Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies, rather than their positions or motions in space. Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background. Their emissions are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the properties examined include luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition.
Plasma (from Greek "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma can be created by heating a gas or subjecting it to a strong electromagnetic field, applied with a laser or microwave generator. This decreases or increases the number of electrons, creating positive or negative charged particles called ions, and is accompanied by the dissociation of molecular bonds, if present.
Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs various types of complex mathematical models. It focuses on abstract physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain, and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses scientific experimental tools to study these phenomena.
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a prime number is called a composite number. For example, 5 is prime because 1 and 5 are its only positive integer factors, whereas 6 is composite because it has the divisors 2 and 3 in addition to 1 and 6.
Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behavior of condensed phases by using physical laws. In particular, they study the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, and statistical mechanics. The most familiar condensed phases are solids and liquids while more exotic condensed phases include the superconducting phase exhibited by certain materials at extremely low temperatures. The study of condensed matter physics involves measuring various material properties via experimental probes along with using techniques of theoretical physics to develop mathematical models that help in understanding physical behavior.
A variety of topics in physics such as crystallography, metallurgy, elasticity, magnetism, etc., were treated as distinct areas until the 1940s, when they were grouped together as solid state physics. This is the study of the properties of bulk matter rather than those of the individual particles that compose it. Solid-state physics is concerned with the properties exhibited by atoms and molecules because of their association and regular, periodic arrangement in crystals.
A planet is a celestial body that: #1) is in orbit around the Sun, #2) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and #3) has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. Under this definition, Pluto is NOT a planet, but has been deemed a dwarf planet because it has not yet cleared its orbit. This definition is under discussion, particularly by members of the planetary science community, and it may yet be further refined.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. Concepts introduced by the theories of relativity include spacetime as a unified entity of space and time, relativity of simultaneity, kinematic and gravitational time dilation, and length contraction. The theory of relativity transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century. When first published, relativity superseded a 200-year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science which is concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth. The term geophysics to the geological applications: Earth's shape; its gravitational and magnetic fields, its internal structure and composition, its dynamics and their surface expression in plate tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation.
Aristotle (384-322 BCE), a student of Plato, promoted the concept that observation of physical phenomena could ultimately lead to the discovery of the natural laws governing them. Aristotle's writings cover physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology. Aristotle believed that all matter was made up of aether, or some combination of four elements: earth, water, air, and fire.
This book will focus mainly on Microsoft Office products, which you probably have installed on your machine now. If not, you can get your IT administrator to install them quickly and easily. Also, many of these technologies are completely free, including R and Python, or very affordable, especially considering what can be achieved with each application.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma). It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume. The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice (crystalline, such as metals and ordinary ice) or irregularly (amorphous, such as window glass). The atoms, molecules, or ions which make up solids may be arranged in an orderly repeating pattern, or they could be arranged irregularly. Materials whose constituents are arranged in a regular pattern are known as crystals. In some cases, the regular ordering can continue unbroken over a large scale, for example diamonds, where each diamond is a single crystal.
Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. Whereas environmental chemistry focuses on the effects of polluting chemicals on nature, green chemistry focuses on technological approaches to preventing pollution and reducing consumption of nonrenewable resources.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present. By 1000 BC, civilizations used technologies that would eventually form the basis of the various branches of chemistry. Examples include extracting metals from ores, making pottery and glazes, fermenting beer and wine, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze.
Biochemistry, which is a combination of biology and chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
In physics, both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are two major sub-fields of mechanics. Classical mechanics is concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the influence of a system of forces. The study of the motion of bodies is an ancient one, making classical mechanics one of the oldest and largest subjects in science, engineering, and technology. It is also widely known as Newtonian mechanics.
Anatomy is a branch of Biology that is concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology, and also in the study of cells.
Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: "The Elements". Euclid's method consists in assuming a small set of intuitively appealing axioms, and deducing many other propositions (theorems) from these. Although many of Euclid's results had been stated by earlier mathematicians, Euclid was the first to show how these propositions could fit into a comprehensive deductive and logical system.
Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate. For most of human history, it was a branch of metaphysics and religion. Cosmology as a science originated with the Copernican principle, which implies that celestial bodies obey identical physical laws to those on Earth, and Newtonian mechanics, which first allowed us to understand those physical laws.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally "small pebble used for counting") is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. It has two major branches, differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves), and integral calculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under and between curves).
In physics, Coriolis forces are an inertial force, based on the deflection of air masses and fluids, which act on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation (Southern Hemisphere), the force acts to the left of the motion of the object, because the reference point is moving slower and has not caught up (it has moved ahead of the projectile). In a reference frame which has anticlockwise rotation (Northern Hemisphere), the force acts to the right.
Some of the roots of geometry date back to the work of the Hellenistic Greeks from the 5th century BC. The later work, in the 3rd century BC, of Archimedes and Apollonius, saw more of a focus on solving systematic problems of conic sections. This work also involved the use of rudimentary coordinate systems. Euclid, who lived around the 3rd century BC, is known as “Father of Geometry”, because of his contributions to the topic.
The human eye functions by focusing light onto a layer of photoreceptor cells called the retina, which forms the inner lining of the back of the eye. Light entering the eye passes first through the cornea, which provides much of the eye's optical power. The light then continues through the fluid just behind the cornea - the anterior chamber, then passes through the pupil.
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning vector spaces and linear mappings between such spaces. It includes the study of lines, planes, and subspaces, but is also concerned with properties common to all vector spaces. The set of points with coordinates that satisfy a linear equation forms a hyperplane in an n-dimensional space. The conditions under which a set of n hyperplanes intersect in a single point is an important focus of study in linear algebra. Such an investigation is initially motivated by a system of linear equations containing several unknowns. These equations are represented using the formalism of matrices and vectors.
In monotheism, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith. The concept of God as described by most theologians includes the attributes of omniscience (infinite knowledge), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), divine simplicity, and as having an eternal and necessary existence. Many theologians also describe God as being omnibenevolent (perfectly good), and all loving.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration.
Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points (alternatively "particles"), bodies (objects), and systems of bodies without consideration of the masses of those objects nor the forces that may have caused the motion. Kinematics begins with a description of the geometry of the system and the initial conditions of known values of the position, velocity and or acceleration of various points that are a part of the system, then from geometrical arguments it can determine the position, the velocity and the acceleration of any part of the system.
Astronomy, which is very closely related to Astrophysics, is a natural science, is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae) and processes (such as supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects and processes, and more generally all phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth.
Quantum Mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons. Systems such as these which obey quantum mechanics can be in a quantum superposition of different states, unlike in classical physics.
Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe, including extraterrestrial life and life on Earth as well. Astrobiology addresses the question of whether life exists beyond Earth, and how humans can detect it if it does. This is the search for life beyond Earth!
Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases, and plasmas) and the forces on them. Fluid mechanics has a wide range of applications, including for mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, and biology. Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest; and fluid dynamics which is the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion.
Religion is about a philosophical set of beliefs about the meaning of existence. It is essentially a cultural system of behaviors and practices, world views, sacred texts, holy places, ethics, and societal organization that relate humanity to it’s self-defined existence. Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of God or deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, all of which aim mostly to give a meaning to life.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, gas, and plasma), and is the only state with a definite volume but no fixed shape.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. The most commonly known application of nuclear physics is nuclear power generation, but the research has led to applications in many fields, including nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear weapons, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force usually exhibits electromagnetic fields, such as electric fields, magnetic fields, and light. The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature.
Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. The application of acoustics is present in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries.
Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems. Furthermore, it is focused on how organisms carry out the chemical, or physical, functions that exist in these living systems. Since the function of a part is related to its structure, physiology naturally is related to anatomy, a term that can refer either to the internal structure and organization of an organism or any of its parts, or to the branch of biology that studies the internal structure and organization of living things.
The number π is a mathematical constant, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, commonly approximated as 3.14159. It has been represented by the Greek letter "π" since the mid-18th century. It is also sometimes spelled out as "pi" and pronounced as "pie". Being an irrational number, π cannot be expressed exactly as a fraction (equivalently, its decimal representation never ends and never settles into a permanent repeating pattern). Still, fractions such as 22/7 and other rational numbers are commonly used to approximate π.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. Probability is quantified as a number between 0 and 1 (where 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty). The higher the probability of an event, the more certain that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. Since the coin is unbiased, the two outcomes ("head" and "tail") are both equally probable. Since no other outcomes are possible, the probability is 1/2 (or 50%), of either "head" or "tail". In other words, the probability of "head" is 1 out of 2 outcomes; the probability of "tail" is also 1 out of 2 outcomes, expressed as 0.5.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behavior of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a Jewish preacher and religious reformer who has become the central figure of Christianity. Christians believe him to be the Son of God and the awaited Messiah (Christ, the Anointed One) prophesied in the Old Testament.
Physical organic chemistry, refers to a discipline of organic chemistry that focuses on the relationship between chemical structures and reactivity. The focus is on rates of organic reactions, the relative chemical stabilities of the starting materials, reactive intermediates, transition states, and products of chemical reactions, and non-covalent aspects of solvation and molecular interactions that influence chemical reactivity.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma). A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide).