and basic techniques.
This new Fourth Edition incorporates the most recent developments in the field, including entirely new chapters on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); optimization of separations and computer assistance; high speed or fast gas chromatography; mobile phase requirements: gas system requirements and sample preparation techniques; qualitative and quantitative analysis by GC; updated information on detectors; validation and QA/QC of chromatographic methods; and useful hints for good gas chromatography.
As in previous editions, contributing authors have been chosen for their expertise and active participation in their respective areas. Modern Practice of Gas Chromatography, Fourth Edition presents a well-rounded and comprehensive overview of the current state of this important technology, providing a practical reference that will greatly appeal to both experienced chomatographers and novices.
This book summarizes the major advances and relevant applications of GC-MS techniques over the last 10 years, with chapters by leading authors in the field of environmental chemistry. The authors are drawn from academia, industry and government.
The book is organized in three main parts. Part I covers applications of basic GC-MS to solve environmental-related problems. Part II focuses on GC-MS-MS instrumentation for the analyses of a broad range of analysis in environmental samples (pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors, etc.). Part III covers the use of more advanced GC-MS techniques using low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry for many applications related to the environment, food and industry.Summarizes the major advances of GC-MS techniques in the last decadePresents relevant applications of GC-MS techniquesCovers academic, industrial and governmental sectors
Pharmaceutical applications of Raman spectroscopy have developed similarly and this book will focus on those applications. Carefully organized with an emphasis on industry issues, Pharmaceutical Applications of Raman Spectroscopy, provides the basic theory of Raman effect and instrumentation, and then addresses a wide range of pharmaceutical applications. Current applications that are routinely used as well as those with promising potential are covered. Applications cover a broad range from discovery to manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry and include identifying polymorphs, monitoring real-time processes, imaging solid dosage formulations, imaging active pharmaceutical ingredients in cells, and diagnostics.
Chapter 1 covers some of the general principles and experiments that have been used in the recording and interpretation of crystal spectra of molecules that contain transition-metal ions. Chapter 2 illustrates the application of spectroscopic techniques to the photochemistry of small inorganic molecules, non-transition-metal compounds, and transition-metal complexes. The remaining chapters examine several spectroscopic methods, such as matrix isolation, mass, soft X-ray, and Mössbauer spectroscopies, high-resolution NMR, and nuclear quadrupole resonance, with a particular emphasis on their effective application in inorganic chemistry studies.
This book will be of great benefit to inorganic chemists, spectroscopists, and inorganic chemistry teachers and students.
Presenting nearly 50% new and revised material, this thoroughly updated edition incorporates the latest advances in instrumentation, computerization, calibration, and method development in NIR spectroscopy. The book underscores current trends in sample preparation, calibration transfer, process control, data analysis, and commercial NIR instrumentation. New chapters highlight novel applications including the analysis of agro-forestry products, polymers, blood, and control serum. They also cover NIR spectra, process analytical technologies (PAT), quantitative and qualitative analyses for nutraceuticals, NIR photography uses in medicine, and counterfeit detection methods for pharmaceuticals and currency.
Offering the most complete single-source guide of its kind, the Handbook of Near Infrared Analysis, Third Edition continues to offer practicing chemists and spectroscopists an unparalleled combination of theoretical foundations, cutting-edge applications, and practical experience provided firsthand by more than 60 experts in the field.
Comparative studies on the charge dynamics and Mott transition features of transition-metal oxides were performed: Charge dynamics and thermoelectricity in a typical Mott transition system La1−xSrxVO3, charge dynamics in a doped valence-bond solid system (Ti1−xVx)2O3 and in layered nickelates R2-xSrxNiO4 with charge-ordering instability are investigated thoroughly. The results obtained successfully provide a number of novel insights into the emergent phenomena near the Mott transition.
The book begins with the core principles of gas chromatography and its specific uses with MS detectors. It discusses generalities of mass spectrometry, including the various types of MS detectors and insight into the vacuum necessary for efficient operation. Chapters cover the types of analyzers used in GC-MS and their functioning principles, with a focus on the commonly used quadrupolar analyzers, as well as the implementation, advantages, and limits of various modes of acquisition in GC-MS. The text also compares performance and limitations of quadrupolar analyzers.
The author includes a full chapter on quantification using GC-MS, a topic that can be puzzling for many chemists. Encouraging a critical approach to databases, he compares laboratory-made and commercial mass spectra databases, and describes a database research algorithm. The final chapter examines mass spectra interpretation, covering chemistry concepts such as inductive and mesomeric effects required to understand dissociation pathways, and presents a global strategy for mass spectra interpretation.
The first group of chapters follows the format of the first and second editions with chapters on individual elements or groups of elements that describe and interpret their chemical properties. A chapter on the chemical properties of the transactinide elements follows. The second group, chapters 15-26, summarizes and correlates physical and chemical properties that are in general unique to the actinide elements, because most of these elements contain partially-filled shells of 5f electrons whether present as isolated atoms or ions, as metals, as compounds, or as ions in solution. The third group, chapters 27-39, focuses on specialized topics that encompass contemporary fields related to actinides in the environment, in the human body, and in storage or wastes. Two appendices at the end of volume 5 tabulate important nuclear properties of all actinide and transactinide isotopes. Volume 6 (Chapters 32 through 39) consists of new chapters that focus on actinide species in the environment, actinide waste forms, nuclear fuels, analytical chemistry of plutonium, actinide chalcogenide and hydrothermal synthesis of actinide compounds. The subject and author indices and list of contributors encompass all six volumes.
Each chapter outlines the theoretical and experimental aspects, as well as the application to a specific field of the analytical method. The first three chapters deal with the molecular structure determination by neutron and X-ray diffraction, high-pressure vibrational spectroscopy, and electronic Raman transitions of rare earth ions. Other chapters explore the potential of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for inorganic radical and radical ion determination, as well as the application of electron spin resonance for coordination compound analysis. The remaining chapters examine the use of electronic spectroscopy for organometalloid study and the fluorescence and laser action in rare earth chelates.
This book is intended primarily for analytical and inorganic chemists and spectroscopists who are interested in inorganic systems.
All drugs presented meet the standard of the official pharmacopoeia and originate from well-defined botanical sources. With this guide the technique of thin layer chromatography can be easily used without previous pharmacognostic training. Only commercially available equipment and reagents are needed, the sources as well as all practical details are given.
From the reviews
"...should not be missed in any laboratory dealing with crude drug analysis" trends in analytical chemistry
"...a unique and remarkable collection...an invaluable guide" Phytochemistry
"The color photographs...are unbelievably well done" Analytical Biochemistry
"...a required text for any laboratory concerned with the analysis of medicinal plant products" Irish Pharmacy Journal
See What’s New in the Second Edition:
Includes five new chapters covering ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, and petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as organoleptical and algal analysis methodology Compares older methods still frequently used with recently developed protocols, and examines future trends Features a new section regarding organoleptical analysis of water acknowledging that ultimately the consumers of drinking water have the final vote over its quality with respect to odor, flavor, and color
The book covers the physical, chemical, and other relevant properties of various substances found in water. It then describes the sampling, cleanup, extraction, and derivatization procedures, and concludes with detection methods. Illustrated with procedure flow charts and schematics, the text includes numerous tables categorizing methods according to type of component, origin of the water sample, parameters and procedures used, and application range.
With contributions from international experts, the book guides you through the entire scientific investigation starting with a sampling strategy designed to capture the real-world situation as closely as possible, and ending with an adequate chemometrical and statistical treatment of the acquired data. By organizing data into more than 300 tables, graphs, and charts, and supplementing the text with equations and illustrations, the editors distill a wealth of knowledge into a single accessible reference.
* Covers latest advances in vapor and trace detection techniques and bulk detection techniques
* Reviews both current techniques and those in advanced stages of development
* Techniques that are described in detail, including its principles of operation, as well as its applications in the detection of explosives
This book does not only give up-to-date material on sampling and sample pre-treatment, extraction techniques, clean-up, pre-fractionation, different types of chromatographic methods and quality assurance, but also information on actual and upcoming analytical problems, such as the determination of polycyclic aromatic sulphur heterocycles and of metabolites of PAH. The final chapter is devoted to the important role of analytic separation methods in water quality control.
Experienced and well-known authors have contributed their knowledge and expertise to individual chapters.