Soil Colloids: Properties and Ion Binding examines soil colloidal components and their interactions with ionic species, integrating soil science and colloid chemistry and considering the latest advances in this active research area. Part I covers the fundamentals of colloid science for readers not familiar with these principles. It discusses all the important concepts, without excessive detail such as extensive mathematical derivations. Part II deals with soil and its components, especially clay and oxide minerals and humic substances. It covers their composition and characteristics, with an emphasis on colloidal properties and ion sorption on colloids.
Part III provides in-depth coverage of ion binding to soil colloids, with a focus on modeling, including recent advances. Chapters in this section describe general concepts and the issues arising from the heterogeneous nature of most natural colloids, particularly organic ones. Reviewing the state of the art in dealing with the more complex interactions, the text covers ion binding to minerals and humics, presenting different theoretical approaches, as well as ion binding to multiple components, or whole natural soils.
A common theme throughout much of this volume involves adsorption and interfacial behavior of nanomaterials including core-shell particles, nanoparticles derived from oxides, mixed oxides, carbon, carbon/oxide hybrids, functionalized nanoparticles, polymeric biomaterials, and more. The behavior and design of these nanomaterials for adsorption (or sometimes the lack thereof) of toxins, pollutants, narcotics, warfare agents and various biomolecules are studied with a mix of experimental and theoretical approaches. This volume holds a special niche in describing the current state of the art in the fundamentals and applications of a variety of nanomaterials.
Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
This new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and has been redesigned to give the book a more contemporary look. As with previous editions it contains numerous examples, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding. Updates include: Increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, more detailed description of time of flight spectrometers, new material on isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and an expanded range of applications.
Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition is an invaluable resource for all undergraduate and postgraduate students using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, material science and food science. It is also of interest for researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
Reviews of the First Edition
“For anyone wishing to know what really goes on in their NMR experiments, I would highly recommend this book” – Chemistry World
“…I warmly recommend for budding NMR spectroscopists, or others who wish to deepen their understanding of elementary NMR theory or theoretical tools” – Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry
This book guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use telescopes (from small amateur models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and to observe objects in the sky. Mathematics to around Advanced Placement standard (US) or A level (UK) is assumed, although High School Diploma (US) or GCSE-level (UK) mathematics plus some basic trigonometry will suffice most of the time. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires no prior knowledge or experience.
This is a ‘how to’ book that provides the knowledge and background required to understand how and why telescopes work. Equipped with the techniques discussed in this book, the observer will be able to operate with confidence his or her telescope and to optimize its performance for a particular purpose. In principle the observer could calculate his or her own predictions of planetary positions (ephemerides), but more realistically the observer will be able to understand the published data lists properly instead of just treating them as ‘recipes.’ When the observer has obtained measurements, he/she will be able to analyze them in a scientific manner and to understand the significance and meaning of the results.
“Telescopes and Techniques, 3rd Edition” fills a niche at the start of an undergraduate astronomer’s university studies, as shown by it having been widely adopted as a set textbook. This third edition is now needed to update its material with the many new observing developments and study areas that have come into prominence since it was published. The book concentrates on the knowledge needed to understand how small(ish) optical telescopes function, their main designs and how to set them up, plus introducing the reader to the many ways in which objects in the sky change their positions and how they may be observed. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the most advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable the reader to see some of the developments possible from the basic observing techniques covered in the main parts of the book.
Principle, experimental set ups, parameters and interpretation rules of several advanced IR-based techniques; application to biointerface characterisation through the presentation of recent examples, will be given in this book. It will describe how to characterise amino acids, protein or bacterial strain interactions with metal and oxide surfaces, by using infrared spectroscopy, in vacuum, in the air or in an aqueous medium. Results will highlight the performances and perspectives of the technique.Description of the principles, expermental setups and parameter interpretation, and the theory for several advanced IR-based techniques for interface characterisationContains examples which demonstrate the capacity, potential and limits of the IR techniquesHelps finding the most adequate mode of analysisContains examplesContains a glossary by techniques and by keywords
A discussion is then presented on carbon-13 NMR, detailing its pros and cons and showing how it can be used in conjunction with proton NMR via the pivotal 2-D techniques (HSQC and HMBC) to yield vital structural information. Some of the more specialist techniques available are then discussed, i.e. flow NMR, solvent suppression, Magic Angle Spinning, etc. Other important nuclei are then discussed and useful data supplied. This is followed by a discussion of the neglected use of NMR as a tool for quantification and new techniques for this explained. The book then considers the safety aspects of NMR spectroscopy, reviewing NMR software for spectral prediction and data handling and concludes with a set of worked Q&As.
This book is an easy-to-use compendium of problems encountered when using various commonly used analytical techniques. Emphasis is on impurities, by-products, contaminants and other artifacts. A separate entry is provided for each artifact. For specific chemicals, this entry provides the common name, mass spectrum, gas chromatographic data, CAS name and registry number, synonyms and a narrative discussion. More than 1100 entries are included. Mass spectral data are indexed in a 6-peak index (molecular ion, base peak, second peak, third peak) and there are also formula, author and subject indexes. An extensive bibliography contains complete literature citations.
The book is designed to be used. It will not only allow experienced analysts to profit from the mistakes of others, but it will also be invaluable to other scientists who use analytical instruments in their work.
The aim of the book is twofold. Firstly, to reveal to the reader the combined use of different spectroscopic data, to facilitate an insight into the structure and conformational properties of any new piperidine derivative. Secondly, to establish a consistent link between conformation and reactivity for a variety of piperidine derivatives. Such a bridge is a key step for stereocontrol when dealing with the application of piperidine derivatives as synthetic intermediates. The book is conceived so that most of the information comes from visual inspection of the very abundant graphic material. An exhaustive subject index of more than 450 entries is also included.
Gas-Liquid And Liquid-Liquid Separators is divided into six parts: Part one and two covers fundamentals such as: physical properties, phase behaviour and calculations. Part three through five is dedicated to topics such as: separator construction, factors affecting separation, vessel operation, and separator operation considerations. Part six is devoted to the ASME codes governing wall thickness determination of vessel weight fabrication, inspection, alteration and repair of separators500 illustrationsEasy to understand calculations methodsGuide for protecting downstream equipmentHelps reduce the loss of expensive intermediate endsHelps increase product purity
*Completely revised and updated throughout
*The definative guide for process engineers and designers
*Covers a complete range of basic day-to-day operation topics
Designed for those new to FTIR, but with enough reference material to appeal to journeyman and expert spectroscopists, this book does not demand any extensive familiarity with chemistry or physics. Specializing in concise and comprehensible explanations of FTIR topics, the author introduces the field of infrared spectroscopy, including the strengths and weaknesses of FTIR as a chemical analysis technique. He then describes the instrument itself and explores topics such as how an interferometer generates a spectrum, optimization of spectral quality, and which tests are used to monitor instrument health.
The book discusses how to properly use spectral processing to increase the information of a spectrum without damaging the data and takes considerable care in instructing on sample preparation, as good sample preparation constitutes half the battle in extracting good data. The final chapters examine single analyte quantitative analysis and conclude with an overview of infrared microscopy.
Drawing on the experience and knowledge of the author as both a professor and practitioner, Fundamentals of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy offers up-to-date information given in clear, easily understood language to appeal to beginner and expert spectroscopists alike. The author maintains a website and blog with supplemental material. His training course schedule is also available online.
Volume I focuses on physics and mechanics of micro- and opto-electronic structures and systems, i.e., on the science underpinnings of engineering methods and approaches used in microelectronics and photonics. Volume II deals with various practical aspects of reliability and packaging of micro- and opto-electronic systems. Internationally recognized experts and world leaders in particular areas of this branch of applied science and engineering contributed to the book.
Divided into five chapters, the book starts by giving an introduction to the discovery of active nitrogen, the energy content, and the methods by which this may be produced. The succeeding part deals with light emissions from active nitrogen system. This discussion includes molecular spectrum of nitrogen, emission from atomic energy and condensed active nitrogen, emission from molecular species with electronic energy levels below and above 9.76 eV, and light-emitting systems of active nitrogen.
The next part focuses on theories on active nitrogen. The theories discussed are long-lived Lewis-Rayleigh afterglow and short-lived, energetic afterglows. Numerical representations are provided to test the validity of the theories. Lastly, the discussions end with chemical reactions of active nitrogen. Topics contained in this part are text on recombination of N(4S) atoms; rate constants for reactions presumably induced by direct N(4S) attack; reactions caused by excited nitrogen molecular attack; and mechanism for reactions of active nitrogen that seem to influence direct N(4S) attack.
The book is a valuable source of information for readers interested in the research on active nitrogen.
Since the publication of the highly successful first edition of Basic Gas Chromatography, the practice of chromatography has undergone several notable developments. Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Edition covers the latest in the field, giving readers the most up-to-date guide available, while maintaining the first edition's practical, applied approach to the subject and its accessibility to a wide range of readers.
The text provides comprehensive coverage of basic topics in the field, such as stationary phases, packed columns and inlets, capillary columns and inlets, detectors, and qualitative and quantitative analysis. At the same time, the coverage also features key additions and updated topics including:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) Sampling methods Multidimensional gas chromatography Fast gas chromatography Gas chromatography analysis of nonvolatile compounds Inverse gas chromatography and pyrolysis gas chromatography
Along with these new and updated topics, the references, resources, and Web sites in Basic Gas Chromatography have been revised to reflect the state of the field. Concise and fundamental in its coverage, Basic Gas Chromatography, Second Edition remains the standard handbook for everyone from undergraduates studying analytical chemistry to working industrial chemists.
• Introduces the reader to the types of test methods applied to petroleum products, including the need for specifications
• Provides detailed explanations for accurately analyzing and characterizing modern petroleum products
• Rewritten to include new and evolving test methods
• Updates on the evolving test methods and new test methods as well as the various environmental regulations are presented
The alkaline earth hydroxides can be divided into two groups depending on the hydration of the solid. First, the sparingly soluble anhydrous beryllium, magnesium and calcium hydroxides, whose freshly precipitated solids are poorly crystalline and show decreasing solubility with aging, and whose solubility in water decreases with increasing temperature. Second, the soluble strontium and barium hydroxide octahydrates that form crystalline precipitates which do not show changes in solubility on aging, and whose solubility in water increases with increasing temperature.
The section regarding GC Conditions, Derivatization, and Mass Spectral Interpretation of Specific Compound Types has the same number of compound types as the original edition, but the information in each section has been expanded to not only explain some of the spectra but to also explain why certain fragmentations take place. The number of Appendices has been increased from 12 to 17. The Appendix on Atomic Masses and Isotope Abundances has been expanded to provide tools to aid in determination of elemental composition from isotope peak intensity ratios. An appendix with examples on "Steps to follow in the determination of elemental compositions based on isotope peak intensities" has been added. Appendices on whether to use GC/MS or LC/MS, third-party software for use in data analysis, list of information required in reporting GC/MS data, X+1 and X+2 peak relative intensities based on the number of atoms of carbon in an ion, and list of available EI mass spectral databases have been added. Others such as the ones on derivatization, isotope peak patterns for ions with Cl and/or Br, terms used in GC and in mass spectrometry, and tips on setting up, maintaining and troubleshooting a GC/MS system have all been expanded and updated.Covers the practical instruction necessary for successful operation of GC/MS equipmentReviews the latest advances in instrumentation, ionization methods, and quantitationIncludes troubleshooting techniques and a variety of additional information useful for the GC/MS practitionerA true benchtop referenceA guide to a basic understanding of the components of a Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS)Quick References to data interpretationReady source for information on new analyses
Searching for the best laboratory instruments and systems can be a daunting and expensive task. A poorly selected instrument can dramatically affect results produced and indirectly affect research papers, the quality of student training, and an investigator's chances for advancement. Buying and Selling Laboratory Instruments offers the valuable insights of an analytical chemist and consultant with over four decades of experience in locating instruments based upon both need and price. It helps all decision makers find the best equipment, service, and support while avoiding the brand-loyalty bias of sales representatives so you can fully meet your laboratory's requirements.
The first section of the book guides buyers through the hurdles of funding, purchasing, and acquiring best-fit instruments at the least-expensive price. It explains how to find vendors that support their customers with both knowledgeable service and application support. Also offered is guidance on adapting your existing instruments to new applications, integrating new equipment, and what to do with instruments that can no longer serve in research mode.
The second section explains the sales process in detail. This is provided both as a warning against manipulative sales reps and as a guide to making the sale a win-win process for you and your vendor. It also shows you how to select a knowledgeable technical guru to help determine the exact system configuration you need and where to find the best price for it. Added bonuses are summary figures of buying sequence and sales tools and an appendix containing frequently asked questions and memory aids.
Buying and Selling Laboratory Instruments is for people directly involved in selecting and buying instruments for operational laboratories, from the principle investigator to the person actually delegated with investigating and selecting the system to be acquired. Sales representatives; laboratory managers; universities; pharmaceutical, biotech, and forensic research firms; corporate laboratories; graduate and postdoctoral students; and principle investigators will not want to be without this indispensible guide.
Designed to be completed in one semester, this text enables students to fully grasp and apply the core concepts of analytical chemistry and aqueous chemical equilibria. Moreover, the text enables readers to master common instrumental methods to perform a broad range of quantitative analyses. Author Brian Tissue has written and structured the text so that readers progressively build their knowledge, beginning with the most fundamental concepts and then continually applying these concepts as they advance to more sophisticated theories and applications.
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is clearly written and easy to follow, with plenty of examples to help readers better understand both concepts and applications. In addition, there are several pedagogical features that enhance the learning experience, including:Emphasis on correct IUPAC terminology "You-Try-It" spreadsheets throughout the text, challenging readers to apply their newfound knowledge and skills Online tutorials to build readers' skills and assist them in working with the text's spreadsheets Links to analytical methods and instrument suppliers Figures illustrating principles of analytical chemistry and chemical equilibria End-of-chapter exercises
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria is written for undergraduate students who have completed a basic course in general chemistry. In addition to chemistry students, this text provides an essential foundation in analytical chemistry needed by students and practitioners in biochemistry, environmental science, chemical engineering, materials science, nutrition, agriculture, and the life sciences.
Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
CMOS Processors and Memories is divided into two parts: processors and memories. In the first part we start with high performance, low power processor design, followed by a chapter on multi-core processing. They both represent state-of-the-art concepts in current computing industry. The third chapter deals with asynchronous design that still carries lots of promise for future computing needs. At the end we present a “hardware design space exploration” methodology for implementing and analyzing the hardware for the Bayesian inference framework. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational cost and exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology CMOL. The first part concludes with hybrid CMOS-Nano architectures.
The second, memory part covers state-of-the-art SRAM, DRAM, and flash memories as well as emerging device concepts. Semiconductor memory is a good example of the full custom design that applies various analog and logic circuits to utilize the memory cell’s device physics. Critical physical effects that include tunneling, hot electron injection, charge trapping (Flash memory) are discussed in detail. Emerging memories like FRAM, PRAM and ReRAM that depend on magnetization, electron spin alignment, ferroelectric effect, built-in potential well, quantum effects, and thermal melting are also described.
CMOS Processors and Memories is a must for anyone serious about circuit design for future computing technologies. The book is written by top notch international experts in industry and academia. It can be used in graduate course curriculum.
This multi-disciplined text covers the fundamentals as well as recent advance in this topic, providing need-to-know information for researchers in many disciplines including pharmaceutical, environmental and biomedical analysis who are utilizing mass spectrometry
New chapters include: high-temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, nanomaterials, and dental materials, anodic protection. Also featured are chapters dealing with standards for corrosion testing, microbiological corrosion, and electrochemical noise.
The seventh edition is restructured into three parts: Basic Concepts, Nuclear Power (including new chapters on nuclear power plants and introduction to reactor theory), and Radiation and Its Uses. Part Two in particular has been updated with current developments, including a new section on Reactor Safety and Security (with a discussion of the Fukushima Diiachi accident); updated information on naval and space propulsion; and revised and updated information on radioactive waste storage, transportation, and disposal. Part Three features new content on biological effects of radiation, radiation standards, and radiation detection.Coverage of energy economics integrated into appropriate chaptersMore worked examples and end of chapter exercisesUpdated final chapter on nuclear explosions for current geopolitical developments
Fully revised and expanded by 30%, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition incorporates the latest industrial and scientific trends in all areas. It updates all previous material and adds new chapters on such topics as the history of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, the design of X-ray spectrometers, state-of-the-art applications, and X-ray spectra.
Ron Jenkins draws on his extensive experience in training and consulting industry professionals for this clear and concise treatment, covering first the basic aspects of X rays, then the methodology of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and available instrumentation. He offers a comparison between wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometers as well as step-by-step guidelines to X-ray spectrometric techniques for qualitative and quantitative analysis-from specimen preparation to real-world industrial application.
Favored by the American Chemical Society and the International Centre for Diffraction Data, X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition is an ideal introduction for newcomers to the field and an invaluable reference for experienced spectroscopists-in chemical analysis, geology, metallurgy, and materials science.
An up-to-date review of X-ray spectroscopic techniques. This proven guidebook for industry professionals is thoroughly updated and expanded to reflect advances in X-ray analysis over the last decade. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Second Edition includes:
* The history of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-new to this edition.
* A critical review of the most useful X-ray spectrometers.
* Techniques and procedures for quantitative and qualitative analysis.
* Modern applications and industrial trends.
* X-ray spectra-new to this edition.
On the threshold of the new millennium when plasma emission and mass spectrometry are so important and popular, the editor considered it timely to produce a book which covers all present atomic detectors and techniques where FA has been or can be advantageously employed. The book has been conceived in three separate parts: Part I gives the fundamental, instrumentation and potential of FIA as a most versatile sample presentation/introduction system for atomic spectrometry. Part II provides a modern account of fundamentals, possibilities and applications offered by flow analysis to atomic spectrometry for on-line sample pretreatments, separations and preconcentrations. Part III deals with applications of FA-ASD combinations to analytical problem-solving in most varied fields and situations.
This monograph integrates the most popular aspects of FIA, its new developments for sample on-line treatments and on-line non-chromatographic and chromatographic separations (all typical 'flow analysis') in connection with all branches of analytical atomic spectrometry. Thus, academics, researchers and routine users of analytical atomic spectrometry will find this book invaluable.
This is presented in a concise yet comprehensive manner and each section is prepared such that they can be read independently of each other, and all equations are presented using the most commonly used units. Greater emphasis has been placed on spectral understanding/interpretation. For completeness sake, a description of commonly used instrumentation is also presented. Finally, some complementary surface analytical techniques and associated concepts are reviewed for comparative purposes in stand-alone appendix sections.
Medical Applications of Mass Spectrometry addresses the key issues in the medical applications of mass spectrometry at the level appropriate for the intended readership. It will go a long way to help the utilization of mass spectrometry in medicine.
The book comprises five parts. A general overview is followed by a description of the basic sampling and separation methods in analytical chemistry. In the second part a solid foundation in mass spectrometry and modern techniques of data analysis is presented. The third part explains how mass spectrometry is used in exploring various classes of biomolecules, including proteins and lipids. In the fourth section mass spectrometry is introduced as a diagnostic tool in clinical treatment, infectious pathogen research, neonatal diagnostics, cancer, brain and allergy research, as well as in various fields of medicine: cardiology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatric diseases, hemato-oncology, urologic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, gynecology and pediatrics. The fifth part covers emerging applications in biomarker discovery and in mass spectrometric imaging.
* Provides a broad look at how the medical field is benefiting from advances in mass spectrometry.
* Guides the reader from basic principles and methods to cutting edge applications.
* There is NO comparable book on the market to fill this fast growing field.
In Separation, Preconcentration and Spectrophotometry in Inorganic Analysis, much attention has been paid to separation and preconcentration methods, since they play an essential role in increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of spectrophotometric methods. Separation and preconcentration methods have also been utilised in other determination techniques.
Spectrophotometric methods which are widely used for the determination of the elements in a large variety of inorganic materials are presented in the book whilst separation and preconcentration procedures combined with spectrophotometry are also described.
This book contains recent advances in spectrophotometry, detailed discussion of the instrumentation, and the techniques and reagents used for spectrophotometric determination of elements in a wide range of materials as well as a detailed discussion of separation and preconcentration procedures that precede the spectrophotometric detection.
This book summarizes the major advances and relevant applications of GC-MS techniques over the last 10 years, with chapters by leading authors in the field of environmental chemistry. The authors are drawn from academia, industry and government.
The book is organized in three main parts. Part I covers applications of basic GC-MS to solve environmental-related problems. Part II focuses on GC-MS-MS instrumentation for the analyses of a broad range of analysis in environmental samples (pesticides, persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors, etc.). Part III covers the use of more advanced GC-MS techniques using low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry for many applications related to the environment, food and industry.Summarizes the major advances of GC-MS techniques in the last decadePresents relevant applications of GC-MS techniquesCovers academic, industrial and governmental sectors