Beginning in the mid-fifties and emanating largely from MIT, linguists developed an approach to linguistic theory and to the study of the structure of particular languages that diverged in many respects from conventional modern linguistics. Although the new approach was connected to the traditional study of languages, it differed enough in its specific conclusions about the structure of language to warrant a name, "generative grammar." Various deficiencies were discovered in the first attempts to formulate a theory of transformational generative grammar and in the descriptive analysis of particular languages that motivated these formulations. At the same time, it became apparent that these formulations can be extended and deepened. In this book, Chomsky reviews these developments and proposes a reformulation of the theory of transformational generative grammar that takes them into account. The emphasis in this study is syntax; semantic and phonological aspects of the language structure are discussed only insofar as they bear on syntactic theory.
In the preface to this edition, Chomsky emphasizes that the minimalist approach developed in the book and in subsequent work "is a program, not a theory." With this book, Chomsky built on pursuits from the earliest days of generative grammar to formulate a new research program that had far-reaching implications for the field.
With clear text, appealing cartoons, and a focus on common grammatical errors and how to correct them, this little volume is a real gem that should find a permanent place with companies, universities, and anyone seeking a user-friendly guide to style and usage.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
The Perfect series is a range of practical guides that give clear and straightforward advice on everything from getting your first job to choosing your baby's name. Written by experienced authors offering tried-and-tested tips, each book contains all you need to get it right first time.
The second edition of Sentence Structure has been revised and updated throughout and includes new material on tense, aspect, modality and the verb phrase, whilst the order of topics has been rearranged to improve clarity.
With easy-to-follow rules and tips, and examples taken from published and unpublished papers, you will learn how to:prepare and structure a manuscript
increase readability and reduce the number of mistakes you make in English by writing concisely, with no redundancy and no ambiguity
write a title and an abstract that will attract attention and be read
decide what to include in the various parts of the paper (Introduction, Methodology, Discussion etc)
highlight your claims and contribution
discuss the limitations of your research
choose the correct tenses and style
satisfy the requirements of editors and reviewers
This new edition contains over 40% new material, including two new chapters, stimulating factoids, and discussion points both for self-study and in-class use.
EAP teachers will find this book to be a great source of tips for training students, and for preparing both instructive and entertaining lessons.
Other books in the series cover: presentations at international conferences; academic correspondence; English grammar, usage and style; interacting on campus, plus exercise books and a teacher's guide to the whole series.
Please visit http://www.springer.com/series/13913 for a full list of titles in the series.
Adrian Wallwork is the author of more than 30 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students and academics from 35 countries to write research papers, prepare presentations, and communicate with editors, referees and fellow researchers.
Contributors to this volume are primarily Word Grammar grammarians from across the world. All the chapters here manifest theoretical potentialities of Word Grammar, exploring how powerful Word Grammar is to offer analysis for linguistic phenomena in various languages. The chapters come from varying perspectives and include work on a number of languages, including English, German, Japanese, Swahili, Turkish and Ancient Greek. Phenomena studied include verbal inflection, case agreement, extraction, construction and code-mixing. This collection will be of interest to academics encountering Word Grammar for the first time, or for those who are already familiar with this theory and are interested in reading how it has evolved and what its future may hold.
This book pulls from linguistic theory all the relevant notions that will enable the language student to fully grasp English grammar. After introducing form and function, the authors cover verbs, nouns, aspect and tense, modality and discourse. Readers are led through the underlying principles of language use, with the book presupposing only a basic grasp of linguistic terminology. It does not get bogged down in huge amounts of detail and focuses on the crucial issues. Full of exercises and with attention paid to moving the reader through their course, this is the desk reference grammar of choice for both native and non-native English speakers.
"Cowper exhibits the analytical devices of current principles-and-parameters approaches, takes readers carefully through the central elements of grammatical theory (including very recent work), and ushers them selectively into the technical literature. . . . A serious introduction for those who want to know the nuts and bolts of syntactic theory and to see why linguists are so excited these days."—David Lightfoot, University of Maryland
"An excellent short introduction to the Government and Binding model of syntactic theory. . . . Cowper's work succeeds in teaching syntactic argumentation and in showing the conceptual reasons behind specific proposals in modern syntactic theory."—Jaklin Kornfilt, Syracuse University
The exercises include the following areas:active vs passive, use of wearticles (a/an, the, zero) and quantifiers (some, any, few etc)conditionals and modalscountable and uncountable nounsgenitiveinfinitive vs -ing formnumbers, acronyms, abbreviationsrelative clauses and which vs thattenses (e.g. simple present, simple past, present perfect)word order
Exercise types are repeated for different contexts. For example, the difference between the simple present, present perfect and simple past is tested for use in papers, referees' reports, and emails of various types. Such repetition of similar types of exercises is perfect for revision purposes.
English for Academic Research: Grammar Exercises is designed for self-study and there is a key to all exercises. Most exercises require no actual writing but simply choosing between various options, thus facilitating e-reading and rapid progress.
The exercises can also be integrated into English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and English for Special Purposes (ESP) courses at universities and research institutes.
The book can be used in conjunction with the other exercise books in the series and is cross-referenced to:
English for Research: Usage, Style, and Grammar
English for Writing Research Papers
English for Academic Correspondence and Socializing
Adrian Wallwork is the author of around 30 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students from 35 countries to write and present academic work.
Each chapter is followed by two sets of exercises. The first set can be used in self-study or in the classroom. The second set deals with more advanced topics, and can be used for classroom discussion or essay writing.
This fourth edition has been fully revised and updated and includes:
clearer descriptions and improved presentation
new material on word structure and word formation
new exercises, examples and extracts
updated further reading
Assuming no prior knowledge of English grammar, this book is ideal for beginning students on a one-semester course and provides everything a student needs on the theory and practice of English usage. A comprehensive Glossary of grammatical terms is included and a website provides invaluable additional exercises.
This is the first detailed description of Malayalam, providing an in-depth analysis of the linguistic richness of this language.
Each unit focuses on a different word class, using an analysis of specific words which includes:
an introduction to the grammar of each word;
examples of real world usage featuring that word;
exercises with answers.
This unique approach not only introduces students to grammar but also provides them with an understanding of how grammar works in everyday English. Written by an experienced teacher and author, From Words to Grammar is ideal for all students of English Language.
These articles were originally published in Studies in Language 32:3 (2008).
O'Grady reviews the literature andÂ covers the theoryÂ before moving on to a practical, analytic section.Â His final chapter reviews the arguments, maps the road ahead and lays out the practical applications of the grammar.Â The book will be of great interest to researchers in applied linguistics, discourse analysis and also EFL/ESL.
Jelinek originated the Pronominal Argument Hypothesis – the idea that many languages restrict realization of their arguments to pronouns. In other work, Jelinek investigated a broad range of morphological, syntactic and semantic phenomena in understudied and endangered languages. Besides the theoretical value of that work, it was instrumental in providing sophisticated semantic and syntactic documentation for such languages, where description is typically limited to the basic morphophonology and morphosyntax, as well as texts, that form the core of most descriptive work.
Thirteen of her most important papers, together with a fourteenth essay previously unpublished, are here collected, each preceded by a short introduction that provides context for the work and evidence of its subsequent influence.
In The Disappearing Dictionary, linguistics expert Professor David Crystal collects together delightful dialect words that either provide an insight into an older way of life, or simply have an irresistible phonetic appeal. Like a mirror image of The Meaning of Liff that just happens to be true, The Disappearing Dictionary unearths some lovely old gems of the English language, dusts them down and makes them live again for a new generation.
dabberlick [noun, Scotland]
A mildly insulting way of talking about someone who is tall and skinny. 'Where's that dabberlick of a child?'
fubsy [adjective, Lancashire]
Plump, in a nice sort of way.
squinch [noun, Devon]
A narrow crack in a wall or a space between floorboards. 'I lost sixpence through a squinch in the floor'.
For each resource that linguists create, NooJ provides parsers that can apply it to any corpus of texts in order to extract examples or counter-examples, to annotate matching sequences, to perform statistical analyses, etc. NooJ also contains generators that can produce the texts that these linguistic resources describe, as well as a rich toolbox that allows linguists to construct, maintain, test, debug, accumulate and reuse linguistic resources. For each elementary linguistic phenomenon to be described, NooJ proposes a set of computational formalisms, the power of which ranges from very efficient finite-state automata to very powerful Turing machines. This makes NooJ’s approach different from most other computational linguistic tools that typically offer a unique formalism to their users.
Since it was released in 2002, NooJ has been enhanced with new features every year. Linguists, researchers in the social sciences and, more generally, professionals who analyse texts have contributed to its development and participated in the annual NooJ conference. Since 2011, the European project Meta-Net CESAR has introduced new interest in NooJ as well as a new set of projects, both in linguistics and in computer science. The present volume contains 18 articles selected from the 32 papers presented at the International NooJ 2012 Conference which was held from June 14th to 16th at the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO) in Paris. These articles are organised in three parts: “Vocabulary and Morphology” contains five articles; “Syntax and Semantics” contains six articles; “NooJ Applications” contains six articles. In this volume, we decided to add a new part: eight short papers that present prototype NooJ modules developed by graduate students and that could serve as bases for more ambitious projects.
This book furnishes plenty of examples of idiomatic phrases and provides the foundation for how MT systems can process and translate idioms by means of simple linguistic resources.