Now in its Seventh Edition, this renowned book is a standard reference for the mineral processing industry. Chapters deal with each of the major processing techniques, and coverage includes the latest technical developments in the processing of increasingly complex refractory ores, new equipment and process routes. This new edition has been prepared by the prestigious J K Minerals Research Centre of Australia, which contributes its world-class expertise and ensures that this will continue to be the book of choice for professionals and students in this field.
This latest edition highlights the developments and the challenges facing the mineral processor, particularly with regard to the environmental problems posed in improving the efficiency of the existing processes and also in dealing with the waste created. The work is fully indexed and referenced.
· The classic mineral processing text, revised and updated by a prestigious new team
· Provides a clear exposition of the principles and practice of mineral processing, with examples taken from practice
· Covers the latest technological developments and highlights the challenges facing the mineral processor
· New sections on environmental problems, improving the efficiency of existing processes and dealing with waste.
* The only book to explain and unify the process and techniques of cutting in metals AND non-metals. The emphasis on biomaterials, plastics and non-metals will be of considerable interest to many, while the transfer of knowledge from non-metals fields offers important benefits to metal cutters
* Comprehensive, written with this well-known author’s lightness of touch, the book will attract the attention of many readers in this underserved subject
* The clarity of the text is further enhanced by detailed examples and case studies, from the grating of cheese on an industrial scale to the design of scalpels
Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts – with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage.
The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author’s previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore – e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science.Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plantsDiscusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one bookReviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic oreIndustrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources
New in the Third Edition:
Computer-aided calculation of phase diagrams Recent developments in metallic glasses The Scheil method of calculating a CCT diagram from a TTT diagram Expanded treatment of the nucleation and growth of polygonal ferrite and bainite New case studies covering copper precipitation hardening of very low carbon bainitic steel and very fine carbide-free bainite Detailed treatment of strain-induced martensite provides a theoretical background to transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels
Unique Presentation Links Theory to Application
Adding new case studies, detailed examples, and exercises drawn from current applications, the third edition keeps the previous editions’ popular easy-to -follow style and excellent mix of basic and advanced information, making it ideal for those new to the field. The book’s unique presentation links basic understanding of theory with application in a gradually progressive yet exciting manner. Based on the author’s teaching notes, the book takes a pedagogical approach and provides examples for applications and problems that can be readily used for exercises.
PowerPoint© illustrations available with qualifying course adoptions
Now, new third generation Al-Li alloys with significantly reduced lithium content and other improvements are promising a revival for Al-Li applications in modern aircraft and aerospace vehicles. Over the last few years, these newer Al-Li alloys have attracted increasing global interest for widespread applications in the aerospace industry largely because of soaring fuel costs and the development of a new generation of civil and military aircraft. This contributed book, featuring many of the top researchers in the field, is the first up-to-date international reference for Al-Li material research, alloy development, structural design and aerospace systems engineering.Provides a complete treatment of the new generation of low-density AL-Li alloys, including microstructure, mechanical behavoir, processing and applicationsCovers the history of earlier generation AL-Li alloys, their basic problems, why they were never widely used, and why the new third generation Al-Li alloys could eventually replace not only traditional aluminum alloys but more expensive composite materialsContains two full chapters devoted to applications in the aircraft and aerospace fields, where the lighter, stronger Al-Li alloys mean better performing, more fuel-efficient aircraft
Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Nickel-Base Alloys describes the fundamental metallurgical principles that control the microstructure and properties of welded Ni-base alloys. It serves as a practical how-to guide that enables engineers to select the proper alloys, filler metals, heat treatments, and welding conditions to ensure that failures are avoided during fabrication and service. Chapter coverage includes:Alloying additions, phase diagrams, and phase stability Solid-solution strengthened Ni-base alloys Precipitation strengthened Ni-base alloys Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys and nickel aluminides Repair welding of Ni-base alloys Dissimilar welding Weldability testing High-chromium alloys used in nuclear power applications
With its excellent balance between the fundamentals and practical problem solving, the book serves as an ideal reference for scientists, engineers, and technicians, as well as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in welding metallurgy.
The eighth edition of this classic text has been updated to provide a balanced coverage of properties, characterization, phase transformations, crystal structure, and corrosion not available in other texts, and includes updated illustrations along with extensive new real-world examples and homework problems.Renowned coverage of metals and alloys from one of the world's leading metallurgy educatorsCovers new materials characterization techniques, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentationProvides the most thorough coverage of characterization, mechanical properties, surface engineering and corrosion of any textbook in its fieldIncludes new worked examples with real-world applications, case studies, extensive homework exercises, and a full online solutions manual and image bank
• It is the first comprehensive text ever written on the subject of duplex systems, which is the generic term for painted hot-dip galvanized steel.
• Both the traditional batch hot-dip galvanizing process and the modern sheet galvanizing processes are covered.
• The author offers a combination of practical information, which will enable the engineer to select the proper materials, and scientific background information.
• The practical guidelines are backed up and supported by an impressive amount of technical and scientific discussions and justifications.
• Modern surface analysis tools and recent applications are described.
• The world literature on the subject matter is covered and is up to date.
Duplex systems, which are based on the synergistic effect of galvanizing and painting, offer maximum protection against corrosion of steel surfaces in environments where galvanized steel alone cannot offer a sufficiently long resistance against rust formation. Since adhesion problems can be eliminated by the correct application of special paint products, and by sophisticated surface pretreatment and modern surface analyzing methods, duplex systems are nowadays used in a large number of industrial and domestic applications. Major savings can thus be achieved on materials and maintenance cost. Duplex systems serve also where colour is required, e.g. for aesthetic reasons, for enhancing visibility or for camouflaging.
The author of this book has an unsurpassed experience in this field and the many case histories of successful (and unsuccessful) use of duplex systems for corrosion prevention provide a wealth of practical information. Including 108 colour illustrations, the book will be useful to a large group of industries, such as the paint, metallurgical, galvanizing, building, automotive, electrical and chemical industries.
This in–depth market and technology report surveys the markets, applications and manufacturing processes for metal powders. Coverage is given to both ferrous and non–ferrous metal powders with the emphasis on the more commercially significant materials such as iron and steel, stainless and tool steels, copper and copper–base alloys, aluminium, tin and nickel. Current and future markets are reviewed from a global perspective: consumption figures are analyzed for the major economic zones: Northern America, Europe, Japan. The major factors likely to impact on future metal powder consumption are examined and forecasts are presented for the main categories to the end of the decade. The report is completed by a comprehensive global survey of the relevant activities of the major powder–producing companies and industry trade associations.
Organized in 13 chapters, this book begins with explaining the fundamentals of materials, their basic building units, atomic bonding and crystal structure, further describing the role of imperfections on the behaviour of metals and alloys. The book then explains dislocation theory in a simplified yet analytical manner. The destructive and non-destructive testing methods are discussed, and the interpreted test data are then examined critically.
Specifically designed for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, the book will be equally beneficial for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Mechanical engineering and related disciplines. Besides, the book will also be useful for the practising engineers.
KEY FEATURES :
Practical Manual in the form of Appendices
Question Bank along with solutions
200 Objective Type Questions (all from the GATE examination)
Glossary of terms
Contents : Preface 1. NATURE OF MATERIALS 2. CRYSTAL IMPERFECTIONS 3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 4. DISLOCATION THEORY 5. DEFORMATION OF METALS 6. STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS IN MATERIALS 7. FRACTURE 8. TENSILE BEHAVIOUR 9. HARDNESS TESTING 10. DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION BEHAVIOUR AND FRACTURE TOUGHNESS TEST 11. FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR 12. CREEP BEHAVIOUR 13. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING Glossary • Question Bank Appendices • Bibliography Index
Packed with contributions from the world’s leading experts, this volume brings in authoritative information from a number of sciences, including chemistry, physics, nanotechnology and metallurgy. The book presents a myriad of applications, ranging from electronics to medicine and optics. A comprehensive overview chapter provides historical perspectives of the element and each chapter describes potential further uses, including applications currently being developed.
Gold Applications in Use Today Include:
John Campbell OBE is a leading international figure in the castings industry, with over four decades of experience. He is the originator of the Cosworth Casting Process, the pre-eminent production process for automobile cylinder heads and blocks. He is also co-inventor of both the Baxi Casting Process (now owned by Alcoa) developed in the UK, and the newly emerging Alotech Casting Process in the USA. He is Professor of Casting Technology at the University of Birmingham, UK.
* New edition of this internationally respected reference and textbook for engineers and students;
* Develops understanding of the concepts and practice of casting operations;
* 'Castings' is the key work on castings technology and process metallurgy, and an essential resource on contemporary developments and thinking on the new metallurgy of cast alloys;
* Revised and updated throughout, with new material on subjects including surface turbulence, the new theory of entrainment defects including folded film defects, plus the latest concepts of alloy theory.
Written by an expert with more than 50 years of experience, the book combines fundamental principles with practical, hands-on advice. The author highlights the intrinsic versatility of the brazing process and covers a wide range of conditions and technical possibilities. He walks you through the nine stages of the process audit, from identifying service conditions, to selecting materials and design, to assessing process complexity. A chapter answers frequently asked questions such as "is it possible to braze ceramics" and "what is MIG brazing?"
New in This EditionInformation on new ISO specifications for brazing filler materials New alloy and flux codes New production developments in available fuel-gases for brazing, such as SafeFlame New sections on carbon potential of furnace atmosphere and quality control parameters for vacuum brazing New production methods in aluminum brazing Expanded coverage of interfacial corrosion in stainless steels More case studies
This comprehensive book contains the information needed to enable you to develop best-practice solutions to the daily brazing problems you may encounter in the production shop. Packed with flowcharts, illustrations, and case studies, it is an invaluable reference for anyone involved in industrial brazing.
The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, numerical simulations for cathodic protection of pipelines, and use of corrosion inhibitors in managing corrosion in underground pipelines. The methods described in part two for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines include: magnetic flux leakage, close interval potential surveys (CIS/CIPS), Pearson surveys, in-line inspection, and use of both electrochemical and optical probes. While the emphasis is on pipelines transporting fossil fuels, the concepts apply as well to metallic pipes for delivery of water and other liquids.
Underground Pipeline Corrosion is a comprehensive resource for corrosion, materials, chemical, petroleum, and civil engineers constructing or managing both onshore and offshore pipeline assets; professionals in steel and coating companies; and academic researchers and professors with an interest in corrosion and pipeline engineering.Reviews the causes and considers the detection and prevention of corrosion to underground pipesAddresses a lack of current, readily available information on the subjectCase studies demonstrate how corrosion is managed in the underground pipeline industry
* Comprehensively covers the principles of corrosion engineering, methods of corrosion protection and corrosion processes and control in selected engineering environments
* Structured for corrosion science and engineering classes at senior undergraduate and graduate level, and is an ideal reference that readers will want to use in their professional work
* Worked examples, extensive end of chapter exercises and accompanying online solutions and written by an expert from a key pretochemical university
This textbook pioneered the approach whereby both properties and processing of reinforced and unreinforced plastics are covered in a single volume. It assumes no prior knowledge of plastics, and emphasises the practical aspects of the subject. In this third edition over half the book has been re-written and the remainder has been updated and re-organised. Early chapters give an introduction to the types of plastics which are currently available and describe how a designer goes about the selection of a plastic for a particular application. Later chapters lead the reader into more advanced aspects of mechanical design and analysis of polymer melt flow. All techniques developed are illustrated by numerous worked examples, and problems are given at the end of each chapter - the solutions to which form one of the appendices.
John Cambell has over two decades of experience in the casting industry and is the author of over 40 technical papers and patents. He has become well-known in the foundry industry as the originator of the Cosworth casting process, which is becoming accepted throughout the world as a new production process for the casting of cylinder heads and blocks. He is now Federal Mogul Professor of Casting Technology at the University of Birmingham.
* Must-follow rules of castings, from one of the world's leading experts
* Companion volume to the renowned book 'Castings'
* Accessible and direct, provides essential information for students of metallurgy and foundry professionals alike
Intended as a text for undergraduate courses in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, the book is also suitable for students preparing for associate membership examination of the Indian Institute of Metals (AMIIM) and other professional examinations like AMIE.
This all-new, classical text is the first to explain the complex theory and sophisticated engineering concepts with relation to wire drawing in an accessible and universal way for practicing engineers.
Designed to facilitate the entry and training of new engineers and upgrade the professional practice of those already in the field in the face of increased product demands and tightening specifications, this essential resource by industry expert Roger Wright provides:A technical overview and introduction of engineering concepts related to wire drawing, suitable for beginners and practiced engineers looking to brush up on the theory behind the processAn interface with basic engineering education so as to provide an accessible introduction for engineers new to the fieldReal-world worked examples, problems and protocols based on true life engineering scenarios and challengesUnique coverage of the author's own pass design and risk prediction calculations, developed through decades of research and wire industry consulting
Whilst most competing titles are less practical in their approach and focus on either ferrous, non-ferrous or electrical, our book takes a universal approach more suited to the practicing engineer who needs knowledge of wire drawing across the board. Ideal for use as a complete insight into the process from start to finish or a dip-in resource for practical problem-solving, this versatile work-a-day guide, training tool and desk reference will help readers train their staff and adapt and improve processes at minimal cost for maximum performance.Provides a unique universal approach, covering ferrous and non-ferrous metalsAuthored by an internationally-recognized specialist in wire drawing with extensive academic and industry experienceReal-world worked examples, problems and protocols based on true life engineering scenarios and challenges allow engineers to easily apply the theory to their workplace to improve processes, productivity and efficiencyCompact, concise and practical in comparison to the large, competing handbook tomes that are overwhelming for beginners and impractical for day-to-day work useIdeal for use as a complete insight into the process from start to finish or as a dip-in resource for practical problem-solving, analysis and trouble-shooting
This guide is written in a reader-friendly and logical format by an experienced authority in quality and productivity enhancement, tooling design, metal feed system analysis, temperature management, and environmental regulation. While its scope is broad and covers the many facets of die casting, the book's main focus is on function, problem identification and solution, and strategic logic. Generously illustrated, it provides a comprehensive explanation of why high pressure die casting is reliable, predictable, and teachable.
This contemporary book provides an up-to-date review on the application of ISO and AWS standards and a comparison between them. Many thousands of engineering drawings are currently in use, which have symbols and methods of representation from superseded standards. The current European and ISO standards and the American standard are substantially similar, but the ANSI/AWS standard includes some additional symbols and also symbols for non-destructive testing. Although symbols in the different standards are similar, the arrows showing locations of welds are different, these important differences are explained. ISO contains limited information on brazed or soldered joints these are covered in ANSI/AWS. Some examples of the application of welding symbols are also included.Important differences of welding symbols for different standards are explainedProvides up to date information on the ISO and AWS standards and their comparisonContains examples of the application of welded symbols
The work begins with an introduction to the structure, properties, and syntheses of ligands with metal centers, before discussing the variety of isomerism exhibited by coordination compounds, such as structural, geometrical and optical isomerism. As thermodynamics and kinetics provide a gateway to synthesis and reactivity of coordination compounds, the book then describes the determination of stability constants and composition of complexes. Building upon those principles, the resource then explains a wide variety of nucleophilic substitution reactions exhibited by both octahedral and square planar complexes. Finally, the book discusses metal carbonyls and nitrosyls, special classes of compounds that can stabilize zero or even negative formal oxidation states of metal ions. Highlighting preparations, properties, and structures, the text explores the unique type of Metal-Ligand bonding which enable many interesting applications of these compounds.
Thoughtfully organized for academic use, Essentials of Coordination Chemistry: A Simplified Approach with 3D Visuals encourages interactive learning. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers requiring a full overview and visual understanding of coordination chemistry, will find this book invaluable.Includes valuable visual content through 3D images and videos in full color, available onlineProvides a valuable introduction to the study of organic and inorganic ligands with metal centersDiscusses advanced topics including metal carbonyls and nitrosyls
Diamond-impregnated tools are used increasingly in industries where wear-resistant drills or cutting tools are required. The cobalt matrix in which the diamond is embedded is manufactured by pressing and sintering, techniques commonly used in powder metallurgy, but the process is complex and intricate. This book provides a comprehensive account of all you need to know about the role of powder metallurgy in the production of diamond-impregnated tools, giving metal powder manufacturers a better understanding of the requirements of diamond tool producers and end users, leading to the development of superior products.
This book will... 1. Clarify the science and properties involved in powder metallurgy and the production of diamond tools 2. Explain the manufacturing process 3. Help improve your machining and finishing techniques, leading to better results 4. Optimise your tool use and wear, helping you to save time and money 5. Help you to consider new applications, optimising your equipment and resourcesAuthor is a leading authority on diamond tools and has published extensively on the subjectA comprehensive account of all you need to know about the role of powder metallurgy in the production of diamond-impregnated tool componentsAn important reference for manufacturers of powdered diamond and cobalt for the tool industry, tool designers and manufacturers, users of diamond-impregnated tools, metallurgists, designers, R&D Departments, specifiers and consultants
Metal Cutting Theory and Practice, Third Edition shapes the future of material removal in new and lasting ways. Centered on metallic work materials and traditional chip-forming cutting methods, the book provides a physical understanding of conventional and high-speed machining processes applied to metallic work pieces, and serves as a basis for effective process design and troubleshooting. This latest edition of a well-known reference highlights recent developments, covers the latest research results, and reflects current areas of emphasis in industrial practice. Based on the authors’ extensive automotive production experience, it covers several structural changes, and includes an extensive review of computer aided engineering (CAE) methods for process analysis and design. Providing updated material throughout, it offers insight and understanding to engineers looking to design, operate, troubleshoot, and improve high quality, cost effective metal cutting operations.
The book contains extensive up-to-date references to both scientific and trade literature, and provides a description of error mapping and compensation strategies for CNC machines based on recently issued international standards, and includes chapters on cutting fluids and gear machining. The authors also offer updated information on tooling grades and practices for machining compacted graphite iron, nickel alloys, and other hard-to-machine materials, as well as a full description of minimum quantity lubrication systems, tooling, and processing practices. In addition, updated topics include machine tool types and structures, cutting tool materials and coatings, cutting mechanics and temperatures, process simulation and analysis, and tool wear from both chemical and mechanical viewpoints.
Comprised of 17 chapters, this detailed study:
Describes the common machining operations used to produce specific shapes or surface characteristics Contains conventional and advanced cutting tool technologies Explains the properties and characteristics of tools which influence tool design or selection Clarifies the physical mechanisms which lead to tool failure and identifies general strategies for reducing failure rates and increasing tool life Includes common machinability criteria, tests, and indices Breaks down the economics of machining operations Offers an overview of the engineering aspects of MQL machining Summarizes gear machining and finishing methods for common gear types, and more
Metal Cutting Theory and Practice, Third Edition emphasizes the physical understanding and analysis for robust process design, troubleshooting, and improvement, and aids manufacturing engineering professionals, and engineering students in manufacturing engineering and machining processes programs.
The book deals with steel products in some depth, in four chapters covering wide strip, structural steels, engineering and stainless steel grades. At the begining of each chapter an overview is given which details important features of the grades and a historical perspective of their development. Also featured are up to date information on steel prices and specifications.
David Llewellyn has over thirty years experience in the steel industry and is currently lecturing in the Materials Engineering Department at University College Swansea.
'..the book unfolds into an easily readable and a valuable source of highly relevant and contemporary information on steels' - METALS AND MATERIALS
'.. a high quality product from all points of view' - INSTITUTE OF METALS AND MATERIALS AUSTRALASIA features up to date information on steel prices and specifications.
This book offers a valuable resource for all those working with wire ropes, including construction engineers, operators and supervisors of machines and installations involving wire ropes.
The work has a unique viewpoint, interpreting the behavior of castings, and metals as a whole, in terms of their biofilm content, the largely invisible casting defects which control much of the structure and behavior of metals.
This new edition includes new findings, many from John Campbell’s own research, on crack initiation, contact pouring, vortex gates, and the Cosworth Process.Delivers the expert advice that engineers need to make successful and profitable casting decisionsIdeal reference for those interested in solidification, vortex gates, nucleation, biofilm, remelting, and moldingFollows a logical, two-part structure that covers both casting metallurgy and casting manufactureContains established, must-have information, such as Campbell’s ‘10 Rules’ for successful casting manufactureIncludes numerous updates and revisions based on recent breakthroughs in the industry
Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the existing experimental, theoretical, and operational evidence about the blast furnace. This text then examines the blast furnace from the outside, including its size, production rate, products, raw materials, operation, and costs. Other chapters consider the primary objective of the blast furnace to produce molten iron of constant composition. This book discusses as well the operation of the furnace from the point of view of what happens to the raw materials after they enter the furnace. The final chapter deals with the linear programming methods by using the known physical constraints on industrial furnaces.
This book is a valuable resource for engineers.
Comprised of six chapters, this book begins with an introduction to martensite and martensitic transformation, with emphasis on the basic properties of martensite in steels such as carbon steels. The next two chapters deal with the crystallography of martensite and discuss the martensitic transformation behavior of the second-order transition; lattice imperfections in martensite; and close-packed layer structures of martensites produced from ? phase in noble-metal-base alloys. Thermodynamical problems and kinetics are also analysed, together with conditions for the nucleation of martensite and problems concerning stabilization of austenite. The last chapter discusses the theory of the mechanism underlying martensitic transformation.
This monograph will be of interest to metallurgists and materials scientists.
Integrated throughout the text are real-world applications that emphasize the relevance of thermodynamics principles to some of the most critical problems and issues of today, including a wealth of coverage of topics related to energy and the environment, biomedical/bioengineering, and emerging technologies.
In an age of custom-fabricated, do-it-yourself product design and creation, the collective potential of a million garage tinkerers and enthusiasts is about to be unleashed, driving a resurgence of American manufacturing. A generation of “Makers” using the Web’s innovation model will help drive the next big wave in the global economy, as the new technologies of digital design and rapid prototyping gives everyone the power to invent--creating “the long tail of things”.
Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the corrosion of metals and the scope of protection against corrosion, followed by a detailed treatment of electrodeposition. The discussion then turns to the principles of hot dipping as a coating method; the formation of a diffusion coating; and the role of a non-metallic coating in corrosion protection. Subsequent chapters focus on the protection of oxide films against corrosion by means of anodizing, phosphatizing, and the use of tin free steel; testing and selection of a particular coating for corrosion resistance applications; and the theory of corrosion protection.
This book is intended for metal-finishing scientists and students of metallurgy and metal finishing.
Peter Beeley was a foundry manager before he became a senior lecturer in metallurgy, and subsequently maintained continuous links with the castings industry and associated research activities and publications.
His book is designed to serve as a bridge between the study of the basic principles of metal founding and their application in the producing and user industries. A particular aim of Foundry Technology is to assist engineers and engineering students in appreciating the role of castings in design and materials selection. Orthodox and specialized casting processes, and both ferrous and non-ferrous founding are considered on a comparative basis, and the place of castings in design is critically examined and related to other products.
The revised edition takes account of the main changes in casting processes and products since the publication of the original edition in 1972. While retaining treatments of basic aspects of molding, solidification, cast structures and feeding, newer developments in modeling and rapid prototyping are reviewed, together with quality, environmental, health and other issues of growing importance.New edition of well-known bookFully updated with latest technology