* the effects of developmental psychology on the early years curriculum
* working with two-year-olds on self-awareness and social skills
* developing communication, motor, analytical and problem solving skills
* fostering aesthetic and creative awareness
* play and the learning environment
* record-keeping and assessment
* involving parents
* continuity from pre-schooling to statutory schooling.
Shocked by the teenage violence she witnessed during the Rodney King riots in Los Angeles, Erin Gruwell became a teacher at a high school rampant with hostility and racial intolerance. For many of these students–whose ranks included substance abusers, gang members, the homeless, and victims of abuse–Gruwell was the first person to treat them with dignity, to believe in their potential and help them see it themselves.
Soon, their loyalty towards their teacher and burning enthusiasm to help end violence and intolerance became a force of its own. Inspired by reading The Diary of Anne Frank and meeting Zlata Filipovic (the eleven-year old girl who wrote of her life in Sarajevo during the civil war), the students began a joint diary of their inner-city upbringings.
Told through anonymous entries to protect their identities and allow for complete candor, The Freedom Writers Diary is filled with astounding vignettes from 150 students who, like civil rights activist Rosa Parks and the Freedom Riders, heard society tell them where to go–and refused to listen.
Proceeds from this book benefit the Freedom Writers Foundation, an organization set up to provide scholarships for underprivieged youth and to train teachers.
Gordon Marino is professor of philosophy and director of the Hong Kierkegaard Library at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. A recipient of the Richard J. Davis Ethics Award for excellence in writing on ethics and the law, he is the author of Kierkegaard in the Present Age, co-editor of The Cambridge Companion to Kierkegaard, and editor of the Modern Library’s Basic Writings of Existentialism. His essays have appeared in The New York Times.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
You know you love your child. But how can you make sure your child knows it?
The #1 New York Times bestselling The 5 Love Languages® has helped millions of couples learn the secret to building a love that lasts. Now discover how to speak your child’s love language in a way that he or she understands. Dr. Gary Chapman and Dr. Ross Campbell help you:Discover your child’s love languageAssist your child in successful learningUse the love languages to correct and discipline more effectivelyBuild a foundation of unconditional love for your child
Plus: Find dozens of tips for practical ways to speak your child’s love language.
Discover your child's primary language—then speak it—and you will be well on your way to a stronger relationship with your flourishing child.
For a free online study guide, visit 5lovelanguages.com.
As a professor at Yale, William Deresiewicz saw something that troubled him deeply. His students, some of the nation’s brightest minds, were adrift when it came to the big questions: how to think critically and creatively and how to find a sense of purpose. Now he argues that elite colleges are turning out conformists without a compass.
Excellent Sheep takes a sharp look at the high-pressure conveyor belt that begins with parents and counselors who demand perfect grades and culminates in the skewed applications Deresiewicz saw firsthand as a member of Yale’s admissions committee. As schools shift focus from the humanities to “practical” subjects like economics, students are losing the ability to think independently. It is essential, says Deresiewicz, that college be a time for self-discovery, when students can establish their own values and measures of success in order to forge their own paths. He features quotes from real students and graduates he has corresponded with over the years, candidly exposing where the system is broken and offering clear solutions on how to fix it.
“Excellent Sheep is likely to make…a lasting mark….He takes aim at just about the entirety of upper-middle-class life in America….Mr. Deresiewicz’s book is packed full of what he wants more of in American life: passionate weirdness” (The New York Times).
One of the nation’s leading experts on staff motivation, teacher leadership, and principal effectiveness, Todd Whitaker has written over 20 powerful books for educators of every level. Discover what you can do differently.
This tenth-anniversary, second edition features eight new chapters and a revised and updated original text.
The liberal arts are under attack. The governors of Florida, Texas, and North Carolina have all pledged that they will not spend taxpayer money subsidizing the liberal arts, and they seem to have an unlikely ally in President Obama. While at a General Electric plant in early 2014, Obama remarked, "I promise you, folks can make a lot more, potentially, with skilled manufacturing or the trades than they might with an art history degree." These messages are hitting home: majors like English and history, once very popular and highly respected, are in steep decline.
"I get it," writes Fareed Zakaria, recalling the atmosphere in India where he grew up, which was even more obsessed with getting a skills-based education. However, the CNN host and best-selling author explains why this widely held view is mistaken and shortsighted.
Zakaria eloquently expounds on the virtues of a liberal arts education—how to write clearly, how to express yourself convincingly, and how to think analytically. He turns our leaders' vocational argument on its head. American routine manufacturing jobs continue to get automated or outsourced, and specific vocational knowledge is often outdated within a few years. Engineering is a great profession, but key value-added skills you will also need are creativity, lateral thinking, design, communication, storytelling, and, more than anything, the ability to continually learn and enjoy learning—precisely the gifts of a liberal education.
Zakaria argues that technology is transforming education, opening up access to the best courses and classes in a vast variety of subjects for millions around the world. We are at the dawn of the greatest expansion of the idea of a liberal education in human history.
Philosophy is a great companion and a roadmap to navigate life’s major milestones, including:How to make sense of deathWhat loving someone or something meansThe effect of art on our livesWhat role language plays in understanding the worldHow do our ideas affect our actions
Recommended by “Dear Abby”, The New York Times and The Washington Post, for three decades, millions of parents and educators have turned to Jim Trelease's beloved classic to help countless children become avid readers through awakening their imaginations and improving their language skills. Now this new edition of The Read-Aloud Handbook imparts the benefits, rewards, and importance of reading aloud to children of a new generation. Supported by delightful anecdotes as well as the latest research, The Read-Aloud Handbook offers proven techniques and strategies—and the reasoning behind them—for helping children discover the pleasures of reading and setting them on the road to becoming lifelong readers.
Why, after decades of commissions, reforms, and efforts at innovation, do our schools continue to disappoint us? In this comprehensive and thought-provoking book, educational theorist E. D. Hirsch, Jr. offers a masterful analysis of how American ideas about education have veered off course, what we must do to right them, and most importantly why. He argues that the core problem with American education is that educational theorists, especially in the early grades, have for the past sixty years rejected academic content in favor of “child-centered” and “how-to” learning theories that are at odds with how children really learn. The result is failing schools and widening inequality, as only children from content-rich (usually better-off) homes can take advantage of the schools’ educational methods.
Hirsch unabashedly confronts the education establishment, arguing that a content-based curriculum is essential to addressing social and economic inequality. A nationwide, specific, grade-by-grade curriculum established in the early school grades can help fulfill one of America’s oldest and most compelling dreams: to give all children, regardless of language, religion, or origins, the opportunity to participate as equals and become competent citizens. Hirsch not only reminds us of these inspiring ideals, he offers an ambitious and specific plan for achieving them.
New to This Edition
*Reflects over a decade of advances in research-based vocabulary instruction.
*Chapters on vocabulary and writing; assessment; and differentiating instruction for struggling readers and English language learners, including coverage of response to intervention (RTI).
*Expanded discussions of content-area vocabulary and multiple-meaning words.
*Many additional examples showing what robust instruction looks like in action.
*Appendix with a useful menu of instructional activities.
See also the authors' Creating Robust Vocabulary: Frequently Asked Questions and Extended Examples, which includes specific instructional sequences for different grade ranges, as well as Making Sense of Phonics, Second Edition: The Hows and Whys, by Isabel L. Beck and Mark E. Beck, an invaluable resource for K-3.
The 70 contributors are each well-regarded economists whose research has advanced the topic on which they write, and this book fulfills an undersupplied niche for a text in the economics of education.
The chapters come from the acclaimed International Encyclopedia of Education, 3e (2010), edited by Eva Baker, Barry McGaw, and Penelope Peterson. The Encyclopedia contains over 1,350 articles in 24 sections that stretch from educational philosophies and technologies to measurement, leadership, and national systems of education.This single volume textbook presents a cohesive view of this increasingly important area of economics
Superb contributions from well-regarded economist convey unique and useful perspectives
Chapters contain an extensive bibliography and further readings to enable interested researchers to extend their knowledge into each specific topic
In Teaching Community bell hooks seeks to theorize from the place of the positive, looking at what works. Writing about struggles to end racism and white supremacy, she makes the useful point that "No one is born a racist. Everyone makes a choice." Teaching Community tells us how we can choose to end racism and create a beloved community. hooks looks at many issues-among them, spirituality in the classroom, white people looking to end racism, and erotic relationships between professors and students. Spirit, struggle, service, love, the ideals of shared knowledge and shared learning - these values motivate progressive social change.
Teachers of vision know that democratic education can never be confined to a classroom. Teaching - so often undervalued in our society -- can be a joyous and inclusive activity. bell hooks shows the way. "When teachers teach with love, combining care, commitment, knowledge, responsibility, respect, and trust, we are often able to enter the classroom and go straight to the heart of the matter, which is knowing what to do on any given day to create the best climate for learning."
A liberal artist seeks the perfection of the human faculties. The liberal artist begins with the language arts, the trivium, which is the basis of all learning because it teaches the tools for reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Thinking underlies all these activities. Many readers will recognize elements of this book: parts of speech, syntax, propositions, syllogisms, enthymemes, logical fallacies, scientific method, figures of speech, rhetorical technique, and poetics. The Trivium, however, presents these elements within a philosophy of language that connects thought, expression, and reality.
"Trivium" means the crossroads where the three branches of language meet. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, students studied and mastered this integrated view of language. Regrettably, modern language teaching keeps the parts without the vision of the whole. Inspired by the possibility of helping students "acquire mastery over the tools of learning" Sister Miriam Joseph and other teachers at Saint Mary's College designed and taught a course on the trivium for all first year students. The Trivium resulted from that noble endeavor.
The liberal artist travels in good company. Sister Miriam Joseph frequently cites passages from William Shakespeare, John Milton, Plato, the Bible, Homer, and other great writers. The Paul Dry Books edition of The Trivium provides new graphics and notes to make the book accessible to today's readers. Sister Miriam Joseph told her first audience that "the function of the trivium is the training of the mind for the study of matter and spirit, which constitute the sum of reality. The fruit of education is culture, which Mathew Arnold defined as 'the knowledge of ourselves and the world.'" May this noble endeavor lead many to that end.
"Is the trivium, then, a sufficient education for life? Properly taught, I believe that it should be."—Dorothy L. Sayers
"The Trivium is a highly recommended and welcome contribution to any serious and dedicated writer's reference collection."—Midwest Book Review
Why Read was a PSLA Young Adult Top 40 non-fiction title 2004
A witness to the joys of discovery, Done inspires readers with the everyday adventures and milestones of his 32 third graders in this irresistible collection of bite-sized essays. From the nervous first day of school to the hectic Halloween parade to the disastrous spring musical, Done connects what happens in his classroom to the universal truths that touch us all. He reminds us of the delight of learning something for the first time and of the value of making a difference.
32 Third Graders and One Class Bunny is for anyone who has ever taught children -- or been to third grade. It is a testament to the kids who uplift us -- and the teachers we will never forget. With just the right mix of humor and wisdom, Done reveals the enduring promise of elementary school as a powerful antidote to the cynicism of our times.
The Common Core Connections series provides teachers with a skill assessment and analysis to help determine individualized instruction needs. Focused, comprehensive practice pages and self-assessments guide students to reflection and exploration for deeper learning! Standards correlations are printed on each page to make planning and documentation simple. This series is an ideal resource for differentiation and remediation. Each 96-page book includes a skill assessment, assessment analysis, Common Core State Standards Alignment Matrix, and answer key.
Looking further, Bok finds that many important college courses are left to the least experienced teachers and that most professors continue to teach in ways that have proven to be less effective than other available methods. In reviewing their educational programs, however, faculties typically ignore this evidence. Instead, they spend most of their time discussing what courses to require, although the lasting impact of college will almost certainly depend much more on how the courses are taught.
In his final chapter, Bok describes the changes that faculties and academic leaders can make to help students accomplish more. Without ignoring the contributions that America's colleges have made, Bok delivers a powerful critique--one that educators will ignore at their peril.
Paula Polk Lillard writes both as a trained educators and as a concerned parent -- she has many years as a public school teacher, but it was her enthusiasm for the education her own child experienced in a Montessori school that led her to become a leading voice in the Montessori movement in this country.
Her book offers the clearest and most concise statement of the Montessori method of child development and education available today.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
New to This Edition:
*Connects best practices with the requirements of the CCSS.
*Incorporates the latest research findings and instructional practices.
*Chapters on comprehending informational text, dual language learners, and new literacies.
*Expanded topics include motivation, close reading, and text complexity.
The Common Core Connections series provides teachers with the skill assessments to help determine individualized instruction needs. Focused, comprehensive practice pages and self-assessments guide students to reflection and exploration for deeper learning! Grade specific coherent content progresses in difficulty to achieve optimum fluency. It is also an ideal resource for differentiation and remediation. Each 96-page book includes an assessment test, test analysis, Common Core State Standards Alignment Matrix, and answer key.
Schools across America are rolling out new, more rigorous curricula in order to meet the demands created by a new set of English and Mathematics standards – known nationally as the Common Core State Learning Standards, or Common Core. You can expect to see a number of changes in your child’s third grade class based on the requirements of the Common Core standards.
In an effort to address Common Core Reading requirements, students will now read more Informational Texts in their English/Language Arts assignments. This type of passage provides facts and often deals with current events, science, and social studies. In addition, questions posed about these readings will ask students to find evidence and use it to formulate an argument. In order to master new Common Core Language Arts and Literacy standards, students will need a larger and stronger vocabulary to allow them to both tackle complex readings and write acceptable arguments.
To address Common Core Math requirements, students will spend more time developing their understanding of specific and important math concepts. Students will be expected to both demonstrate understanding of each topic and apply their mathematical skills to real-world situations.
As a parent, it is important not only to understand the new Common Core 3rd grade standards, but also to have the tools to help your child do his or her best in school. This Common Core workbook book is designed to provide you with the guidance and resources to support classroom learning and help your child succeed. It includes:
• An annotated review of the standards highlighting what your child should master during third grade
• 20 important lessons that you can do – together with your child – to support them as they progress through the school year
• A Vocabulary section designed to make sure your child masters the most important academic word
• 200+ practice questions to improve your child’s skills
• Diagnostic quiz and 20+ mini-quizzes to check for understanding
In this compelling and controversial book, Harry Brighouse takes on all these urgent questions and more. He argues that children share four fundamental interests: the ability to make their own judgements about what values to adopt; acquiring the skills that will enable them to become economically self-sufficient as adults; being exposed to a range of activities and experiences that will enable them to flourish in their personal lives; and developing a sense of justice.
He criticises sharply those who place the interests of the economy before those of children, and assesses the arguments for and against the controversial issues of faith schools and the teaching of patriotism.
Clearly argued but provocative, On Education draws on recent examples from Britain and North America as well as famous thinkers on education such as Aristotle and John Locke. It is essential reading for anyone interested in the present state of education and its future.
In Savage Inequalities, Kozol delivers a searing examination of the extremes of wealth and poverty and calls into question the reality of equal opportunity in our nation’s schools.
Our Reader's Guide to Bridge to Terabithia is a book guide that is designed to support students as they read novels independently. It helps to guide them through each chapter and allows them to check their understanding of what is happening in the book as they read, not just at the very end of the book. Our Reader's Guides include:
-A explanation of each section of the book guide that provides suggestions about how best to use each section to boost comprehension.
-An explanation of the genre of the book.
-Various background materials that will help to provide a better understanding of the context of the story.
-A summary of the entire book so you have a good idea of the major events that take place in the story.
-An in-depth look at the themes that will be developed throughout the book.
-"Big Idea" Questions that are designed to give you a sense of the overarching questions you should be able to answer after finishing the book.
-A guide to the chapter sections so you know how best to use them as you read this book.
Each chapter guide includes:
-Important vocabulary you should know before reading the chapter.
-A summary of the chapter so that you can make sure you remember all of the important events from that chapter.
-Text-Based Questions with example responses: These questions are basic recall questions. Each question comes with a sample answer so you have a good idea of what a good answer would be.
-Critical Thinking Questions with example responses: These questions push you to think about the events of the chapter in a more challenging way. Each question comes with a sample answer so you have a good idea of what a good answer would be.
-Theme Based Questions with example responses: These questions are designed to help you connect the events of the chapter to the development of the themes throughout the story. Each question comes with a sample answer so you have a good idea of what a good answer would be.-Making Connections Questions: These questions challenge you to make connections between the events of the story and things that may have happened to them in their own lives. Everyone's experiences are unique, so there are no sample answers here.
In this insightful book, Koepke offers the reader a lucid, accessible description of the outer signs and symptoms of this significant turning point in every child's life.
In How We Think, Dewey shares his views on the educator’s role in training students to think well. Basing his assertions on the belief that knowledge is strictly relative to human interaction with the world, he considers the need for thought training, its use of natural resources, and its place in school conditions; inductive and deductive reasoning, interpreting facts, and concrete and abstract thinking; the functions of activity, language, and observation in thought training; and many other subjects.
John Dewey’s influence on American education and philosophy is incalculable. This volume, as fresh and inspirational today as it was upon its initial publication a century ago, is essential for anyone active in the field of teaching or about to embark on a career in education.
The school itself was conceived by Dewey as having an organic functional relation to the theoretical curriculum. Just as Dewey was anxious to merge philosophy and psychology and to relate both of these disciplines to the theoretical study of education, similarly he saw the school as a laboratory for these studies analogous to the laboratory used in science courses. This effort to merge theory and practice is perhaps the major characteristic of Dewey's entire professional career. In the opening sentence of Dewey's remarks in his essay in this volume, "The Theory of the Chicago Experiment," we see the extent to which this problem preoccupied him: "The gap between educational theory and its execution in practice is always so wide that there naturally arises a doubt as to the value of any separate presentation of purely theoretical principles."
This book is an accurate and detailed account of one of the most experiments ever undertaken in America. It provides the reader with the complexity of John Dewey's abstract philosophy experimentalism.
Katherine Camp Mayhew and Anna Camp Edwards were active leaders in the development and administration of the Dewy School the both taught at this school and later gave a full account of the remarkable experiment that was the Dewey School that is enclosed in this book.
In "Fairy Tales Readers Theatre," stories become scripts, with students playing the parts of Rapunzel, Rumplestiltskin, Cinderella, the Three Billy Goats Gruff, and more. This format encourages students to take an active role in their own language arts development while enhancing overall fluency. For teachers and librarians, Fredericks offers a wealth of suggestions and strategies for engaging students in the dynamics of literacy acquisition through the allure of readers theatre."
***Comes with online access to free audio demonstrating all examples. Hear how each one is played by a teacher, then play along.***
"The is a great book cover to cover! Highly recommended for the advanced beginning guitar player keen to improve their knowledge of modes." - Harry Johnson, Malta MT
Progressive Scales and Modes for Guitar is a complete system for learning any scale, mode or chord - in one easy-to-follow, lesson-by-lesson lead guitar tutorial. Suitable for all ages and all types of guitars including electric guitar and acoustic guitar. Makes it easy to memorize any new sound as well as building a solid visual and aural foundation of both guitar theory and the fretboard to learn to play guitar scales and modes. Basic knowledge of how to read music and playing guitar is required to teach yourself to learn to play guitar from this book.
• How to play electric guitar solos and how to play acoustic guitar solos
• A complete system for learning any guitar scale, mode or chord, based on the five most common chord shapes
• Practical lead guitar theory for how to improvise on guitar including when to use each scale as well as how and why it fits with a particular chord or progression
• All the fundamental techniques of guitar improvisation using alternative scales including pentatonic scales, the blues scale, whole tone scales, diminished scales and all of the guitar modes - Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian and Locrian
• Lead guitar tips and lead guitar tricks that every player should know when learning guitar
• Shortcuts for how to learn guitar scales fast by getting the most from guitar practice sessions
Contains everything you need to know to learn to play guitar scales and modes today.
• Progressive step-by-step easy guitar lessons written by a professional guitar teacher
• Easy-to-read guitar music, guitar chords and guitar tabs
• Full color photos and diagrams
• 130+ guitar scale exercises, guitar riffs, guitar licks, guitar solos and guitar music examples in jazz guitar and blues guitar styles
• Jam-along progressions for every scale and mode presented in the book
Guitar lessons have never been this easy for anyone who wants to learn how to play the guitar, fast.
This much-anticipated revised edition includes two full new chapters, one on white women and another extending the discussion on race. It continues the important work of the first, deepening our knowledge of the recurring history on which cross-race relationships issues exist. Kendall’s book provides readers with a more meaningful understanding of white privilege and equips them with strategies for making personal and organizational changes.
Now depicted in a bestselling book and a feature film, the Freedom Writers phenomenon came about in 1994 when Erin Gruwell stepped into Room 203 and began her first teaching job out of college. Long Beach, California, was still reeling from the deadly violence that erupted during the Rodney King riots, and the kids in Erin’s classroom reflected the anger, resentment, and hopelessness of their community. Undaunted, Erin fostered an educational philosophy that valued and promoted diversity, tolerance, and communication, and in the process, she transformed her students’ lives, as well as her own. Erin Gruwell and the Freedom Writers went on to establish the Freedom Writers Foundation to replicate the success of Room 203 and provide all students with hope and opportunities to realize their academic potential. Since then, the foundation has trained more than 150 teachers in the United States and Canada. Teaching Hope unites the voices of these Freedom Writer teachers, who share uplifting, devastating, and poignant stories from their classrooms, stories that provide insight into the struggles and triumphs of education in all of its forms.
Mirroring an academic year, these dispatches from the front lines of education take us from the anticipation of the first day to the disillusionment, challenges, and triumphs of the school year. These are the voices of teachers who persevere in the face of intolerance, rigid administration, and countless other challenges, and continue to reach out and teach those who are deemed unteachable. Their stories inspire everyone to make a difference in the world around them.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom builds on the discoveries detailed in the bestselling How People Learn. Now, these findings are presented in a way that teachers can use immediately, to revitalize their work in the classroom for even greater effectiveness.
Organized for utility, the book explores how the principles of learning can be applied in teaching history, science, and math topics at three levels: elementary, middle, and high school. Leading educators explain in detail how they developed successful curricula and teaching approaches, presenting strategies that serve as models for curriculum development and classroom instruction. Their recounting of personal teaching experiences lends strength and warmth to this volume.
The book explores the importance of balancing studentsâ€™ knowledge of historical fact against their understanding of concepts, such as change and cause, and their skills in assessing historical accounts. It discusses how to build straightforward science experiments into true understanding of scientific principles. And it shows how to overcome the difficulties in teaching math to generate real insight and reasoning in math students. It also features illustrated suggestions for classroom activities.
How Students Learn offers a highly useful blend of principle and practice. It will be important not only to teachers, administrators, curriculum designers, and teacher educators, but also to parents and the larger community concerned about childrenâ€™s education.
The second edition has been thoroughly updated, expanded from 15 to 20 chapters, and reorganized into two parts. Part I covers basic aspects of the research process, provides an example of a student research proposal, and shows how to evaluate a research report. Part II provides a separate chapter for each research methodology, including two chapters on qualitative research. Other noteworthy changes include more annotated studies and more visual illustrations of statistical and research methods.
To explore this potential, Learning Science: Computer Games, Simulations, and Education, reviews the available research on learning science through interaction with digital simulations and games. It considers the potential of digital games and simulations to contribute to learning science in schools, in informal out-of-school settings, and everyday life. The book also identifies the areas in which more research and research-based development is needed to fully capitalize on this potential.
Learning Science will guide academic researchers; developers, publishers, and entrepreneurs from the digital simulation and gaming community; and education practitioners and policy makers toward the formation of research and development partnerships that will facilitate rich intellectual collaboration. Industry, government agencies and foundations will play a significant role through start-up and ongoing support to ensure that digital games and simulations will not only excite and entertain, but also motivate and educate.
What can the richly imagined, impressively adaptable fantasy world of these children tell us about childhood, development, education, and even life itself? For fifty years, teacher and writer Vivian Gussin Paley has been exploring the imagery, language, and lore of young children, asking the questions they ask of themselves.
In The Boy on the Beach she continues to do so, going deeper into the mystery of play as she follows Eli and Marianne through the kindergarten year, finding more answers and more questions. How does their teacher, Mrs. Olson, manage to honor and utilize the genius of play to create an all-inclusive community in which boys and girls like each other and listen to each other’s stories? Why is Paley’s fellow teacher Yu-ching in Taiwan certain that her children pretend to be kittens in order to become necessary to the group? And why do teachers in London see their childrens’ role-playing as the natural end to loneliness in the school community?
Rich with the words of children and teachers themselves, The Boy on the Beach is vintage Paley, a wise and provocative appreciation of the importance of play and enduring curiosity about the nature of childhood and the imagination.