Some such initiatives have as their goal the monetisation and trading of knowledge in the form of intellectual assets. Others seek to create networks for pooling and exchange of knowledge. Together, these initiatives can be referred to as “knowledge networks and markets” (KNMs). This report considers the development of such KNMs and examines the impact of current initiatives and the possible options for governments, working with the private sector, to improve innovation efficiency and effectiveness.
Improving the interoperability of knowledge resources is fundamental to the creation of a necessary shared infrastructure for efficient KNM to emerge, as is related sustainable funding and policy clarity. Governments can play a vital catalytic role in improving the productivity of KNMs through such infrastructure development and encouragement of associated social networking. the report makes suggestions for some priority actions based on existing case studies.
It is essential for long-term world prosperity that countries' commitment to trade and investment liberalisation be sustained. To be credible, that commitment must be rooted in and enjoy broad public support and understanding. This makes it all the more important to communicate what trade and investment liberalisation can and cannot do and be held responsible for.
Trade and investment liberalisation is not painless. It should not be viewed as a cure-all nor presented as an end in itself. It is, however, an essential component of any coherent set of policies aimed at helping societies adjust to - and take advantage of - technology-driven transformations whose pace and depth are unprecedented.
The stakes are high. This book examines the various channels through which open markets deliver considerable benefits to societies and their citizens; recalls the real pocket-book costs of protectionism; and addresses the full range of concerns that feature prominently in ongoing discussions over the effects of market liberalisation on employment, income distribution, environmental protection and national sovereignty.
A central message of this book is that liberalisation forms part of the solution to the concerns of citizens, rather than being their root cause. The book's comprehensive treatment of the ins and outs of trade and investment liberalisation should make an important contribution to the public debate. It is essential reading for public officials, business leaders and private citizens who wish to take an active part in it.
After a brief introduction to the PISA assessment, the book presents three chapters, including PISA questions for the reading, mathematics and science tests, respectively. Each chapter presents an overview of what exactly the questions assess. The second section of each chapter presents questions which were used in the PISA 2000, 2003 and 2006 surveys, that is, the actual PISA tests for which results were published. The third section presents questions used in trying out the assessment. Although these questions were not used in the PISA 2000, 2003 and 2006 surveys, they are nevertheless illustrative of the kind of question PISA uses. The final section shows all the answers, along with brief comments on each question.
Why do schools collapse even during moderate earthquakes? Experts agree that many collapse due to avoidable errors in design and construction. Often, the needed technology is not applied and laws and regulations are not sufficiently enforced. Application of existing knowledge can significantly lower the seismic risk of schools and help prevent further injury and death of school occupants during earthquakes. Moreover, this can be accomplished at reasonable cost and within a reasonable period.
Keeping Schools Safe in Earthquakes presents expert knowledge, opinions and experiences, and provides valuable insight into the scope of problems involved in protecting schools and their occupants. Its recommendations are a call to action to all governments in OECD and partner countries to help facilitate their implementation.
This report provides an overview of the economic impact of ICT on economic performance, and the ways through which it can be measured. Using available OECD data, the first part of the book examines the available measures of ICT diffusion, the role and impact of ICT investment and the role of ICT-using and ICT-producing sectors in overall economic performance. The second part of the book offers nine studies for OECD countries, based on detailed firm-level data and prepared by researchers and statisticians from a wide range of OECD countries. These studies use a variety of methods and provide detailed insights on the effects of ICT in individual countries.
The guide has been designed to support all revenue bodies, from those that are in the early stages of developing comprehensive service delivery programs to those with mature programs in place. While it focuses on the revenue body’s role in tax administration it acknowledges that some revenue bodies have a broader set of responsibilities, for example, in the administration of some social policies. This guide has not explored how such roles should integrate at a broader demand management level and revenue bodies will need to assess this issue, if relevant, having regard to their individual circumstances.
The primary purposes of the Residues in Livestock study are to provide: the basis for establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) and for conducting dietary intake assessments for consumer safety. Separate feeding studies should be conducted for a ruminant (lactating dairy cows) and poultry (egg-laying hens). The test substance(s) should be applied daily (during at least 28 days) preferably by capsule. A Residues in Livestock study will normally comprise 3 different dose levels, 1X, 3X and 10X. Three animals per dose group (and one for the control) should be used for ruminants. For hens 9-10 animals per dose group (and 3 to 4 animal for control per study) should be used. The study report should include: daily feed consumption, bodyweights measurement, milk or egg production and analyse (after and before dosing), detailed observations (health problems...) and tissues analyse.
While successful contract-farming schemes exist for export crops, they remain rare for food crops. Greater involvement of the private sector in designing and implementing such food-crop commercialisation programmes could develop viable local food industries. Existing international financing facilities such as the Enhanced Private Sector Assistance (EPSA) for Africa should get full use. Whether Africa can unleash the potential of commercial agriculture in the coming decades also depends in no small part on the continuous and effective support of the international development community.
The findings summarised in this volume can serve as building blocks for further international discussions on fostering agro-based private-sector development and lifting smallholders out of poverty.
Overall, the review shows that the Internet economy has now reached a point where it has become a new source of growth, with the potential to boost the whole economy, to foster innovation, competitiveness and user participation, and to contribute effectively to the prosperity of society as a whole.
Since 1997, the OECD has carried out a series of country reviews based on the Principles, which have documented progress in the reviewed countries. Twenty OECD countries have been reviewed. The reviews have been multidisciplinary, covering the broader economic context, competition policy, market openness, sectoral reforms and not least, the development of regulatory policies, institutions and tools to build up capacities for a high quality rule-making environment supportive of economic growth and specific policy goals. This work has been complemented by the specific research of the OECD secretariat and others on issues such as the link between product market reforms and economic performance. Ample material is now available to take stock of the progress made in OECD countries and to reflect on the continued relevance of the 1997 Principles.
This report integrates more detailed papers prepared for the committees and working parties responsible for regulatory management, competition policy and trade, as well as relevant papers prepared for the Economic Policy Committee.
The OECD’s 2nd World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policy 'Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies' held in Istanbul in June 2007 brought together a diverse group of leaders from more than 130 countries to debate these issues. These proceedings contain 40 papers presented at the Forum.
The PISA 2003 database includes micro-level data on student educational performance for 41 countries collected in 2003, together with students’ responses to the PISA 2003 questionnaires and the test questions. A similar manual is available for SPSS users.
Along with the 1993 SNA, Updates and Amendments supports the implementation of international standards of national accounting and provides the methodological basis for improving the international comparability of national accounts data. The publication contains the text of the 1993 SNA that has been updated as a result of the adoption of new international standards for the statistical measurement of financial derivatives. It also includes four functional classifications that were fully elaborated and updated after the 1993 SNA was published. It also provides for the first time a glossary of terms and definitions.
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This full set of guidance on conflict prevention to date from the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) includes the 2001 Supplement and the ground-breaking 1997 Guidelines. This work marks a reaffirmation of the international community’s commitment to work together across government systems to improve their analyses of violent conflicts and establish more coherent policies.
“... We are promoting the consideration of conflict prevention in development assistance strategies with a view to achieving quicker and better co-ordinated assistance strategies – including the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HPIC) initiative – and ensuring a smooth transition from relief to post-conflict development. A significant example of such consideration is the April 2001 OECD/DAC Supplement to the 1997 Guidelines on Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation.”
– Excerpt from the Conclusions of the G-8 Foreign Ministers’ meeting, July 2001.
Key evaluation principles are set out, including the ‘Six Steps to Heaven’ approach. These principles are illustrated with examples of evaluations of national, regional and local programmes that can be explored further by the reader.
The publication focuses not only on the evaluation of individual policies and programmes, but also on peer review evaluations and assessment of the impact of SMEs and entrepreneurship of mainstream programmes that do not have business development as their principal aim. This book complements other existing guidelines, as it focusses particularly on problem situations and exceptions to the general rules.
This report aims to clarify what is now known about human capital and how it can be measured. It responds to a request by governments represented in the OECD Council "to develop an initial set of indicators of human capital investment based on existing data, analyse areas where significant gaps remain in internationally comparable data, identify the cost of development of data collection for new measures and performance indicators, and report to Ministers in 1998".
The Guidelines establish that firms should respect human rights in every country in which they operate. Companies should also respect environmental and labour standards, for example, and have appropriate due diligence processes in place to ensure this happens. These include issues such as paying decent wages, combating bribe solicitation and extortion, and the promotion of sustainable consumption.
The Guidelines are a comprehensive, non-binding code of conduct that OECD member countries and others have agreed to promote among the business sector. A new, tougher process for complaints and mediation has also been put in place.
Featuring more than 140 charts, 230 tables, and 100 000 figures, Education at a Glance provides key information on the ouput of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education, and the learning environment and organisation of schools.
In the 2012 edition, new indicators focus on:
• the effect of the global economic crisis on education expenditures;
• the state of early childhood education systems around the world;
• intergenerational mobility in higher education among different socio-economic groups;
• the impact of education on macroeconomic outcomes, such as GDP;
• the specific factors that influence the level of education spending in different countries;
• career expectations among boys and girls at age 15, as compared to higher education graduation rates by field;
• the makeup of the teaching force in different countries and training requirements to enter the teaching profession; and
• the impact of examinations on access to secondary and higher education.
The ExcelTM spreadsheets used to create the tables and charts in Education at a Glance are available via the StatLinks provided throughout. The tables and charts, as well as the complete OECD Online Education Database, are freely available via the OECD Education website at www.oecd.org/edu/eag2012.
The method is based on the repeated oral administration of the substance of interest over a prolonged period (one dose level daily during 90 days). This Test Guideline is intended primarily for use with non-rodents species. The commonly used non-rodent species is the dog (the beagle is frequently used). At least 8 animals (4 female and 4 male) should be used for each test group. Three concentrations, at least, should be used. The test compound is administered in the diet or in the drinking water, by gavage or in capsules. A limit test may be performed if no effects would be expected at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/d. The results of this study include: measurements (weighing at least once a week, food/water consumption) and daily (preferably at the same time) and detailed observations (ophtalmological examination, haematology, clinical biochemistry and urinalysis), as well as gross necropsy and histopathology. A properly conducted 90-day subchronic test should provide a satisfactory estimation of a no-effect level.
New material in this edition includes further analysis of results of the 2003 survey of the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), including student access to and use of ICT, analysis of the lowest performing students; and the effects on students performance of family background and the way classes are organised in schools; trend data on tertiary qualifications, including projections for the year 2014; trend data on survival rates in tertiary education; the impact of demographic trends on education systems, as well as projections on expenditure for the year 2015; trend data on expected years of education; instruction time per subject for 9-to-14-year-olds; and a picture of student mobility and the significance of internationalisation of higher education.
The ExcelTM spreadsheets used to create the tables and charts in this book are available via the StatLinks printed in this book.
The indicators look at who participates in education, what is spent on it and how education systems operate and at the results achieved. The latter includes indicators on a wide range of outcomes, from comparisons of students’ performance in key subject areas to the impact of education on earnings and on adults’ chances of employment. New material in this edition includes first results from the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) on teacher practices as well as teacher appraisal and feedback; an analysis of the social benefits of education; information on long-term unemployment and involuntary part-time work among young adults; a review of trends in attainment; data on the incentives to invest in education which show the benefits of education in dollar amount across OECD countries; and a picture of excellence in education for 15-year-olds, based on findings from the PISA study.
The ExcelTM spreadsheets used to create the tables and charts in this book are available via the StatLinks printed in this book. The tables and charts, as well as the complete OECD Online Education Database, are freely available via the OECD Education website at www.oecd.org/edu/eag2009.
A condensed version of this publication is also available: Highlights from Education at a Glance 2009.
Catalonia is now feeling the effects of the economic crisis. How can it prepare for the post-crisis economy with the help of the university system? How can it balance attracting expertise from abroad with nurturing talent among its diverse population? How can it unleash the potential of universities to contribute to local and regional development?