The book discusses both laboratory experiments exploring the basic properties of non-equilibrium hydrogen-solid systems (diffusion, absorption, boundary processes) and experimental results obtained from existing fusion machines under conditions simulating future situations to some extent. Contributions are from experts in the fields of nuclear fusion, materials science, surface science, vacuum science and technology, and solid state physics.
In concise, high-def videos, various skills and techniques are demonstrated and explained. These cover topics for the novice, such as mounting and cleaning of optics, as well as for the more advanced learner, such as balanced detection, and lock-in amplifiers.
Various interactive widgets let you simulate the experience of aligning a laser beam to an optical system, aligning an interferometer to get fringes, or adjust a Fabry-Perot cavity while observing the mode spectrum. Other tools help you quickly find the Gaussian beam parameters of your laser from measured beam radii, and to calculate the position of a lens or pair of lenses to mode match a laser to a cavity.
The book begins at the simplest level, develops the basics, and reinforces fundamentals, ensuring a solid foundation in the principles and methods of physics. It provides an ideal introduction for college-level students of physics, chemistry, and engineering; for motivated AP Physics students; and for general readers interested in advances in the sciences.
One of the nineteenth century's most significant papers, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," appears here, along with similarly influential expositions of Maxwell's dynamical theory of gases. The author's extensive range of interests is well represented, from his discussions of color blindness and the composition of Saturn's rings to his essays on geometrical optics, ether, and protecting buildings from lightning. His less technical writings are featured as well, including items written for the Encyclopedia Britannica and Nature magazine, book reviews, and popular lectures. Striking in their originality, these papers offer a wealth of stimulating and inspiring reading to modern students of mathematics and physics.
Author Sal Cangeloso shows you the working parts of a “simple” LED bulb and explains the challenges electronics companies face as they push LED lighting into the mainstream. You’ll learn how you can use LEDs now, and why solid state lighting will bring dramatic changes in the near future.Explore the drivers, phosphors, and integrated circuits in a typical LED bulb Understand the challenges in producing LED bulbs with acceptable brightness, color temperature, and power consumption Learn about non-bulb LED applications, including lamps, street lights, and signage Discover the market forces driving—and impeding—the adoption of LED lighting Compare LEDs to compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and electron-stimulated luminescence (ESL) bulbs Gaze into the future of intelligent lighting, including networked lighting systems
Based on the recent NATO Advanced Study Institute "Chaotic Worlds: From Order to Disorder in Gravitational N-Body Dynamical Systems", this state of the art textbook, written by internationally renowned experts, provides an invaluable reference volume for all students and researchers in gravitational n-body systems. The contributions are especially designed to give a systematic development from the fundamental mathematics which underpin modern studies of ordered and chaotic behaviour in n-body dynamics to their application to real motion in planetary systems. This volume presents an up-to-date synoptic view of the subject.
A common theme throughout much of this volume involves adsorption and interfacial behavior of nanomaterials including core-shell particles, nanoparticles derived from oxides, mixed oxides, carbon, carbon/oxide hybrids, functionalized nanoparticles, polymeric biomaterials, and more. The behavior and design of these nanomaterials for adsorption (or sometimes the lack thereof) of toxins, pollutants, narcotics, warfare agents and various biomolecules are studied with a mix of experimental and theoretical approaches. This volume holds a special niche in describing the current state of the art in the fundamentals and applications of a variety of nanomaterials.
This book contains a collection of papers giving insight into the fundamentals and applications of nanoscale devices. The papers have been presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nanoscale Devices – Fundamentals and Applications (NDFA-2004, ARW 980607) held in Kishinev (Chisinau), Moldova, on September 18-22, 2004. The main focus of the contributions is on the synthesis and characterization of nanoscale magnetic materials, the fundamental physics and materials aspects of solid-state nanostructures, the development of novel device concepts and design principles for nanoscale devices, as well as on applications in electronics with special emphasis on defence against the threat of terrorism.
In addition to a history of the science behind the pursuit, directions are included for four easy-to-build projects, based around long-term NASA and Stanford Solar Center projects. The first three projects constitute self-contained units available as kits, so there is no need to hunt around for parts. The fourth – more advanced – project encourages readers to do their own research and track down items.
Getting Started in Radio Astronomy provides an overall introduction to listening in on the radio spectrum. With details of equipment that really works, a list of suppliers, lists of online help forums, and written by someone who has actually built and operated the tools described, this book contains everything the newcomer to radio astronomy needs to get going.
This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications. The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced in the second edition, including:Analysis of the Vander Pol oscillator model of laser light Coverage on coherence tomography and coherence multiplexing of fiber sensors An expansion of the chapter on imaging with partially coherent light, including several new examples An expanded section on speckle and its properties New sections on the cross-spectrum and bispectrum techniques for obtaining images free from atmospheric distortions A new section on imaging through atmospheric turbulence using coherent light The addition of the effects of “read noise” to the discussions of limitations encountered in detecting very weak optical signals A number of new problems and many new references have been added Statistical Optics, Second Edition is written for researchers and engineering students interested in optics, physicists and chemists, as well as graduate level courses in a University Engineering or Physics Department.
Illusion continues to be a major theme in the book, which provides a comprehensive classification system. There are also sections on what babies see and how they learn to see, on motion perception, the relationship between vision and consciousness, and on the impact of new brain imaging techniques.
"Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work."
—Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News
Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexity and build electro-optical systems that just work, with maximum insight and minimum trial and error.
Written in an engaging and conversational style, this Second Edition has been updated and expanded over the previous edition to reflect technical advances and a great many conversations with working designers. Key features of this new edition include:Expanded coverage of detectors, lasers, photon budgets, signal processing scheme planning, and front ends Coverage of everything from basic theory and measurement principles to design debugging and integration of optical and electronic systems Supplementary material is available on an ftp site, including an additional chapter on thermal Control and Chapter problems highly relevant to real-world design Extensive coverage of high performance optical detection and laser noise cancellation
Each chapter is full of useful lore from the author's years of experience building advanced instruments. For more background, an appendix lists 100 good books in all relevant areas, introductory as well as advanced. Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work, Second Edition is essential reading for researchers, students, and professionals who have systems to build.
‘Soft Matter Under Exogenic Impacts’ comes as a result from the ARW NATO brainstorming discussion in Odessa, Ukraine (8-12 Oct. 2005). It contains 31 papers prepared by key specialists in the field, which include amongst others: H. E. Stanley (USA), K. L. Ngai (USA), C. M. Roland (USA), M. A. Anisimov (USA), G. P. Johari (Canada), M.-C. Bellisent (France), A. R. Imre (Hungary), G. Floudas (Greece), Th. Kraska (Germany), A. Chalyi (Ukraine), E. E. Ustjuzhanin (Russia), J. L. Tamarit (Spain) and S. Kralj (Slovenia).
- New efficient and selective catalytic processes
- Use of non-usual media or environmentally benign reagents
- New selective and efficient synthetic methods
- New techniques based on alternative energy sources.
All these topics are covered in 15 chapters written by world-renowned experts in these fields who were the lecturers of the NATO ASI NeMeTOC (2005, Siena). Since some of the authors have an industrial background, the book helps to answer virtually any questions which may arise during the development of a new environmentally benign organic process.
his thoroughly revised and updated text, now in its second edition, is primarily intended as a textbook for undergraduate students of Physics. The book provides a sound understanding of the fundamental concepts of optics adopting an integrated approach to the principles of optics. It covers the requirements of syllabi of undergraduate students in Physics and Engineering in Indian Universities.
The book includes a wide range of interesting topics such as Fermat’s principle, geometrical optics, dispersion, interference, diffraction and polarization of light waves, optical instruments and lens aberrations. It also discusses electromagnetic waves, fundamentals of vibrations and wave motion. The text explains the concepts through extensive use of line drawings and gives full derivations of essential relations. The topics are dealt with in a well-organized sequence with proper explanations along with simple mathematical formulations.
New to the SECOND Edition
• Incorporates two new chapters, i.e., ‘Fundamentals of Vibrations’, and ‘Wave Motion’
• Includes several worked-out examples to help students reinforce their comprehension of theory
• Provides Formulae at a Glance and Conceptual Questions with their answers for quick revision
• Provides several Solved Numerical Problems to help students comprehend the concepts with ease
• Includes Multiple Choice Questions and Theoretical Questions to help students check their understanding of the subject matter
• Contains unsolved Numerical Problems with answers to build problem-solving skills
This book provides a general description of the influence that point defects have on the global properties of the bulk material and their spectroscopic characterization through ESR and optical spectroscopy.
Readership: An incomparable resource for engineers who analyze and design steel, composite and timber structures; researchers and graduate students in the same areas.
Readership: An invaluable reference for all condensed matter physicists, material scientists and technologists for whom bulk or thin film magnetic materials or superconductors are central to their interests.
This book guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use telescopes (from small amateur models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and to observe objects in the sky. Mathematics to around Advanced Placement standard (US) or A level (UK) is assumed, although High School Diploma (US) or GCSE-level (UK) mathematics plus some basic trigonometry will suffice most of the time. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires no prior knowledge or experience.
This is a ‘how to’ book that provides the knowledge and background required to understand how and why telescopes work. Equipped with the techniques discussed in this book, the observer will be able to operate with confidence his or her telescope and to optimize its performance for a particular purpose. In principle the observer could calculate his or her own predictions of planetary positions (ephemerides), but more realistically the observer will be able to understand the published data lists properly instead of just treating them as ‘recipes.’ When the observer has obtained measurements, he/she will be able to analyze them in a scientific manner and to understand the significance and meaning of the results.
“Telescopes and Techniques, 3rd Edition” fills a niche at the start of an undergraduate astronomer’s university studies, as shown by it having been widely adopted as a set textbook. This third edition is now needed to update its material with the many new observing developments and study areas that have come into prominence since it was published. The book concentrates on the knowledge needed to understand how small(ish) optical telescopes function, their main designs and how to set them up, plus introducing the reader to the many ways in which objects in the sky change their positions and how they may be observed. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the most advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable the reader to see some of the developments possible from the basic observing techniques covered in the main parts of the book.
This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of the fundamentals of holography, with particular reference to spatial and temporal coherence, diffraction at finite and infinite distances, and filtering of spatial frequencies. The reader is then introduced to the principles and applications of holography, focusing on the geometric optics and aberrations of holograms as well as interferometry and microscopy. The following chapters explore how images are produced and reconstructed using a hologram and explain how to detect the differences between two images. Three main types of synthetic holograms are also considered: binary holograms, holograms with several intensity levels, and the holograms called kinoforms. The last chapter is devoted to optical filtering and pattern recognition.
This monograph will be of value to physicists and researchers as well as to those interested in how holography works.
In addition to superconductors, the reader will encounter magnetic effects of many kinds, including giant and even colossal ones, organic conductors, photoconductors, and even 400-year-old Japanese ceramics. Processing is a prominent pursuit in supermaterials research, especially but not exclusively of the superconductors. The papers on characterisation and theory break new ground, particularly in pursuit of new optoelectronic phenomena. The parade of new materials recently synthesised, often containing four or more elements, is surprising. But it is in it reporting of new applications that the book stands out: from circuits to sensors, supermaterials are making their impact on society.