In his fifth work of nonfiction, Mark Kurlansky turns his attention to a common household item with a long and intriguing history: salt. The only rock we eat, salt has shaped civilization from the very beginning, and its story is a glittering, often surprising part of the history of humankind. A substance so valuable it served as currency, salt has influenced the establishment of trade routes and cities, provoked and financed wars, secured empires, and inspired revolutions. Populated by colorful characters and filled with an unending series of fascinating details, Salt is a supremely entertaining, multi-layered masterpiece.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Uranium is a common element in the earth's crust and the only naturally occurring mineral with the power to end all life on the planet. After World War II, it reshaped the global order-whoever could master uranium could master the world.
Marie Curie gave us hope that uranium would be a miracle panacea, but the Manhattan Project gave us reason to believe that civilization would end with apocalypse. Slave labor camps in Africa and Eastern Europe were built around mine shafts and America would knowingly send more than six hundred uranium miners to their graves in the name of national security.
Fortunes have been made from this yellow dirt; massive energy grids have been run from it. Fear of it panicked the American people into supporting a questionable war with Iraq and its specter threatens to create another conflict in Iran. Now, some are hoping it can help avoid a global warming catastrophe.
In Uranium, Tom Zoellner takes readers around the globe in this intriguing look at the mineral that can sustain life or destroy it.
‘Gem Gemstones’ is an indispensable guide for amateurs and enthusiasts alike. This pocket-sized book explores the fascinating history of ornamental stones, discussing their different social and cultural meanings and monetary values through the ages.
Each page features specific details about the crystal system, hardness, composition, lustre and gemstone ‘family’ of each gem.
Full colour photography for each specimen with cut and uncut examples from the Smithsonian Institution’s archives are included throughout, as well as up-to-date information on where to go to view such gems.
Simple illustrations show the crystal structure of each stone for ease of identification and a complete glossary and bibliography show where to go for further information.
From diamonds to sapphires to limestone, this comprehensive guide profiles all the key gemstones and other precious materials, and stunning images show the jewels in their different cuts, colors, and uses. The stories, myths, and legends that surround the most celebrated gems and jewel-laden artifacts from around the world are revealed, from their journeys in the company of royalty, film stars, and thieves to the curse of the Hope Diamond. Additionally, a reference section at the end of the book highlights a variety of other rocks and non-precious stones.
Created in association with the Smithsonian Institution, Gem combines stunning photographs with expert knowledge, making it perfect for gift giving.
"Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject... In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features...
"I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism...
I have shared Volcanism with my colleagues to their significant benefit, and I am more convinced of its value for a broad range of Earth and planetary scientists.
Undoubtedly, I will use Volcanism for my upcoming courses in volcanology. I will never hesitate to recommend it to others. Many geoscientists from very different subdisciplines will benefit from adding the book to their personal libraries. Schmincke has done us all a great service by undertaking the grueling task of writing the book – and it is much better that he alone wrote it." Stanley N. Williams, ASU Tempe, AZ (Physics Today, April 2005)
"Schmincke is a German volcanologist with an international reputation, and he has done us all a great favour because he sensibly channelled his fascination with volcanoes into writing this beautifully illustrated book... [he] tackles the entire geological setting of volcanoes within the earth and the processes that form them... And, with more than 400 colour illustrations, including a huge number of really excellent new diagrams, cutaway models and maps, plus a rich glossary and references, this book is accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject." New Scientist (March 2004)
"The science of volcanology has made tremendous progress over the past 40 years, primarily because of technological advances and because each tragic eruption has led researchers to recognize the processes behind such serious hazards. Yet scientists are still learning a great deal because of photographs that either capture those processes in action or show us the critical factors left behind in the rock record.Volcanism by Hans-Ulrich Schmincke has photos of the best quality I have ever seen in a text on the subject. I found myself wishing that I had had the photo of Nicaragua’s Masaya volcano, which was the subject of my dissertation, but it was Schmincke who was able to include it in his book. In addition, the schematic figures in their wide range of styles are clear, colorful, and simplified to emphasize the most important factors while including all significant features. The book’s paper is of such high quality that at times I felt I had turned two pages rather than one.
I have really enjoyed reading and rereading Schmincke’s book. It fills a great gap in texts available for teaching any basic course in volcanology. No other book I know of has the depth and breadth of Volcanism. I was disappointed that the text did not arrive on my desk until last August, when it was too late for me to choose it for my course in volcanology. I am also disappointed about another fact—the book’s binding is already becoming tattered because of my intense use of it!
Schmincke is a volcanologist who, in 1967, first published papers on sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin, the direction traveled by lava flows millions of years ago, and the structures preserved in explosive ignimbrites, or pumice-flow deposits, that reveal important details of their formation. Since then, his studies in Germany’s Laacher See, the Canary Islands, the Troodos Ophiolite of Cyprus, and many other regions have forged great fundamental advances. Such contributions have been recognized with his receipt of several international awards and clearly give him a strong base for writing the book.
However, as a scientist who has focused on the challenges of monitoring the very diverse activities of volcanoes, I think that the text’s overriding emphasis on the rock record has its cost. The group of scientists who are struggling with their goals to reduce or mitigate the hazards of the eruptions of tomorrow need to learn more about the options of technology, instrumentation, and methodology that are currently available. More than 500 million people live near the more than 1500 known active volcanoes and are constantly facing serious threats of eruptions. An extremely energetic earthquake caused the horrific tsunamis of 2004. However, the tsunamis of 1792, 1815, and 1883, which were caused by the eruptions of Japan’s Unzen volcano and Indonesia’s Tambora and Krakatau volcanoes, each took a similar toll. "
( Stanley N. Williams, PHYSICS TODAY, April 2005)
After Senator Barack Obama delivered his celebrated speech, "A More Perfect Union," on March 18, 2008, New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd noted that only Barack Obama "could alchemize a nuanced 40-minute speech on race into must-see YouTube viewing for 20-year-olds." Pundits established the speech's historical eminence with comparisons to Abraham Lincoln's "A House Divided" and Martin Luther King Jr's "I Have a Dream." The future president had addressed one of the biggest issues facing his campaign-and our country-with an eloquence and honesty rarely before heard on a national stage.
The Speech brings together a distinguished lineup of writers and thinkers-among them Adam Mansbach, Alice Randall, Connie Schultz, and William Julius Wilson -in a multifaceted exploration of Obama's address. Their original essays examine every aspect of the speech-literary, political, social, and cultural-and are punctuated by Boston Globe columnist Derrick Z. Jackson's reportage on the issue of race in the now historic 2008 campaign. The Speech memorializes and gives full due to a speech that propelled Obama toward the White House, and prompted a nation to evaluate our imperfect but hopeful union.
• An introductory chapter that reviews basic chemicalprinciples applied to environmental and low-temperaturegeochemistry
• Explanation and analysis of the importance of minerals inthe environment
• Principles of aqueous geochemistry
• Organic compounds in the environment
• The role of microbes in processes such asbiomineralization, elemental speciation and reduction-oxidationreactions
• Thorough coverage of the fundamentals of importantgeochemical cycles (C, N, P, S)
• Atmospheric chemistry
• Soil geochemistry
• The roles of stable isotopes in environmentalanalysis
• Radioactive and radiogenic isotopes as environmentaltracers and environmental contaminants
• Principles and examples of instrumental analysis inenvironmental geochemistry
The text concludes with a case study of surface water andgroundwater contamination that includes interactions and reactionsof naturally-derived inorganic substances and introduced organiccompounds (fuels and solvents), and illustrates theimportance of interdisciplinary analysis in environmentalgeochemistry.
Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate studentsstudying environmental/low T geochemistry as part of an earthscience, environmental science or related program.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/ryan/geochemistry"www.wiley.com/go/ryan/geochemistry/a.
What is North Carolina's "typical" weather? How does it vary from the coast to the mountains? How do we forecast it? With dozens of color maps and tables to make understanding easier, Robinson covers big issues such as the role of weather and climate in daily life, severe weather threats and their causes, and the meteorological effects of seasons. He also explains more specific phenomena including the causes of heating and cooling, the effects of acid rain, and the role of groundwater in weather.
Robinson addresses the state's weather history as well as long-term concerns associated with how air pollution affects weather and our health, and he explores why issues of local and global climate change matter. Throughout, he discusses weather in ways that can inform daily life, whether you're planting a garden, building a climate-friendly and energy-efficient home, or choosing a time and place for vacation.
In 1912, the book was translated by former President Herbert Clark Hoover and his wife. Printed in a limited edition, the work was quickly bought up by book collectors, historians, and medievalists, who had found that there was much to be learned from its pages. The book contains an unprecedented wealth of material on alluvial mining, alchemy, silver refining, smelting, surveying, timbering, nitric acid making, and hundreds of other phases of the medieval art of metallurgy. The text even covers the legal aspects of mining the use of boundary stones, forfeitures of titles, safety requirements of tunnel building in the 1500s, and so on.
But the plates, perhaps more than anything else, have insured Agricola's continued importance. Brilliantly executed drawings, richly detailed, reveal a whole medieval world of machinery, industrial technique, tools, even costume and architecture. All 289 of the original woodcuts are reproduced in this reprint of the 1912 edition, offering students of the period, commercial artists, engineers, metallurgists, and even curious general readers an unforgettable picture of the first age of technology.
The book first offers information on genetic systematics of ore deposits and ore textures. Discussions focus on meteorites, magmatic, sedimentary, and metamorphic sequences, fabric properties considered from a purely geometric point of view, genetic fabric types, and the relationship of ore textures with industrial minerals. The text then elaborates on annotation concerning the arrangement of materials and elements and intermetallic compounds.
The publication takes a look at alloy-like compounds and tellurides and common sulfides and "sulfosalts". Topics include umangite, bornite, jalpaite, argentite, naumannite, crookesite, coloradoite, novakite, orcelite, maucherite, parkerite, and horsfordite. The manuscript further touches on oxide ore minerals and gangue minerals and non-opaque oxide ore minerals, including quartz, calcite, dolomite, siderite, cerussite, smithsonite, jarosite, tenorite, zincite, and cuprite.
The text is a dependable reference for readers interested in ore minerals and their intergrowths.
In keeping with the modern trend in the field of geochemistry,the book emphasizes computational techniques by developingappropriate mathematical relations, solving a variety of problemsto illustrate application of the mathematical relations, andleaving a set of questions at the end of each chapter to be solvedby students. However, so as not to interrupt the flow of thetext, involved chemical concepts and mathematical derivations areseparated in the form of boxes. Supplementary materials arepackaged into ten appendixes that include a standard–state(298.15 K, 1 bar) thermodynamic data table and a listing of answersto selected chapter–end questions.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/misra/geochemistry"www.wiley.com/go/misra/geochemistry/a.
Kentucky Agate is the first book to showcase the unique mineral, treasured for its fine grain and vibrant banks of deep, varied colors. Authors Roland L. McIntosh and Warren H. Anderson have collected hundreds of professional color photographs, revealing the beauty and diversity of this sought-after stone. With detailed maps of the region surrounding the city of Irvine, Kentucky, including parts of Estill, Powell, Jackson, Menifee, Madison, and Lee counties, Kentucky Agate reveals locations where agate may be found. Featuring full-color photographs showing aspects of the rock not visible to the naked eye, this book also provides detailed information on the history, geology, chemistry, and formation of the mineral, giving collectors and Kentucky nature enthusiasts a stunning look into the world of agate collection and the hidden story of the breathtaking formation of the official state rock.
The book is divided into three main parts. Part A is a practical guide to the fundamentals of crystal optics, polarization microscopy and the practical use of microscopes. Part B gives a detailed description of the characteristic optical features, special features, and the paragenesis of the most common rock-forming minerals. This well-illustrated part is divided into opaque minerals, isotropic, uniaxial and optical biaxial mineral groups. Part C contains identification tables for the minerals and diagrams showing the international classification of magmatic rocks, as well as a colour plate section showing crystal forms of minerals.
The book will provide an invaluable guide to all undergraduate earth scientists, as well as to professional geologists requiring an overview of mineral identification in thin section.
The book includes comprehensive descriptions of mining geology techniques, including conventional methods and new approaches. The attributes presented in the book can be used as a reference and as a guide by mining industry specialists developing mining projects and for optimizing mining geology procedures. Applications of the methods are explained using case studies and are facilitated by the computer scripts added to the book as Electronic Supplementary Material.
Although the advent of modern multielement geochemical sampling and easier mechanical excavation assist considerably in subsurface interpretation, there are still many occasions where the first observation and recognition are made by the lone field geologist. New exposures continue to be found in remote and often difficult terrains, where “on the spot” skills are of prime importance.
In general terms the text has been arranged from the broad scale to the specific, and it should be realised that all scales provide valuable input for final interpretation. The topics covered include:
• Theoretical perspectives
• Initial recognition
• General field observations
• Detailed field observations (secondary minerals, boxworks)
• Porphyry copper leached cappings
Completely updated with five sections covering the entire production spectrum, including well productivity, equipment and facilities, well stimulation and workover, artificial lift methods, and flow assurance, this updated edition continues to deliver the most practical applied production techniques, answers, and methods for today’s production engineer and manager.
In addition, updated Excel spreadsheets that cover the most critical production equations from the book are included for download.Updated to cover today’s critical production challenges, such as flow assurance, horizontal and multi-lateral wells, and workoversGuides users from theory to practical application with the help of over 50 online Excel spreadsheets that contain basic production equations, such as gas lift potential, multilateral gas well deliverability, and production forecastingDelivers an all-inclusive product with real-world answers for training or quick look up solutions for the entire petroleum production spectrum
Topics covered include structure, synthesis, characterization, ion exchange, adsorption, diffusion, separations, and natural zeolites.
* 6 years since the last edtion this book brings together the rapid development within the field of molecular sieve chemistry and applications
* Accessible to newcomers to the field, also containing valuable information for experienced researchers
* 27 chapters written by renowned scientists in their field, including updates on some 2nd edition chapters
Finalist for the Sigurd F. Olson Nature Writing Award
When a teaspoon of soil contains millions of species, and when we pave over the earth on a daily basis, what does that mean for our future? What is the risk to our food supply, the planet's wildlife, the soil on which every life-form depends? How much undeveloped, untrodden ground do we even have left?
Paul Bogard set out to answer these questions in The Ground Beneath Us, and what he discovered is astounding.
From New York (where more than 118,000,000 tons of human development rest on top of Manhattan Island) to Mexico City (which sinks inches each year into the Aztec ruins beneath it), Bogard shows us the weight of our cities' footprints. And as we see hallowed ground coughing up bullets at a Civil War battlefield; long-hidden remains emerging from below the sites of concentration camps; the dangerous, alluring power of fracking; the fragility of the giant redwoods, our planet's oldest living things; the surprises hidden under a Major League ballpark's grass; and the sublime beauty of our few remaining wildest places, one truth becomes blazingly clear: The ground is the easiest resource to forget, and the last we should.
Bogard's The Ground Beneath Us is deeply transporting reading that introduces farmers, geologists, ecologists, cartographers, and others in a quest to understand the importance of something too many of us take for granted: dirt. From growth and life to death and loss, and from the subsurface technologies that run our cities to the dwindling number of idyllic Edens that remain, this is the fascinating story of the ground beneath our feet.
* Provides the structure and composition of clay minerals, as well as their phyisical and chemical properties
* Discusses pplications for Kaolin, Bentonite, Palygorskite and Sepiolite
* Contains appendixes of laboratory tests and procedures, as well as a test for common clays
The objective of the symposium was to present new horizons and developments in the chemistry and application of natural and synthetic crystalline materials having microporous structures. At this meeting the following trends were noted: new possibilities for highly selective oxidation of hydrocarbon and synthesis of fine chemicals using modified zeolites and metallosilicates; sophisticated syntheses of some valuable hydrocarbons such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and styrene which could not be obtained successfully by conventional catalysts; detailed mechanism of decomposition and aromatization of paraffinic hydrocarbons on zeolitic catalysts; methanol conversion on zeolite catalysts; syntheses of novel wide pore aluminophosphates and their isomorphously substituted porous crystals; detailed analysis of the state of cations in zeolites and metallosilicates; application to direct decomposition of nitric oxide; dynamic behavior of molecules in zeolite pores; chemistry and reaction performance of clay minerals.
This proceedings volume contains thorough reviews and original contributions, each of which includes an extensive list of references. The result is a comprehensive overview of the chemistry of zeolite and zeolite-like crystalline materials and clay minerals, including pillared clays.
Audience: This volume will be of interest to scientists and researchers in geosciences and life sciences departments, as well as to professionals and scientists involved in mining and mineral exploration.
This orientation to the minerals and their uses forms the foundation for chapters where they are presented in the context of the overall technology of various consuming industries. Each of these industry-specific presentations covers both the chemical and mineral raw materials used by the formulator, how these are combined, and relevant test methods. These chapters serve a dual purpose. Each clarifies for technologists the function and value of the mineral constituents of their products. Equally important, they provide a primer on the technology of industries other than their own, so that raw material, formulation, processing and testing considerations can be compared and contrasted.
The book concludes with a formulary demonstrating how specific mineral and chemical ingredients are actually compounded in major application areas, and technical data on scores of commercial mineral products.