The exposition concentrates on key concepts and then elementary results concerning these numbers. The reader learns how complex numbers can be used to solve algebraic equations and to understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers and the operations involving them.
The theoretical parts of the book are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty. A special feature of the book is the last chapter, a selection of outstanding Olympiad and other important mathematical contest problems solved by employing the methods already presented.
The book reflects the unique experience of the authors. It distills a vast mathematical literature, most of which is unknown to the western public, and captures the essence of an abundant problem culture. The target audience includes undergraduates, high school students and their teachers, mathematical contestants (such as those training for Olympiads or the W. L. Putnam Mathematical Competition) and their coaches, as well as anyone interested in essential mathematics.
The key to the conjecture lies in elliptic curves, which may appear simple, but arise from some very deep—and often very mystifying—mathematical ideas. Using only basic algebra and calculus while presenting numerous eye-opening examples, Ash and Gross make these ideas accessible to general readers, and, in the process, venture to the very frontiers of modern mathematics.
The author makes liberal use of circular inversion, the theory of pole and polar, and many other modern and powerful geometrical tools throughout the book. In particular, the method of "directed angles" offers not only a powerful method of proof but also furnishes the shortest and most elegant form of statement for several common theorems. This accessible text requires no more extensive preparation than high school geometry and trigonometry.
Throughout the book students are encouraged to express their ideas, conjectures, and conclusions in writing. The goal is to help readers develop a host of new mathematical tools that will be useful beyond the classroom and in a number of disciplines.
Key topics and features of Advanced Algebra:
*Topics build upon the linear algebra, group theory, factorization of ideals, structure of fields, Galois theory, and elementary theory of modules as developed in Basic Algebra
*Chapters treat various topics in commutative and noncommutative algebra, providing introductions to the theory of associative algebras, homological algebra, algebraic number theory, and algebraic geometry
*Sections in two chapters relate the theory to the subject of Gröbner bases, the foundation for handling systems of polynomial equations in computer applications
*Text emphasizes connections between algebra and other branches of mathematics, particularly topology and complex analysis
*Book carries on two prominent themes recurring in Basic Algebra: the analogy between integers and polynomials in one variable over a field, and the relationship between number theory and geometry
*Many examples and hundreds of problems are included, along with hints or complete solutions for most of the problems
*The exposition proceeds from the particular to the general, often providing examples well before a theory that incorporates them; it includes blocks of problems that illuminate aspects of the text and introduce additional topics
Advanced Algebra presents its subject matter in a forward-looking way that takes into account the historical development of the subject. It is suitable as a text for the more advanced parts of a two-semester first-year graduate sequence in algebra. It requires of the reader only a familiarity with the topics developed in Basic Algebra.
This volume contains the invited contributions from talks delivered in the Fall 2011 series of the Seminar on Mathematical Sciences and Applications 2011 at Virginia State University. Contributors to this volume, who are leading researchers in their fields, present their work in a way to generate genuine interdisciplinary interaction. Thus all articles therein are selective, self-contained, and are pedagogically exposed and help to foster student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics and to stimulate graduate and undergraduate research and collaboration between researchers in different areas.
This work is suitable for both students and researchers in a variety of interdisciplinary fields namely, mathematics as it applies to engineering, physical-chemistry, nanotechnology, life sciences, computer science, finance, economics, and game theory.
This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in the fields mentioned above. It contains, besides exercises aimed at giving insights, numerous research problems motivated by the developments reported.
In this volume, the authors provide a thorough introduction to characteristic classes, with detailed studies of Stiefel-Whitney classes, Chern classes, Pontrjagin classes, and the Euler class. Three appendices cover the basics of cohomology theory and the differential forms approach to characteristic classes, and provide an account of Bernoulli numbers.
Based on lecture notes of John Milnor, which first appeared at Princeton University in 1957 and have been widely studied by graduate students of topology ever since, this published version has been completely revised and corrected.
The textbook covers topics such as fair division, graph coloring problems, evasiveness of graph properties, and embedding problems from discrete geometry. The text contains a large number of figures that support the understanding of concepts and proofs. In many cases several alternative proofs for the same result are given, and each chapter ends with a series of exercises. The extensive appendix makes the book completely self-contained.
The textbook is well suited for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate mathematics students. Previous knowledge in topology or graph theory is helpful but not necessary. The text may be used as a basis for a one- or two-semester course as well as a supplementary text for a topology or combinatorics class.
The "lost notebook" contains considerable material on mock theta functions and so undoubtedly emanates from the last year of Ramanujan's life. It should be emphasized that the material on mock theta functions is perhaps Ramanujan's deepest work. Mathematicians are probably several decades away from a complete understanding of those functions. More than half of the material in the book is on q-series, including mock theta functions; the remaining part deals with theta function identities, modular equations, incomplete elliptic integrals of the first kind and other integrals of theta functions, Eisenstein series, particular values of theta functions, the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction, other q-continued fractions, other integrals, and parts of Hecke's theory of modular forms.
Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves. Topics covered include the geometry and group structure of elliptic curves, the Nagell–Lutz theorem describing points of finite order, the Mordell–Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points, the Thue–Siegel theorem on the finiteness of the set of integer points, theorems on counting points with coordinates in finite fields, Lenstra's elliptic curve factorization algorithm, and a discussion of complex multiplication and the Galois representations associated to torsion points. Additional topics new to the second edition include an introduction to elliptic curve cryptography and a brief discussion of the stunning proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Wiles et al. via the use of elliptic curves.
Chapter 1 introduces basic concepts that are necessary for an understanding of structure theory, while the following three chapters present the theory itself: solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras, Cartan’s criterion and its consequences, and split semi-simple Lie algebras. Chapter 5, on universal enveloping algebras, provides the abstract concepts underlying representation theory. The basic results on representation theory are given in three succeeding chapters: the theorem of Ado-Iwasawa, classification of irreducible modules, and characters of the irreducible modules. In Chapter 9 the automorphisms of semi-simple Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero are determined. These results are applied in Chapter 10 to the problems of sorting out the simple Lie algebras over an arbitrary field. The reader, to fully benefit from this tenth chapter, should have some knowledge about the notions of Galois theory and some of the results of the Wedderburn structure theory of associative algebras.
Nathan Jacobson, presently Henry Ford II Professor of Mathematics at Yale University, is a well-known authority in the field of abstract algebra. His book, Lie Algebras, is a classic handbook both for researchers and students. Though it presupposes knowledge of linear algebra, it is not overly theoretical and can be readily used for self-study.
The book may serve as a first or second course in undergraduate abstract algebra and with some supplementation perhaps, for beginning graduate level courses in algebraic geometry or computational algebra. Prerequisites for the reader include linear algebra and a proof-oriented course. It is assumed that the reader has access to a computer algebra system. Appendix C describes features of MapleTM, Mathematica® and Sage, as well as other systems that are most relevant to the text. Pseudocode is used in the text; Appendix B carefully describes the pseudocode used.
From the reviews of previous editions:
“...The book gives an introduction to Buchberger’s algorithm with applications to syzygies, Hilbert polynomials, primary decompositions. There is an introduction to classical algebraic geometry with applications to the ideal membership problem, solving polynomial equations and elimination theory. ...The book is well-written. ...The reviewer is sure that it will be an excellent guide to introduce further undergraduates in the algorithmic aspect of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry.”
—Peter Schenzel, zbMATH, 2007
“I consider the book to be wonderful. ... The exposition is very clear, there are many helpful pictures and there are a great many instructive exercises, some quite challenging ... offers the heart and soul of modern commutative and algebraic geometry.”
—The American Mathematical Monthly
Shafarevich's book is an attractive and accessible introduction to algebraic geometry, suitable for beginning students and nonspecialists, and the new edition is set to remain a popular introduction to the field.
"This book will certainly be indispensable to all those wishing to get an up-to-date initiation to the theory of modular forms."
The book opens with an overview of the results required from algebra and proceeds to the fundamental concepts of the general theory of algebraic varieties: general point, dimension, function field, rational transformations, and correspondences. A concentrated chapter on formal power series with applications to algebraic varieties follows. An extensive survey of algebraic curves includes places, linear series, abelian differentials, and algebraic correspondences. The text concludes with an examination of systems of curves on a surface.
In Chapter 1, the classical questions of several complex variables motivating the development of this field are reviewed after necessary preparations from the basic notions of those variables and of complex manifolds such as holomorphic functions, pseudoconvexity, differential forms, and cohomology. In Chapter 2, the L2 method of solving the d-bar equation is presented emphasizing its differential geometric aspect. In Chapter 3, a refinement of the Oka–Cartan theory is given by this method. The L2 extension theorem with an optimal constant is included, obtained recently by Z. Błocki and by Q.-A. Guan and X.-Y. Zhou separately. In Chapter 4, various results on the Bergman kernel are presented, including recent works of Maitani–Yamaguchi, Berndtsson, and Guan–Zhou. Most of these results are obtained by the L2 method. In the last chapter, rather specific results are discussed on the existence and classification of certain holomorphic foliations and Levi flat hypersurfaces as their stables sets. These are also applications of the L2 method obtained during these 15 years.
These operators are of central use in several fundamental problems of complex differential geometry (Kähler–Einstein equation, uniqueness of constant scalar curvature metrics), complex analysis and dynamics. The topics covered include, the Dirichlet problem (after Bedford–Taylor), Monge–Ampère foliations and laminated currents, polynomial hulls and Perron envelopes with no analytic structure, a self-contained presentation of Krylov regularity results, a modernized proof of the Calabi–Yau theorem (after Yau and Kolodziej), an introduction to infinite dimensional riemannian geometry, geometric structures on spaces of Kähler metrics (after Mabuchi, Semmes and Donaldson), generalizations of the regularity theory of Caffarelli–Kohn–Nirenberg–Spruck (after Guan, Chen and Blocki) and Bergman approximation of geodesics (after Phong–Sturm and Berndtsson).
Each chapter can be read independently and is based on a series of lectures by R. Berman, Z. Blocki, S. Boucksom, F. Delarue, R. Dujardin, B. Kolev and A. Zeriahi, delivered to non-experts. The book is thus addressed to any mathematician with some interest in one of the following fields, complex differential geometry, complex analysis, complex dynamics, fully non-linear PDE's and stochastic analysis.
Although Mumford-Tate groups can be defined for general structures, their theory and use to date has mainly been in the classical case of abelian varieties. While the book does examine this area, it focuses on the nonclassical case. The general theory turns out to be very rich, such as in the unexpected connections of finite dimensional and infinite dimensional representation theory of real, semisimple Lie groups. The authors give the complete classification of Hodge representations, a topic that should become a standard in the finite-dimensional representation theory of noncompact, real, semisimple Lie groups. They also indicate that in the future, a connection seems ready to be made between Lie groups that admit discrete series representations and the study of automorphic cohomology on quotients of Mumford-Tate domains by arithmetic groups. Bringing together complex geometry, representation theory, and arithmetic, this book opens up a fresh perspective on an important subject.
Readership: Advanced undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in mathematics and physics; non-experts with moderately sophisticated mathematics background.
Keywords:Octonions;Quaternions;Non-Associative Algebras;Division Algebras;Particle Physics;Theory of EverythingKey Features:This book is easily digestible by a large audience wanting to know the elementary introduction to octanionsSuitable for any reader with a grasp of the complex numbers, although familiarity with non-octonionic versions of some of the other topics would be helpfulMany open problems are very accessibleAdvanced topics covered are quite sophisticated, leading up to a clear discussion of (one representation of) the exceptional Lie algebras and their associated root diagrams, and of the octonionic projective spaces on which they actReviews:
“This is an attractive book, with many thought provoking and novel ideas. It is also very well presented with good quality paper and typography, which make it very pleasant to handle.”David B Fairlie
“This interesting book is recommended to advanced physics and mathematics students and to scientists working in differential geometry. It has a great methodological value because of the multitude of unusual advanced concepts and applications.”Journal of Geometry and Symmetry in Physics
“Anybody interested in the topics covered here should find this book to be a valuable reference.”Mathematical Association of America
The local Langlands conjecture for GLn(K), where K is a p-adic field, asserts the existence of a correspondence, with certain formal properties, relating n-dimensional representations of the Galois group of K with the representation theory of the locally compact group GLn(K). This book constructs a candidate for such a local Langlands correspondence on the vanishing cycles attached to the bad reduction over the integer ring of K of a certain family of Shimura varieties. And it proves that this is roughly compatible with the global Galois correspondence realized on the cohomology of the same Shimura varieties. The local Langlands conjecture is obtained as a corollary.
Certain techniques developed in this book should extend to more general Shimura varieties, providing new instances of the local Langlands conjecture. Moreover, the geometry of the special fibers is strictly analogous to that of Shimura curves and can be expected to have applications to a variety of questions in number theory.
The author’s goal is to provide an easily accessible introduction to the subject. The book contains detailed accounts of the basic concepts and the many exercises illustrate the theory. Appendices to various chapters allow an outlook to recent research directions.
Daniel Huybrechts is currently Professor of Mathematics at the University Denis Diderot in Paris.