The book focuses on the range of applications of atomic collisions in condensed matter, extending from effects on biological systems to the characterization and modification of solids. This volume begins with the description of some aspects of the physics involved in the production of ion beams. The radiation effects in biological and chemical systems, ion scattering and atomic diffraction, x-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy are discussed in detail. The final two chapters in the text cover two areas of ion beam materials modification: ion implantation in semiconductors and microfabrication.
This text is a good reference material for physics graduate students, experimental and theoretical physicists, and chemists.
Raised in Depression-era Rockaway Beach, physicist Richard Feynman was irreverent, eccentric, and childishly enthusiastic—a new kind of scientist in a field that was in its infancy. His quick mastery of quantum mechanics earned him a place at Los Alamos working on the Manhattan Project under J. Robert Oppenheimer, where the giddy young man held his own among the nation’s greatest minds. There, Feynman turned theory into practice, culminating in the Trinity test, on July 16, 1945, when the Atomic Age was born. He was only twenty-seven. And he was just getting started. In this sweeping biography, James Gleick captures the forceful personality of a great man, integrating Feynman’s work and life in a way that is accessible to laymen and fascinating for the scientists who follow in his footsteps.
Particle physics as we know it depends on the Higgs boson: It’s the missing link between the birth of our universe—as a sea of tiny, massless particles—and the tangible world we live in today. But for more than 50 years, scientists wondered: Does it exist?
Physicist Jon Butterworth was at the frontlines of the hunt for the Higgs at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider—perhaps the most ambitious experiment in history. In Most Wanted Particle, he gives us the first inside account of that uncertain time, when an entire field hinged on a single particle, and life at the cutting edge of science meant media scrutiny, late-night pub debates, dispiriting false starts in the face of intense pressure, and countless hours at the collider itself. As Butterworth explains, our first glimpse of the elusive Higgs brings us a giant step closer to understanding the universe—and points the way to an entirely new kind of physics.
In Life’s Ratchet, physicist Peter M. Hoffmann locates the answer to this age-old question at the nanoscale. The complex molecules of our cells can rightfully be called “molecular machines,” or “nanobots”; these machines, unlike any other, work autonomously to create order out of chaos. Tiny electrical motors turn electrical voltage into motion, tiny factories custom-build other molecular machines, and mechanical machines twist, untwist, separate and package strands of DNA. The cell is like a city—an unfathomable, complex collection of molecular worker bees working together to create something greater than themselves.
Life, Hoffman argues, emerges from the random motions of atoms filtered through the sophisticated structures of our evolved machinery. We are essentially giant assemblies of interacting nanoscale machines; machines more amazing than can be found in any science fiction novel. Incredibly, the molecular machines in our cells function without a mysterious “life force,” nor do they violate any natural laws. Scientists can now prove that life is not supernatural, and that it can be fully understood in the context of science.
Part history, part cutting-edge science, part philosophy, Life’s Ratchet takes us from ancient Greece to the laboratories of modern nanotechnology to tell the story of our quest for the machinery of life.
You will follow your oxygen atoms through fire and water and from forests to your fingernails. Hydrogen atoms will wriggle into your hair and betray where you live and what you have been drinking. The carbon in your breath will become tree trunks, and the sodium in your tears will link you to long-dead oceans. The nitrogen in your muscles will help to turn the sky blue, the phosphorus in your bones will help to turn the coastal waters of North Carolina green, the calcium in your teeth will crush your food between atoms that were mined by mushrooms, and the iron in your blood will kill microbes as it once killed a star.
You will also discover that much of what death must inevitably do to your body is already happening among many of your atoms at this very moment and that, nonetheless, you and everyone else you know will always exist somewhere in the fabric of the universe.
You are not only made of atoms; you are atoms, and this book, in essence, is an atomic field guide to yourself.
“A modern voyage of discovery.” —Frank Wilczek, Nobel Laureate, author of The Lightness of Being
The Higgs boson is one of our era’s most fascinating scientific frontiers and the key to understanding why mass exists. The most recent book on the subject, The God Particle, was a bestseller. Now, Caltech physicist Sean Carroll documents the doorway that is opening—after billions of dollars and the efforts of thousands of researchers at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland—into the mind-boggling world of dark matter. The Particle at the End of the Universe has it all: money and politics, jealousy and self-sacrifice, history and cutting-edge physics—all grippingly told by a rising star of science writing.
• It took more than an iceberg to sink the Titanic.
• The Challenger disaster was predicted.
• Unbreakable glass dinnerware had its origin in railroad lanterns.
• A football team cannot lose momentum.
• Mercury thermometers are prohibited on airplanes for a crucial reason.
• Kryptonite bicycle locks are easily broken.
“Things fall apart” is more than a poetic insight—it is a fundamental property of the physical world. Why Things Break explores the fascinating question of what holds things together (for a while), what breaks them apart, and why the answers have a direct bearing on our everyday lives.
When Mark Eberhart was growing up in the 1960s, he learned that splitting an atom leads to a terrible explosion—which prompted him to worry that when he cut into a stick of butter, he would inadvertently unleash a nuclear cataclysm. Years later, as a chemistry professor, he remembered this childhood fear when he began to ponder the fact that we know more about how to split an atom than we do about how a pane of glass breaks.
In Why Things Break, Eberhart leads us on a remarkable and entertaining exploration of all the cracks, clefts, fissures, and faults examined in the field of materials science and the many astonishing discoveries that have been made about everything from the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger to the crashing of your hard drive. Understanding why things break is crucial to modern life on every level, from personal safety to macroeconomics, but as Eberhart reveals here, it is also an area of cutting-edge science that is as provocative as it is illuminating.
From the Hardcover edition.
Since the first edition only five years ago, the simulation world has changed significantly -- current techniques have matured and new ones have appeared. This new edition deals with these new developments; in particular, there are sections on:
· Transition path sampling and diffusive barrier crossing to simulaterare events
· Dissipative particle dynamic as a course-grained simulation technique
· Novel schemes to compute the long-ranged forces
· Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian dynamics in the context constant-temperature and constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulations
· Multiple-time step algorithms as an alternative for constraints
· Defects in solids
· The pruned-enriched Rosenbluth sampling, recoil-growth, and concerted rotations for complex molecules
· Parallel tempering for glassy Hamiltonians
Examples are included that highlight current applications and the codes of case studies are available on the World Wide Web. Several new examples have been added since the first edition to illustrate recent applications. Questions are included in this new edition. No prior knowledge of computer simulation is assumed.
assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions as well as further supplementary material available free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website.
As computer chips continue to shrink in size, scientists anticipate the end of the road: A computer in which each switch is comprised of a single atom. Such a device would operate under a different set of physical laws: The laws of quantum mechanics. Johnson gently leads the curious outsider through the surprisingly simple ideas needed to understand this dream, discussing the current state of the revolution, and ultimately assessing the awesome power these machines could have to change our world.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Part one provides an introduction to quantum information processing using diamond, as well as its principles and fabrication techniques. Part two outlines experimental demonstrations of quantum information processing using diamond, and the emerging applications of diamond for quantum information science. It contains chapters on quantum key distribution, quantum microscopy, the hybridization of quantum systems, and building quantum optical devices. Part three outlines promising directions and future trends in diamond technologies for quantum information processing and sensing.
Quantum Information Processing with Diamond is a key reference for R&D managers in industrial sectors such as conventional electronics, communication engineering, computer science, biotechnology, quantum optics, quantum mechanics, quantum computing, quantum cryptology, and nanotechnology, as well as academics in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering.Brings together the topics of diamond and quantum information processingLooks at applications such as quantum computing, neural circuits, and in vivo monitoring of processes at the molecular scale
This book will be mandatory reading for anyone working on the foundations of modern devices such as free electron lasers, plasma accelerators, synchroton sources and other modern sources of bright, coherent radiation with high spectral density.
Divided into five parts, the book begins with discussions on group and field theories. The second part summarizes the standard model of particle physics and includes some extensions to the model, such as neutrino masses and CP violation. The next section focuses on grand unified theories and supersymmetry. The book then discusses the general theory of relativity, higher dimensional theories of gravity, and superstring theory. It also introduces various novel ideas and models with extra dimensions and low-scale gravity. The last part of the book deals with astroparticle physics. After an introduction to cosmology, it covers several specialized topics, including baryogenesis, dark matter, dark energy, and brane cosmology.
With numerous equations and detailed references, this lucid book explores the new physics beyond the standard model, showing that particle and astroparticle physics will together reveal unique insights in the next era of physics.
The text presents meaningful problems by topic — supplemented by ample illustrations, applications, and exercises — that address the most intriguing questions of modern physics. Answers to selected problems appear in the appendix. Geared toward science and engineering majors, this volume is also appropriate for independent study by those who have completed a general physics course.
The truth is that Janssen never saw any sign of a new element during his observations in India. His reports and letters do not mention any such claim.
Other sources would have you believe that helium was jointly discovered by Janssen and Norman Lockyer, a British scientist, and that their discovery letters reached Paris the same day, one sent from India, and the other from England.
Again, the truth is completely different. Two letters from Lockyer and Janssen did reach Paris the same day in 1868, but their letters did not mention any new element. What they had discovered was a new way of observing the Sun without a solar eclipse. This would ultimately lead to the discovery of helium, in which Lockyer would play a prominent role, but not Janssen.
At the same time, Norman Robert Pogson, a disgruntled British astronomer stationed in India did notice something peculiar during the eclipse. He was the first one to notice something odd about the spectrum of the Sun that day, and his observations would prove crucial to Lockyer’s own investigations of helium. But Pogson’s report was never published in any peer reviewed journal and it languished on the desk of a local British officer in colonial India.
This book tells the real story behind the discovery of helium, along with biographical sketches of the scientists and descriptions of the milieu in which they worked. It will convey the excitement, confusion, and passion of nineteenth century scientists, using their own words, from their letters and reports.
“The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics” chronicles one of the most exciting discoveries ever made and explains why it also marked the birth of a new branch of science called ‘astrophysics.’
• complete coverage of all question-types since 2000
• comprehensive “trick” question-types revealed
• full set of all possible step-by-step solution approaches
• examination reports revealing common mistakes & unusual wrong habits
• short side-reading notes
• easy-to-implement check-back procedure
• complete edition eBook available
Written by physicist and broadcaster Professor Jim Al-Khalili, it explores all the key players, breakthroughs, controversies and unanswered questions of the quantum world.
You'll discover how the sun shines, why light is both a wave and a particle, the certainty of the Uncertainty Principle, Schrodinger's Cat, Einstein's spooky action, how to build a quantum computer, and why quantum mechanics drives even its experts completely crazy.
'Jim Al-Khalili has done an admirable job of condensing the ideas of quantum physics from Max Planck to the possibilities of quantum computers into brisk, straightforward English' The Times
Written by the leading lights and most outstanding communicators in their fields, the Ladybird Expert books provide clear, accessible and authoritative introductions to subjects drawn from science, history and culture.
Other books currently available in the Ladybird Expert series include:
· Climate Change
For an adult readership, the Ladybird Expert series is produced in the same iconic small format pioneered by the original Ladybirds. Each beautifully illustrated book features the first new illustrations produced in the original Ladybird style for nearly forty years.
• exposes all “trick” questions
• provides step-by-step solutions
• refreshing reverse-engineering approach to learning
• most efficient method of learning, hence saves time
• examples arrange from easy-to-hard to facilitate easy absorption
• advanced trade book
• complete edition and concise edition eBooks available
Intended for science and engineering students with one year of introductory physics background, this textbook presents the medical applications of fundamental principles of physics to students who are considering careers in medical physics, biophysics, medicine, or nuclear engineering. It also serves as an excellent reference for advanced students, as well as medical and health researchers, practitioners, and technicians who are interested in developing the background required to understand the changing landscape of medical science. Practice exercises are included and solutions are available separately in an instructor's manual.Complete discussion of the fundamental physical principles underlying modern medicineAccessible exploration of the physics encountered in a typical visit to a doctorPractice exercises are included and solutions are provided in a separate instructor’s manual (available to professors)A companion website (modernphysicsinmedicine.com) presents supplementary materials
This book also:
Offers an in-depth look, from introductory basics to experimental simulation, of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, an emerging method for generating fusion power
Discusses how the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement method can be applied to other applications besides fusion through theoretical experiments in the text
Details the study of the physics of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement in small-volume plasmas and suggests that their rapid reproduction could lead to the creation of a large-scale power-producing device
Perfect for researchers and students working with nuclear fusion, Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion: Fundamentals and Applications also offers the current experimental status of IEC research, details supporting theories in the field and introduces other potential applications that stem from IEC.
• complete answer keys
• topical order to facilitate drilling
• complete and true encyclopedia of question-types
• first to expose all-inclusive “trick” questions
• first to make available full set of step-by-step solution approaches (available separately)
• advanced trade book
• Complete edition and concise edition eBooks available
In 1900, German physicist Max Planck postulated that light, or radiant energy, can exist only in the form of discrete packages or quanta. This profound insight, along with Einstein's equally momentous theories of relativity, completely revolutionized man's view of matter, energy, and the nature of physics itself.
In this lucid layman's introduction to quantum theory, an eminent physicist and noted popularizer of science traces the development of quantum theory from the turn of the century to about 1930 — from Planck's seminal concept (still developing) to anti-particles, mesons, and Enrico Fermi's nuclear research. Gamow was not just a spectator at the theoretical breakthroughs which fundamentally altered our view of the universe, he was an active participant who made important contributions of his own. This "insider's" vantage point lends special validity to his careful, accessible explanations of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, Niels Bohr's model of the atom, the pilot waves of Louis de Broglie and other path-breaking ideas.
In addition, Gamow recounts a wealth of revealing personal anecdotes which give a warm human dimension to many giants of 20th-century physics. He ends the book with the Blegdamsvej Faust, a delightful play written in 1932 by Niels Bohr's students and colleagues to satirize the epochal developments that were revolutionizing physics. This celebrated play is available only in this volume.
Written in a clear, lively style, and enhanced by 12 photographs (including candid shots of Rutherford, Bohr, Pauli, Heisenberg, Fermi, and others), Thirty Years that Shook Physics offers both scientists and laymen a highly readable introduction to the brilliant conceptions that helped unlock many secrets of energy and matter and laid the groundwork for future discoveries.
- question-types from IGCSE examinations
- conform to latest IGCSE syllabus
- complete answer keys
- complete step-by-step solutions available separately
- arrange in topical order to facilitate drilling
- complete encyclopedia of question-types
- comprehensive “trick” questions revealed
- tendency towards carelessness is greatly reduced
- most efficient method of learning, hence saves time
- very advanced tradebook- complete edition and concise edition eBooks available
Soon Emmy was trying to use the strange ideas of quantum mechanics for the really important things in her life: chasing critters, getting treats, and going for walks. She peppered Chad with questions: Could she use quantum tunneling to get through the neighbor's fence and chase bunnies? What about quantum teleportation to catch squirrels before they climb out of reach? Where are all the universes in which Chad drops steak on the floor? And what about the bunnies made of cheese that ought to be appearing out of nothing in the backyard?
With great humor and clarity, Chad Orzel explains to Emmy, and to human readers, just what quantum mechanics is and how it works -- and why, although you can't use it to catch squirrels or eat steak, it's still bizarre, amazing, and important to every dog and human.
Follow along as Chad and Emmy discuss the central elements of quantum theory, from particles that behave like waves and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to entanglement ("spooky action at a distance") and virtual particles. Along the way, they discuss the history of the theory, such as the experiments that discovered that electrons are waves and particles at the same time, and Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr's decades-long debate over what quantum theory really meant (Einstein may have been smarter, but Bohr was right more often).
Don't get caught looking less informed than Emmy. How to Teach Physics to Your Dog will show you the universe that lies beneath everyday reality, in all its randomness, uncertainty, and wonder.
"Forget Schrödinger's Cat," says Emmy, "quantum physics is all about dogs." And once you see quantum physics explained to a dog, you'll never see the world the same way again.
The second edition differs substantially from the first edition, with over 30% new material, including:A new chapter on non-crystalline diffraction - designed to appeal to the large community who study the structure of liquids, glasses, and most importantly polymers and bio-molecules A new chapter on x-ray imaging - developed in close cooperation with many of the leading experts in the field Two new chapters covering non-crystalline diffraction and imaging Many important changes to various sections in the book have been made with a view to improving the exposition Four-colour representation throughout the text to clarify key concepts Extensive problems after each chapter
There is also supplementary book material for this title available online (http://booksupport.wiley.com).
Praise for the previous edition:
“The publication of Jens Als-Nielsen and Des McMorrow’s Elements of Modern X-ray Physics is a defining moment in the field of synchrotron radiation… a welcome addition to the bookshelves of synchrotron–radiation professionals and students alike.... The text is now my personal choice for teaching x-ray physics…” – Physics Today, 2002
The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation for national nuclear security and for monitoring nuclear materials.
In giving students a taste of fundamental interactions among elementary particles, the author does not assume any prior knowledge of quantum field theory. He presents a brief introduction that supplies students with the necessary tools without seriously getting into the nitty-gritty of quantum field theory, and then explores advanced topics in detail. The book then discusses group theory, and in this case the author assumes that students are familiar with the basic definitions and properties of a group, and even SU(2) and its representations. With this foundation established, he goes on to discuss representations of continuous groups bigger than SU(2) in detail.
The material is presented at a level that M.Sc. and Ph.D. students can understand, with exercises throughout the text at points at which performing the exercises would be most beneficial. Anyone teaching a one-semester course will probably have to choose from the topics covered, because this text also contains advanced material that might not be covered within a semester due to lack of time. Thus it provides the teaching tool with the flexibility to customize the course to suit your needs.
When Marie Curie, Enrico Fermi, and Edward Teller forged the science of radioactivity, they began a revolution that ran from the nineteenth century through the course of World War II and the Cold War to our current confrontation with the dangers of nuclear power and proliferation. While nuclear science improves our lives, radiation’s invisible powers can trigger cancer and cellular mayhem. Writing with a biographer’s passion, New York Times bestselling author Craig Nelson unlocks one of the great mysteries of the universe.
In The Age of Radiance, Nelson illuminates a pageant of fascinating historical figures: Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Curtis LeMay, John F. Kennedy, Robert McNamara, Ronald Reagan, and Mikhail Gorbachev, among others. He reveals how Jewish scientists fleeing Hitler transformed America from a nation that created light bulbs into one that split atoms; Alfred Nobel’s dream of global peace; and how, in our time, emergency workers and utility employees fought to contain life-threatening nuclear reactors. By tracing our complicated relationship with the dangerous energy we unleashed, Nelson discusses how atomic power and radiation are indivisible from our everyday lives.
Brilliantly told and masterfully crafted, The Age of Radiance provides a new understanding of a misunderstood epoch in history and restores to prominence the forgotten heroes and heroines who have changed all of our lives for better and for worse. “This is the kind of book that doesn’t just inform you but leaves you feeling smarter.” (The Dallas Morning News).
Free Radicals in Medicine
Radicals in vivo and in Model Systems, and their Study by Spin Trapping
In vivo EPR, including Oximetry and Imaging
Time Domain EPR at Radio Frequencies
EPR of Copper Complexes: Motion and Frequency Dependence
Time Domain EPR and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation
The first part of this volume of Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics (AAMOP), entitled Benjamin Bederson: Works, Comments and Legacies, contains articles written from a personal perspective. His days at Los Alamos during World War II, working on the A bomb, are recounted by V. Fitch. H. Walther writes on the time when both were editors of AAMOP. H. Lustig, E. Merzbacher and B. Crasemann, with whom Bederson had a long-term association at the American Physical Society, contribute their experiences, one of them in the style of a poem. C.D. Rice recalls his days when he was Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science at NYU, and the education in physics that he received from Bederson, then Dean of the Graduate School. The contribution by R. Stuewer is on Bederson as physicist historian (his latest interest). N. Lane draws some parallels between "two civic scientists, Benjamin Bederson and the other Benjamin". The papers are introduced by H.H. Stroke, in an overview of Bederson's career. A biography and bibliography are included.
The second part of the volume contains scientific articles on the Casimir effects (L. Spruch), dipole polarizabilities (X. Chu, A. Dalgarno), two-electron molecular bonds revisited (G. Chen, S.A. Chin, Y. Dou, K.T. Kapale, M. Kim, A.A. Svidzinsky, K. Uretkin, H. Xiong, M.O. Scully, and resonance fluorescence of two-level atoms (H. Walther). J. Pinard and H.H. Stroke review spectroscopy with radioactive atoms. T. Miller writes on electron attachment and detachment in gases, and, with H. Gould, on recent developments in the measurement of static electric dipole polarizabilities. R. Celotta and J.A. Stroscio's most recent work on trapping and moving atoms on surfaces is contributed here. C.C. Lin and J.B. Borrard's article is on electron-impact excitation cross sections. The late Edward Pollack wrote his last paper for this volume, Atomic and Ionic Collisions. L. Vuskovic and S. Popovi ́c write on atomic interactions in a weakly ionized gas and ionizing shock waves. The last scientific article is by H. Kleinpoppen, B. Lohmann, A. Grum-Grzhimailo and U. Becker on approaches to perfect/complete scattering in atomic and molecular physics. The book ends with an essay on teaching by R.E. Collins.Benjamin Bederson - Atomic Physicist, Civil ScientistThe Physical Review and Its EditorLos Alamos in World War II - View from BelowPhysics in PoetryCasimir Effects - Pedagogical NotesAtomic Physics in Collisions, Polarizabilities, Gases, Atomic Physics and Radioactive AtomsMolecular Bond RevisitedResonance Fluorescence in 2-Level AtomsTrapping and Moving Atoms on Surfaces
An Accessible yet In-Depth Account of How Fundamental Particles Shape Our World
The book first examines the experiments and theoretical ideas that gave rise to the standard model. It discusses special relativity, angular momentum, spin, the Dirac electron, quantum field theory, Feynman diagrams, Pauli’s neutrino, Fermi’s weak interaction, Yukawa’s pion, the muon neutrino, quarks, leptons, and flavor symmetry.
The authors then explain the violation of the symmetry between matter and antimatter, known as CP violation. They cover the discoveries of CP violation in the decays of kaons and B mesons as well as future experiments that could detect possible CP violation beyond the standard model.
In the next part, the authors present experimental results involving the once-mysterious neutrino. They explore the evidence that neutrinos have mass, new neutrino experiments in various countries, and the potential of neutrino astronomy to offer a new perspective on stars and galaxies.
The final section focuses on the one undetected particle of the standard model: the Higgs boson. The authors review the experiments that established important constraints on the mass of the Higgs particle. They also highlight recent experiments of the Tevatron particle accelerator at Fermilab, along with the near future impact of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the longer term impact of the International Linear Collider (ILC).
The Foundation for New Discoveries
A clear picture of the historic breakthroughs and latest findings in the particle physics community, this book guides you through the theories and experiments surrounding fundamental particles and the main forces between them. It sets the stage for the next transformation in modern science.
Readership: Students and researchers in atomic physics, theoretical physics and electrodynamics.
Keywords:Photon;Spontaneous Emission;Absorption;Entanglement;Electron;KinematicKey Features:No other book provides a classical physics-based explanation of quantum physics, including photon creation and annihilation, photon structure and behavior, and electron structureDescribes a zero-Q radiation field with the electromagnetic and kinematic properties of a photon. The continuum field solution that describes a photon enables us to construct a viable electron model sufficient to create photon exchanges and a photon model that, in turn, is sufficient to understand why photons diffract and reflect light as a wave but are created and annihilated as a particle
Alongside a description of radiationless processes in statistical large molecules and calculational methods for intramolecular distributions, the authors also investigate the nuclear coordinate dependence of matrix elements. Whole chapters are devoted to the mathematical description of the lifetime and decay of a prepared states as well as miscellaneous applications. The text is supplemented by a number of appendices for optimum usability.
With its integration of the necessary mathematical rigor, this is primarily intended for graduate students in theoretical physics and chemistry, but is also indispensable reading for those working in molecular physics, physical chemistry and laser physics.