In Navajo, numerous prefixes combine with verb roots to form single words that, in English translation, require a phrase or even a sentence to convey their meaning. Therefore, verb stems and prefixes must be mastered piece by piece to understand the language. This volume leads the reader carefully and systematically through the complexities of the Navajo verb system. By doing so, the book makes Navajo more accessible to all those interested in the American Indian language with the largest number of speakers in the United States.
"This work is outstanding for the way in which the materials and rules are organized."--Dr. Sally Midgette, coauthor of Analytical Lexicon of Navajo
This translation adds the English equivalents to the original Spanish-Comanche list of 857 words, as well as a Comanche-English vocabulary and comparisons with later Comanche word lists. Daniel J. Gelo's introduction discusses the circumstances in which García Rejón gathered his material and annotates significant aspects of the vocabulary in light of current knowledge of Comanche language and culture. The book also includes information on pictography, preserving a rare sample of Comanche scapula drawing.
This information will help scholars understand the processes of language evolution and cultural change that occurred among all Native American peoples following European contact. The Comanche Vocabulary will also hold great interest for the large public fascinated by this once-dominant tribe.
"Alyse Goodluck Neundorf (1942-2004), teacher, linguist, interpreter, artist, writer and a former 'Miss Navajo,' was the author of this work on the Navajo verb--the last of her contributions in the field of Navajo linguistics. . . .
"The [Navajo/English Dictionary of Verbs] lists 350 Navajo verbs in paradigm form, conjugated for the Imperfective, Perfective, and Future modes. It was her intention that it be used both by students of Navajo and teachers of the language."--from the Foreword by Robert Young
This is the first descriptive grammar of Kotiria (Wanano), a member of the Tukanoan language family spoken in the Vaupes River basin of Colombia and Brazil in the northwest Amazon rain forest. The Kotirias have lived in this remote region for more than seven hundred years and participate in the complex Vaupes social system characterized by longstanding linguistic and cultural interaction. The Kotirias remained relatively isolated from the dominant societies until the early part of the twentieth century, when the region began to experience increasing outside influence leading to processes of rapid social and linguistic change. Today the Kotirias number only about sixteen hundred people and their language, though still used in traditional communities, is rapidly becoming endangered.
Kristine Stenzel draws on eight years of intensive work with the Kotirias to promote, record, and revitalize their language. Working with dozens of native speakers and drawing on numerous oral narratives and written texts, this book is the first comprehensive study of this endangered language and one of the few reference grammars of this language family.
Alice Ahenakew's personal reminiscences include stories of her childhood, courtship and marriage, as well as an account of the 1928 influenza epidemic an encounters with a windigo. The centrepiece of this book is the fascinating account of Andrew Ahenakewis bear vision, through which he received healing powers.
Written in original Cree text with a full English translation, "They Knew both Sides of Medicine" also includes an introduction discussing the historical background of the narrative and its style and rhetorical structure, as well as a complete Cree-English glossary.
Hole in the Day's death was national news, and rumors of its cause were many: personal jealousy, retribution for his claiming to be head chief of the Ojibwe, retaliation for the attacks he fomented in 1862, or retribution for his attempts to keep mixed-blood Ojibwe off the White Earth Reservation. Still later, investigators found evidence of a more disturbing plot involving some of his closest colleagues: the business elite at Crow Wing.
While most historians concentrate on the Ojibwe relationship with whites to explain this story, Anton Treuer focuses on interactions with other tribes, the role of Ojibwe culture and tradition, and interviews with more than fifty elders to further explain the events leading up to the death of Hole in the Day. "The Assassination of Hole in the Day "is not only the biography of a powerful leader but an extraordinarily insightful analysis of a pivotal time in the history of the Ojibwe people.
" An essential study of nineteenth-century Ojibwe leadership and an important contribution to the field of American Indian Studies by an author of extraordinary knowledge and talent. Treuer's work is infused with a powerful command over Ojibwe culture and linguistics."
--Ned Blackhawk, author of "Violence Over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West"
Anton Treuer, professor of Ojibwe at Bemidji State University, is the author of "Ojibwe in Minnesota "and several books on the Ojibwe language. He is also the editor of "Oshkaabewis Native Journal," the only academic journal of the Ojibwe language.
This book is divided into three parts. Section I focuses on the spelling and pronunciation of the language. Section II consists of 494 Model Sentences in both Quechua and English, many in a helpful question-and-answer format that enables a person to communicate in situations typically encountered by the traveler. Literal translations are also included, to provide insight into the grammatical structures involved. These sentences cover a wide range of practical topics, from extending greetings and social courtesies to asking about transportation, describing things, expressing likes and dislikes, and requesting help. The models also show how to talk about time and past events and to express commands and conditional sentences. Many Model Sentences are followed by one or more Expansions to offer additional structures and/or vocabulary.
Section III of the book offers important notes on the grammar of Quechua and includes model verb conjugations. This section is followed by extensive lists of practical vocabulary, going beyond the words used in the Model Sentences and their Expansions.
Introduction to Quechua will prove to be an essential handbook and reference for any traveler, student, researcher, or businessperson who is interested in the Andean region and in communicating with Quechua speakers.
This innovative language-learning guide is designed to help students, scholars, and professionals in many fields who work with Kaqchikel speakers, in both Guatemala and the United States, quickly develop basic communication skills. The book will familiarize learners with the words, phrases, and structures used in daily communications, presented in as natural a way as possible, and in a logical sequence. Six chapters introduce the language in context (greetings, the classroom, people, the family, food, and life) followed by exercises and short essays on aspects of Kaqchikel life. A grammar summary provides in-depth linguistic analysis of Kaqchikel, and a glossary supports vocabulary learning from both Kaqchikel to English and English to Kaqchikel. These resources, along with sound files and other media on the Internet at ekaq.stonecenter.tulane.edu, will allow learners to develop proficiency in all five major language skills—listening comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, and sociocultural understanding.
This book will be a descriptive grammar of the Esperanto language invented by L. L. Zamenhof, which will be complete and comprehensive in regards to a) the grammar of Esperanto as first outlined by Zamenhof in Fundamento de Esperanto and other foundational documents, and b) Esperanto as it is spoken today by the most committed Esperantists. (Proposed reforms to the Esperanto language will be discussed if they have serious support from a significant fraction of Esperanto enthusiasts).
This book was started practically on a dare from the August 2006 issue of Bob's Poetry Magazine, in which Robert Happelberg boasted that he could print a complete and comprehensive grammar of Esperanto in just one 6 by 7 inch page. While this is obviously wrong, it's not too far off the mark. When completed, this book will require several standard size (8.5 by 11 in the USA) pages, but will still be much shorter than a complete grammar of a natural language like English or Slovene.
In view of this goal, the number of examples provided for each concept will be kept to a bare minimum. Those wishing to build their Esperanto vocabularies are also referred to the Esperanto textbooks. It is acceptable in the beginning to word the text in an accessible manner like in a textbook, but the goal should be for all the text to be technical with a full command of linguistic jargon.
The lessons take you through important beginner-level work based on how the Lakota language is really used. Actions and verbs become your focus, as the Lakota language is based on movement and relationship, instead of “things” as in English. This re-orientation and practice of subtly changing the spoken verb will instruct you in how to be an effective speaker.
Lessons include: Yes/no questions · Greetings and kinship · Vocabulary for household situations · Demonstrative pronouns (this, these, that) · 1st, 2nd, & 3rd person verb forms (I, you, they) · Changes to verb endings (ablaut) · Voicing unique Lakota sounds (nasal, aspirated)
Lakota Audio Series: A Practical Conversation Course, Volume 1 eBook immerses you in Lakota in a way that creates a deep intuitive grasp of the language and establishes a strong base for fluency.
This book makes a long-awaited contribution to the oral literature and mythology of the American Southwest, and its format and organization are of special interest. Narratives are presented in the original language and in the storytellers’ own words. A prosodically-motivated broken-line format captures the rhetorical structure and local organization of the oral delivery and calls attention to stylistic devices such as repetition and syntactic parallelism. Facing-page English translation provides a key to the original Quechan for the benefit of language learners. The stories are organized into "story complexes”, that is, clusters of narratives with overlapping topics, characters, and events, told from diverse perspectives. In presenting not just stories but story complexes, this volume captures the art of storytelling and illuminates the complexity and interconnectedness of an important body of oral literature.
Stories from Quechan Oral Literature provides invaluable reading for anyone interested in Native American cultural heritage and oral traditions more generally.
Written in nontechnical terms for learners who have a basic knowledge of simple Mexican Spanish, the book presents easily understood, practical information for anyone who would like to communicate with the Maya in their native language. In addition to covering the pronunciation and grammar of Maya, Bevington includes invaluable tips on learning indigenous languages "in the field." Most helpful are his discussions of the cultural and material worlds of the Maya, accompanied by essential words and expressions for common objects and experiences. A Maya-English-Spanish glossary with extensive usage examples and an English-Maya glossary conclude the book.
Note: The supplemental audiocasette, Spoken Maya for Travelers and Students, is now available as a free download.
The changes made to each chapter reflect new approaches refined through years of teaching experience. New chapters on 'Numbers and Enumeration' and 'Translating from English to Blackfoot' have been added, as well as new exercises and two new appendixes describing the phonetics of Blackfoot and the design of the alphabet.
This second edition of Blackfoot Grammar will be a welcome update not only for those who wish to learn the language, but for all those with an interest in Native Studies and North American linguistics.
Here, for the first time, these outstanding examples of indigenous North American literature are printed in their original language (in the standard orthography used on the Wind River Reservation) but made accessible to a wider audience through English translation and comprehensive introductions, notes, commentaries and an Arapaho-English glossary.
The Arapaho traditions chosen for this anthology tell of hunting, scouting, fighting, horse-stealing, capture and escape, friendly encounters between tribes, diplomacy and war, conflict with the U.S. and battles with its troops. They also include accounts of vision quests and religious rites, the fate of an Arapaho woman captured by Utes, and Arapaho uses of the "Medicine Wheeli"in the Bighorn Mountains.
Linda Schele's summary of methodology makes available in a single place many important discoveries and approaches to the Maya language. Hers is the first sourcebook to include so broad a range of dates and to identify for the first time so many Maya rulers and events.
The admirably lucid text provides an excellent introduction to Maya hieroglyphics for the beginner, and, for the experienced Mayanist, it offers a fascinating explanation of methodology, including paraphrasing, and important information about syntactical structures, special verbal constructions, and literary conventions.
Schele's extensive catalog of known verbal phrases is useful for a variety of purposes. Because it is organized according to verbal affix patterns, it provides the only available source for the distribution of such patterns in the writing system. At the same time it registers the date of each event, its agent and patient (if recorded), the dedication date of the monument on which the glyphs occur, and a pictorial illustration, rather than a T-number transcription, of each example. Extensive notes treating problems of dating, interpretation, and dynastic information contain theories about the meaning and function of the events recorded in the Maya inscriptions.
"Sequoyah and the Invention of the Cherokee Alphabet" is a readable study of Sequoyah's life that also discusses Cherokee culture as well as the historical and current usage and impact of the Cherokee syllabary he created. While the emphasis of the work is on Sequoyah's adult life between 1800 and 1840, enough pre- and post-history information is provided to allow any reader to fully grasp the contextual significance of his accomplishments. The book includes a biography section of key individuals and contains a collection of primary documents that helps illustrate the usage of Sequoyah's syllabary.
The volume comprises approximately 4,500 entries that represent the basic vocabulary of the Skiri language. To assist users, the introduction features a description of the Skiri sound system and an alphabet, as well as a short description of Skiri grammar that outlines the categories and constituent morphemes composing Skiri words. The first section of the dictionary presents entries arranged alphabetically by English glosses; the second section is arranged alphabetically by Skiri words and stems. Separate appendixes provide representative conjugations of Skiri verbs, a list of irregular verb roots, and charts of kinship terms.
The dictionary is the culmination of a fifteen-year collaboration between Douglas R. Parks and Lula Nora Pratt, a native Skiri speaker. Primary sources of Skiri vocabulary and English translations include Pratt herself, recordings of traditional narratives made by Harry Mad Bear and Sam Allen in the 1960s, and historical texts by Roaming Scout. Supplementary sources of data come from other Skiri speakers who collaborated for shorter periods in the late 1960s.
of freedom and independence and the idea of the American Dream. It is fifty separate states all
united into one country.
Using quarters, this book shows what is important to the different states. How does it adds character
to the whole country. Freedom’s ring has over fifty distinct tones. Long live liberty