Comprised of 135 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the problems and benefits of animal cell culture, followed by a discussion on the isolation of immortal murine macrophage cell lines. The reader is systematically introduced to the use of DNA fingerprinting to characterize cell banks; immortalization of cells with oncogenes; lipid metabolism of animal cells in culture; and energetics of glutaminolysis. Subsequent chapters explore serum-free and protein-free media; the physiology of animal cells; gene expression in animal cell systems; and animal cell bioreactors. The monitoring and assay of animal cell parameters are also considered, along with downstream processing and regulatory issues.
This monograph will be of interest to students, practitioners, and investigators in the fields of microbiology and biotechnology.
The research papers are grouped into 25 sections encompassing 145 chapters. Subjects covered range from cells and physiology engineering dealing with cell characterization, cell culture establishment, cloning, and cell engineering. Topics on culture media, ammonium detoxification, the effects of physical parameters on cell cultures, assays and monitoring systems, and bioreactor techniques are also covered. Discussions are likewise made on the products from animal cells in culture, virus removal, and DNA determination and characterization in relation to safety issues.
The book will be useful for cell biologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, biochemical engineers, and students engaged in the study of animal cell cultures.
The book is packed with specific methods that can be applied quickly and accurately to almost any industry and any product to control documentation, request changes to the product, implement changes and develop bills of material.
The result is a powerful communications bridge between the engineering function and ‘the rest of the world’ that makes rapid changes in products and documentation possible. With the help of the simple techniques in the handbook, companies can gain and hold their competitive advantages in a world that demands flexibility and quick reflexes – and has no sympathy for delays.
The new edition sets EDC/CM in the context of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), providing guidance on choosing, purchasing and implementing PLM software systems. Watts guides the reader to harness these tools and techniques for business objectives including Process Improvement and time-to-market.Solid, pragmatic ideas for real product and process cost reduction. According to one reviewer: ‘most books focus on the basics without examining all facets of each process area or functional area. This may be good for quickly learning, but it will only take the reader so far. Mr. Watts imparts the same information, but invites the reader to think and to consider strengths and weaknesses of processes and procedures. The copious examples, illustrations and breadth of topics covered make this book "the" reference on EDC and CM.’Strategic emphasis shows how processes may be integrated and tears down the ‘wall’ between Engineering and OperationsThorough description of Product Lifecycle Management software tools
Designed for those new to FTIR, but with enough reference material to appeal to journeyman and expert spectroscopists, this book does not demand any extensive familiarity with chemistry or physics. Specializing in concise and comprehensible explanations of FTIR topics, the author introduces the field of infrared spectroscopy, including the strengths and weaknesses of FTIR as a chemical analysis technique. He then describes the instrument itself and explores topics such as how an interferometer generates a spectrum, optimization of spectral quality, and which tests are used to monitor instrument health.
The book discusses how to properly use spectral processing to increase the information of a spectrum without damaging the data and takes considerable care in instructing on sample preparation, as good sample preparation constitutes half the battle in extracting good data. The final chapters examine single analyte quantitative analysis and conclude with an overview of infrared microscopy.
Drawing on the experience and knowledge of the author as both a professor and practitioner, Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy offers up-to-date information given in clear, easily understood language to appeal to beginner and expert spectroscopists alike. The author maintains a website and blog with supplemental material. His training course schedule is also available online.
For professionals in the coating and drying industry, the world is a demanding place. New, technically complex products such as fuel cell membranes, thin film batteries, solar cells, and RFID chips require coatings of extreme precision. With the bar raised so high, understanding how to troubleshoot and eliminate defects on a coating line is an essential skill for all personnel.
Coating and Drying Defects, Second Edition provides manufacturing and quality control personnel, equipment operators and supervisors, and plant engineers and scientists with the full complement of proven tools and techniques for detecting, defining, and eliminating coating defects and operating problems, and for ensuring that they do not recur.
Updating the valuable contents of the first edition, this practical Second Edition:Describes all major processes for coating and drying of continuous film on sheets or webs Covers technologies that have been recently developed to prevent defect formation and improve operating procedures Provides a rational framework within which to assess and analyze virtually any defect that may arise Offers step-by-step guidelines for conducting every phase of the troubleshooting process, including defect prevention Going beyond simply describing a disparate set of troubleshooting techniques, this unique guide arms readers with a systematic, nonmathematical methodology encompassing the entire coating operation, becoming an indispensable resource for manufacturing and quality-control personnel as well as plant engineers, polymer scientists, surface scientists, organic chemists, and coating scientists.
This text offers a thorough overview of the operating characteristics, efficiencies, design features, troubleshooting, and maintenance of dynamic and positive displacement process gas compressors. The author examines a wide spectrum of compressors used in heavy process industries, with an emphasis on improving reliability and avoiding failure. Readers learn both the theory underlying compressors as well as the myriad day-to-day practical issues and challenges that chemical engineers and plant operation personnel must address.
The text features:Latest design and manufacturing details of dynamic and positive displacement process gas compressors Examination of the full range of machines available for the heavy process industries Thorough presentation of the arrangements, material composition, and basic laws governing the design of all important process gas compressors Guidance on selecting optimum compressor configurations, controls, components, and auxiliaries to maximize reliability Monitoring and performance analysis for optimal machinery condition Systematic methods to avoid failure through the application of field-tested reliability enhancement concepts Fluid instability and externally pressurized bearings Reliability-driven asset management strategies for compressors Upstream separator and filter issues
The text's structure is carefully designed to build knowledge and skills by starting with key principles and then moving to more advanced material. Hundreds of photos depicting various types of compressors, components, and processes are provided throughout.
Compressors often represent a multi-million dollar investment for such applications as petrochemical processing and refining, refrigeration, pipeline transport, and turbochargers and superchargers for internal combustion engines. This text enables the broad range of engineers and plant managers who work with these compressors to make the most of the investment by leading them to the best decisions for selecting, operating, upgrading, maintaining, and troubleshooting.
An international effort and industry-academia collaboration, this volume features expert contributions, focusing on the contemporary state-of-the-art concerning the many facets of the production of detergents and surfactants.
Thus, the Handbook of Detergents, Part F – Production, deals with the production of anionic, cationic, nonionic, and amphoteric surfactants, key builders, bleaching and whitening agents, enzymes and other components of detergent formulations in different contexts, gauges and related concerns, and discusses various technological procedures of production processes involving the components of surfactants and detergents.
First published in 1934, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook has equipped generations of engineers and chemists with an expert source of chemical engineering information and data. Now updated to reflect the latest technology and processes of the new millennium, the Eighth Edition of this classic guide provides unsurpassed coverage of every aspect of chemical engineering-from fundamental principles to chemical processes and equipment to new computer applications.
Filled with over 700 detailed illustrations, the Eighth Edition of Perry's Chemcial Engineering Handbook features:Comprehensive tables and charts for unit conversion A greatly expanded section on physical and chemical data New to this edition: the latest advances in distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, reactor modeling, biological processes, biochemical and membrane separation processes, and chemical plant safety practices with accident case histories
Inside This Updated Chemical Engineering GuideConversion Factors and Mathematical Symbols • Physical and Chemical Data • Mathematics • Thermodynamics • Heat and Mass Transfer • Fluid and Particle Dynamics Reaction Kinetics • Process Control • Process Economics • Transport and Storage of Fluids • Heat Transfer Equipment • Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling, and Solids Drying • Distillation • Gas Absorption and Gas-Liquid System Design • Liquid-Liquid Extraction Operations and Equipment • Adsorption and Ion Exchange • Gas-Solid Operations and Equipment • Liquid-Solid Operations and Equipment • Solid-Solid Operations and Equipment • Size Reduction and Size Enlargement • Handling of Bulk Solids and Packaging of Solids and Liquids • Alternative Separation Processes • And Many Other Topics!
The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.
* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations
* Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and summary
* Includes topics not found in similar books, such as a review of general algebra and an introduction to group theory
* Provides chemistry specific instruction without the distraction of abstract concepts or theoretical issues in pure mathematics
Essentials of Chemical Reaction Engineering is a complete yet concise, modern introduction to chemical reaction engineering for undergraduate students. While the classic Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Fourth Edition, is still available, H. Scott Fogler distilled that larger text into this volume of essential topics for undergraduate students.
Fogler’s unique way of presenting the material helps students gain a deep, intuitive understanding of the field’s essentials through reasoning, not memorization. He especially focuses on important new energy and safety issues, ranging from solar and biomass applications to the avoidance of runaway reactions.
Thoroughly classroom tested, this text reflects feedback from hundreds of students at the University of Michigan and other leading universities. It also provides new resources to help students discover how reactors behave in diverse situations.
Coverage includesCrucial safety topics, including ammonium nitrate CSTR explosions, nitroaniline and T2 Laboratories batch reactor runaways, and SAChE/CCPS resources Greater emphasis on safety: following the recommendations of the Chemical Safety Board (CSB) 2 case studies from plant explosions and two homework problems which discuss another explosion. Solar energy conversions: chemical, thermal, and catalytic water spilling Algae production for biomass Mole balances: batch, continuous-flow, and industrial reactors Conversion and reactor sizing: design equations, reactors in series, and more Rate laws and stoichiometry Isothermal reactor design: conversion and molar flow rates Collection and analysis of rate data Multiple reactions: parallel, series, and complex reactions; membrane reactors; and more Reaction mechanisms, pathways, bioreactions, and bioreactors Catalysis and catalytic reactors Nonisothermal reactor design: steady-state energy balance and adiabatic PFR applications Steady-state nonisothermal reactor design: flow reactors with heat exchange
This convenient volume provides engineers with hundreds of common sense techniques, shortcuts, and calculations to quickly and accurately solve day-to-day design, operations, and equipment problems. Here, in a compact, easy-to-use format, are practical tips, handy formulas, correlations, curves, charts, tables, and shortcut methods that will save engineers valuable time and effort.
* The standard handbook for chemical and process engineers
* All new material on pinch point analysis on networks of heat exchangers and updates on gas treating in process design and heat transfer
* Hundreds of common sense techniques and calculations
Designed as a bridge to allow a smooth and confident transition for personnel coming from a chemistry background into the practical world of explosives, Chemistry of Pyrotechnics: Basic Principles and Theory, Second Edition emphasizes basic chemical principles alongside practical, hands-on knowledge in the preparation of energetic mixtures. It examines the interactions between and adaptations of pyrotechnics to changing technology in areas such as obscuration science and low-signature flame emission.
Much more than a simple how-to guide, the book discusses chemical and pyrotechnic principles, components of high-energy mixtures, and elements of ignition, propagation, and sensitivity. It offers heat compositions, including ignition mixes, delays, thermites, and propellants and investigates the production of smoke and sound as well as light and color.
Promoting the growth and expansion of pyrotechnics as a science, Chemistry of Pyrotechnics: Basic Principles and Theory, Second Edition provides practitioners with the ability to apply chemical principles and logic to energetic materials and thereby make the field as productive, useful, and safe as possible.
This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including adult and embryonic stem cells and progenitor populations that may soon lead to new tissue engineering therapies for heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies is complemented by a series of new chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering. The result is a comprehensive textbook that we believe will be useful to students and experts alike.
New to this edition:
*Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves
*Expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems
Presenting theoretical knowledge and applied practical considerations, this title
provides an in-depth discussion of recent advances in sterilization
identifies obstacles that may be encountered at any stage of the validation program, and suggests the newest and most advanced solutions
explores distinctive and specific process steps, and identifies critical process control points to reach acceptable results
blends the use of theoretical knowledge with recent technological advancements to achieve applied practical solutions
Topics addressed include transport with inertia, described by persistent random walks and hyperbolic reaction-transport equations and transport by anomalous diffusion, in particular subdiffusion, where the mean square displacement grows sublinearly with time. In particular reaction-diffusion systems are studied where the medium is in turn either spatially inhomogeneous, compositionally heterogeneous or spatially discrete.
Applications span a vast range of interdisciplinary fields and the systems considered can be as different as human or animal groups migrating under external influences, population ecology and evolution, complex chemical reactions, or networks of biological cells. Several chapters treat these applications in detail.
This book is the first to introduce a range of currently used, or under development, laser- and light-based technologies that will provide greater cosmetic benefits to the consumer. It explains the basic physics of light-based technologies, the bio-physical principles behind their mechanism of action, and their applications in many cosmetic procedures. The fundamentals of skin and hair physiology (relevant to the understanding of actions of various cosmetics) are also explained, as are: cosmeceuticals; topical drugs for cosmetic benefits; non-invasive and invasive options available for beauty treatments, and how all this fits in with the emerging light-based technologies.
Individual chapters are devoted to the various skin and hair conditions where light-based systems are currently used. Treatments discussed include the rejuvenation and toning of damaged skin; skin resurfacing and microdermabrasion; hair removal and growth reduction; wrinkle reduction; acne treatment and cellulite. Finally, the book examines the synergy of cosmeceuticals and topical bioactive agents with light-based technologies, safety issues, a regulatory perspective for OTC marketing, and concludes with a discussion of the business aspects related to home-use of light-based devices.The first book to introduce this emerging technology to the personal care industryExplains their applications in many cosmetic proceduresDevotes individual chapters to common skin and hair conditions
At the outset the text explains the various key terms of thermodynamics with suitable examples and then thoroughly deals with the virial and cubic equations of state by showing the P-V-T (pressure, molar volume and temperature) relation of fluids. It elaborates on the first and second laws of thermodynamics and their applications with the help of numerous engineering examples. The text further discusses the concepts of exergy, standard property changes of chemical reactions, thermodynamic property relations and fugacity. The book also includes detailed discussions on residual and excess properties of mixtures, various activity coefficient models, local composition models, and group contribution methods. In addition, the text focuses on vapour-liquid and other phase equilibrium calculations, and analyzes chemical reaction equilibria and adiabatic reaction temperature for systems with complete and incomplete conversion of reactants.
Includes a large number of fully worked-out examples to help students master the concepts discussed.
Provides well-graded problems with answers at the end of each chapter to test and foster students’ conceptual understanding of the subject. The total number of solved examples and end-chapter exercises in the book are over 600.
Contains chapter summaries that review the major concepts covered.
The book is primarily designed for the undergraduate students of chemical engineering and its related disciplines such as petroleum engineering and polymer engineering. It can also be useful to professionals.
The Solution Manual containing the complete worked-out solutions to chapter-end exercises and problems is available for instructors.
1) provides detailed description of the chemistry used in mineral processing industry;
2) describes theoretical aspects of the action of flotation reagents
3) provides information on the use of reagents in over 100 operating plants treating Cu, Cu/Zn, Cu/Pb, Zn, Pb/Zn/Ag, Cu/Ni and Ni ores.
* Looks at the theoretical aspects of flotation reagents
* Examines the practical aspects of using chemical reagents in operating plants
* Provides guidelines for researchers and engineers involved in process design and development
The first part of the book discusses the history and chemistry of zeolites, while the second section focuses on separation processes. The third and final section treats zeolites in the field of catalysis.
The three sections are unified by an examination of how the unique properties of zeolites allow them to function in different capacities as an adsorbent, a membrane and as a catalyst, while also discussing their impact within the industry.
Includes New and Updated Material
Now in its second edition, this work is the culmination of research and discussions with technical experts, as well as USP and FDA representatives on various topics of interest to the pharmaceutical microbiologist and those responsible for the microbial quality of products, materials, equipment, and manufacturing facilities. New in this edition is an entire chapter dedicated to the topic of biofilms and their impact on pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical operations. The subject of rapid methods in microbiology has been expanded and includes a discussion on the validation of alternative microbiological methods and a case study on microbial identification in support of a product contamination investigation.
Substantially updated and revised, this book assists readers in understanding the fundamental issues associated with pharmaceutical microbiology and provides them with tools to create effective microbial contamination control and microbial testing programs for the areas under their responsibility.
Throughout, the author makes excellent use of real-life examples and highly praised didactics to disseminate his expert knowledge needed by vacuum technology users and engineers in their daily work at industrial plants, as consultants or in design offices. He covers in detail the most modern liquid ring pumps, with chapters dedicated to maintenance, explosion prevention and general procedures for safety at work with this technology. The whole is backed by a large repository of frequently needed technical data, unit conversions, formulae and current industrial, technical and legal norms without drawing on unnecessary complex or theoretical mathematics.
The result is the ideal hands-on introduction to vacuum technology, ranging from fundamentals to in-depth expert knowledge on liquid-ring vacuum pumps.
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
The book is immensely useful to beginning and experienced engineer alike who are moving into the battery field. Li-ion batteries are one of the most unique systems in automobiles today in that they combine multiple engineering disciplines, yet most engineering programs focus on only a single engineering field. This book provides you with a reference to the history, terminology and design criteria needed to understand the Li-ion battery and to successfully lay out a new battery concept. Whether you are an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer or a chemist this book helps you better appreciate the inter-relationships between the various battery engineering fields that are required to understand the battery as an Energy Storage System.Offers an easy explanation of battery terminology and enables better understanding of batteries, their components and the market place. Demonstrates simple battery scaling calculations in an easy to understand description of the formulas Describes clearly the various components of a Li-ion battery and their importanceExplains the differences between various Li-ion cell types and chemistries and enables the determination which chemistry and cell type is appropriate for which applicationOutlines the differences between battery types, e.g., power vs energy batteryPresents graphically different vehicle configurations: BEV, PHEV, HEVIncludes brief history of vehicle electrification and its future
The book uses SI units in accordance with international industry and covers topics such as chronological development, industrial applications, air separation technologies, noble gases, front end purification systems, insulation, non-cryogenic separation, safety, cleaning for oxygen systems, economics, and product liquefaction, storage, and transportation.
No other book currently available takes the practical approach of this book — they are either outdated, too theoretical, or narrow in focus. In a clear and effective presentation, Industrial Gas Handbook: Gas Separation and Purification covers the principles and applications of industrial gas separation and purification.
Sulfuric Acid Manufacture: Analysis, Control and Optimization keeps the important topics of safety and regulation at the forefront as it overviews and analyzes the process of sulfuric acid manufacture.
The first nine chapters focus on the chemical plant processes involved in industrial acidmaking, with considerable data input from the authors' industrial colleagues. The last 15 chapters are dedicated to the mathematical analysis of acidmaking.
Both Authors bring years of hands-on knowledge and experience to the work, making it an exceptional reference for anyone involved in sulfuric acid research and/or manufacture.
* Only book to examine the processes of sulfuric acid manufacture from an industrial plant standpoint as well as mathematical.
* Draws on the industrial connections of the authors, through their years of hands-on experience in sulfuric acid manufacture.
* A considerable amount of industrial plant data is presented to support the text.
The book explores various examples of these important materials, including perovskites, zeolites, mesoporous molecular sieves, silica, alumina, active carbons, carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide, magnesium oxide, clays, pillared clays, hydrotalcites, alkali metal titanates, titanium silicates, polymers, and coordination polymers. It shows how the materials are used in adsorption, ion conduction, ion exchange, gas separation, membrane reactors, catalysts, catalysts supports, sensors, pollution abatement, detergency, animal nourishment, agriculture, and sustainable energy applications.
Rising pollution levels and the need for sustainable energy have necessitated new ways of using certain materials to combat these problems. Focusing on this emerging discipline, Physical Chemistry of Materials describes the methods of syntheses and characterization of adsorbents, ion exchangers, ionic conductors, catalysts, and permeable materials. It tackles key issues in materials science and physical chemistry.
Major inroads have taken place since the first edition of this title was published in 1995. This new edition of "Applications of Wet-end Paper Chemistry" will reflect the changing type and use of chemicals used in papermaking in the 21st century.
Chemists and chemical engineers across the paper and pulp making industry, as well as in research and academic institutes will find this book of enormous practical value.
The book covers plant layout and the use of spreadsheet programmes and key drawings produced by professional engineers as aids to design; subjects which are usually learned on the job rather than in education. You will learn how to produce smarter plant design through the use of computer tools, including Excel and AutoCAD, "What If Analysis", statistical tools, and Visual Basic for more complex problems. The book also includes a wealth of selection tables, covering the key aspects of professional plant design which engineering students and early-career engineers tend to find most challenging.
Professor Moran draws on over 20 years' experience in process design to create an essential foundational book ideal for those who are new to process design, compliant with both professional practice and the IChemE degree accreditation guidelines.Explains how to deliver a process design that meets both business and safety criteriaCovers plant layout and the use of spreadsheet programmes and key drawings as aids to designIncludes a comprehensive set of selection tables, covering those aspects of professional plant design which early-career designers find most challenging
Decisions made during the early conceptual stages of design have a great effect on subsequent stages. In fact, quite often more than 70% of the manufacturing cost of a product is determined at this conceptual stage, yet manufacturing is not involved. Through this book, designers will gain insight that will allow them to assess the impact of their proposed design on manufacturing difficulty.
The vast majority of components found in commercial batch-manufactured products, such as appliances, computers and office automation equipment are either injection molded, stamped, die cast, or (occasionally) forged. This book emphasizes these particular, most commonly implemented processes.
In addition to chapters on these processes, the book touches upon material process selection, general guidelines for determining whether several components should be combined into a single component or not, communications, the physical and mechanical properties of materials, tolerances, and inspection and quality control.
In developing the DFM methods presented in this book, he has worked with over 30 firms specializing in injection molding, die-casting, forging and stamping.Implements a philosophy which allows for easier and more economic production of designsEducates designers about manufacturingEmphasizes the four major manufacturing processes
The text describes the radiation crosslinking of solutions and discusses the electrical conduction of saturated organic polymers. Another topic of interest is the surface tension and density of polyethylene glycol. The section that follows describes the reactivity and comonomer structure of copolymers.
The book will provide valuable insights for chemists, students, and researchers in the field of organic chemistry.
This Second Edition has been updated based upon feedback from professors and students. It features a new chapter related to single- and multiphase systems and contains additional solved examples and homework problems. Educational software, downloadable exercises, and a solutions manual are available with qualifying course adoption.
This book examines hydroprocessing technologies that, driven by the demand for higher performance in finished lubricants, have transformed processing treatments throughout the industry. The author relates the properties of base stocks to their chemical composition and describes the process steps used in their manufacture. The book highlights catalytic processes, including hydrocracking, hydrofinishing, and catalytic dewaxing. It also covers traditional solvent-based separation methods used to remove impurities, enhance performance, and improve oxidation resistance. The final chapters discuss the production of Food Grade white oils and paraffins and the gas-to-liquids processes used to produce highly paraffinic base stocks via Fischer-Tropsch chemistry.
Process Chemistry of Lubricant Base Stocks provides historical and conceptual background to the technologies used to make base stocks, thorough references, and a unique emphasis on chemical, not just engineering, aspects of lubricant processing—making this book an ideal and practical reference for scientists across a wide range of disciplines.
The text covers topics such as: the transport of momentum; the transport of energy and the transport of chemical species. The organization of the material is similar to Bird/Stewart/Lightfoot, but presentation has been thoughtfully revised specifically for undergraduate students encountering these concepts for the first time.
Devoting more space to mathematical derivations and providing fuller explanations of mathematical developmentsincluding a section of the appendix devoted to mathematical topicsallows students to comprehend transport phenomena concepts at an undergraduate level.
Filled with crucial information relevant to a range of applications, the book covers topics such as:
The essential preliminaries for the exploration and production of crude petroleum oil and gas Analysis of crude oil and its petroleum products The processing of petroleum in refineries The fundamentals of lubricating oil and grease Petrochemicals — their raw materials and end products, and manufacturing principles of industrially important products Theories and problems of unit operations and the processes involved in refineries and petrochemical plants Automatic operations in plants Start up, shutdown, maintenance, fire, and safety operations Commercial and managerial activities necessary for the ultimate success of a refining or manufacturing business
Due to the advancement of technology, new petrochemicals are being invented and will continue to be relevant to the petroleum industry in the near future. Those entering the industry need a firm grasp of the basics as the field continues to open up new avenues of possibility, while at the same time being cognizant of the challenges that exist through the heightened focus on sustainable energy.
In recent years many new kinds of solid acids and bases have been found and synthesized. The surface properties (in particular, acidic and basic properties) and the structures of the new solids have been clarified by newly developed measurement methods using modern instruments and techniques. The characterized solid acids and bases have been applied as catalysts for diversified reactions, many good correlations being obtained between the acid-base properties and the catalytic activities or selectivities. Recently, acid-base bifunctional catalysis on solid surfaces is becoming a more and more important and intriguing field of study.
It has been recognized that the acidic and basic properties of catalysts and catalyst supports play an important role in oxidation, reduction, hydrogenation, hydrocracking, etc. The effect of the preparation method and the pretreatment conditions of solid acids and bases on the acidic and basic properties, the nature of acidic and basic sites and the mechanism regarding the generation of acidity and basicity have been elucidated experimentally and theoretically. On the basis of the accumulated knowledge of solid acids and bases, it is now possible to design and develop highly active and selective solid acid and base catalysts for particular reactions.
The chemistry of solid acids and bases is now being related to and utilized in numerous areas including adsorbents, sensors, cosmetics, fuel cells, sensitized pressed papers, and others. The information presented in this book will therefore be of interest to a wide-ranging readership.
The first parts treat the different kinds of reverse osmosis modules, including array of the semipermeable membranes. The next part deals with process and plant design. Another part focuses on the reverse osmosis applications, including the production of potable water and industrial water, advanced wastewater treatment, and mass separations in the industry. The last part looks into the accessories and auxiliary operations in reverse osmosis.
This book will prove useful to practicing and design engineers and researchers.
The seventh edition is restructured into three parts: Basic Concepts, Nuclear Power (including new chapters on nuclear power plants and introduction to reactor theory), and Radiation and Its Uses. Part Two in particular has been updated with current developments, including a new section on Reactor Safety and Security (with a discussion of the Fukushima Diiachi accident); updated information on naval and space propulsion; and revised and updated information on radioactive waste storage, transportation, and disposal. Part Three features new content on biological effects of radiation, radiation standards, and radiation detection.Coverage of energy economics integrated into appropriate chaptersMore worked examples and end of chapter exercisesUpdated final chapter on nuclear explosions for current geopolitical developments
This volume has been written as a desk reference for the Professional Hazards Manager (PHM). The PHM is a qualified environmental manager that has the responsibility of ensuring that his or her facility or division within the corporation is in compliance with environmental statutes and regulations, as well as participating in the selection of technologies and approaches to remediation, pollution control, and in implementing waste minimization practices. These decisions require knowledge and understanding of the federal, state, and local environmental regulations, a working knowledge of the best available technologies and their associated cost. This volume provides an overview of both the technology and compliance requirements that will assist environmental managers in addressing facility management of hazardous wastes, pollution control, and waste minimization. The book has been designed in part as a study guide to help prepare qualified individuals for the national certification and registration program of Professional Hazards Managers conducted by the National Association of Safety & Health Professionals and other organizations including the Hazard Materials Control Resources Institute (HMCRI) and Fairleigh Dickinson University.
The book covers important topics, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, and environmental impact of refining, which are not commonly discussed in most refinery textbooks. Throughout the source, problem sets and examples are given to help the reader practice and apply the fundamental principles of refining. Chapters 1-10 can be used as core materials for teaching undergraduate courses. The first two chapters present an introduction to the petroleum refining industry and then focus on feedstocks and products. Thermophysical properties of crude oils and petroleum fractions, including processes of atmospheric and vacuum distillations, are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4. Conversion processes, product blending, and alkylation are covered in chapters 5-10. The remaining chapters discuss hydrogen production, clean fuel production, refining economics and safety, acid gas treatment and removal, and methods for environmental and effluent treatments.
This source can serve both professionals and students (on undergraduate and graduate levels) of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Chemistry, and Chemical Technology. Beginners in the engineering field, specifically in the oil and gas industry, may also find this book invaluable.Provides balanced coverage of fundamental and operational topicsIncludes spreadsheets and process simulators for showing trends and simulation case studiesRelates processing to planning and management to give an integrated picture of refining