Some such initiatives have as their goal the monetisation and trading of knowledge in the form of intellectual assets. Others seek to create networks for pooling and exchange of knowledge. Together, these initiatives can be referred to as “knowledge networks and markets” (KNMs). This report considers the development of such KNMs and examines the impact of current initiatives and the possible options for governments, working with the private sector, to improve innovation efficiency and effectiveness.
Improving the interoperability of knowledge resources is fundamental to the creation of a necessary shared infrastructure for efficient KNM to emerge, as is related sustainable funding and policy clarity. Governments can play a vital catalytic role in improving the productivity of KNMs through such infrastructure development and encouragement of associated social networking. the report makes suggestions for some priority actions based on existing case studies.
Overall, the review shows that the Internet economy has now reached a point where it has become a new source of growth, with the potential to boost the whole economy, to foster innovation, competitiveness and user participation, and to contribute effectively to the prosperity of society as a whole.
The test material (150 μL for liquids or solid with 150 μL of deionised water added on the top) is applied for up to 24 hours to the epidermal surfaces of skin discs (three skin discs are used for each test and control substance) in a two-compartment test system in which the skin discs function as the separation between the compartments. The skin discs are taken from humanely killed rats aged 28-30 days. Corrosive materials are identified by their ability to produce a loss of normal stratum corneum integrity and barrier function, which is measured as a reduction in the TER below a threshold level (5kΩ for rat). A dye-binding step incorporated into the test procedure permits to determine if the increase in ionic permeability is due to physical destruction of the stratum corneum.
The early-life stages of fish are exposed to ,at least, five concentrations of the test substance dissolved in water, preferably under flow-through conditions, or where appropriate, semi-static conditions. The test starts with placing fertilised eggs (at least 60) in the test chambers and continues at least until all the control fishes are free-feeding. Lethal and sub-lethal effects are assessed and compared with control values to determine the lowest observed effect concentration and the no observed effect concentration. The study report should include measurement of the concentrations of the test substance in water at regular intervals (five at least), the dissolved oxygen, pH, total hardness and salinity, fish weight and length, as well as the observations of abnormal appearance, abnormal behaviour, hatching and survival.
Adult worker honeybees are exposed to five doses in a geometric series of the test substance dispersed in sucrose solution. A minimum of three replicate test groups, each of ten bees, should be dosed with each test concentration. A toxic standard (usually dimethoate) should be included in the test series. The bees are then fed the same diet, free of the test substance. The limit test corresponds to one dose level of 100 ìg active ingredient/bee. Mortality is recorded daily during at least 48 hours and compared with control values. If the mortality rate is increasing between 24 and 48h whilst control mortality remains at an accepted level it is appropriate to extend the duration of the test to a maximum of 96h. The study report should include the amount of diet consumed per group and the observation of all abnormal behavioural. The results are analysed in order to calculate the LD50 at 24h and 48h and, in case the study is prolonged, at 72h and 96h.
The revised Test Guideline describes two studies: a traditional LC50 protocol and a Concentration x Time (C x t) protocol. It can be used to estimate a median lethal concentration (LC50), non-lethal threshold concentration (LC01) and slope, and to identify possible sex susceptibility. This Test Guideline enables a test article quantitative risk assessment and classification according to the Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. In the traditional LC50 protocol, animals are exposed to one limit concentration or to three concentrations, at least, for a predetermined duration, generally of 4 hours. Usually 10 animals should be used for each concentration. In the C x T protocol, animals are exposed to one limit concentration or a series of concentrations over multiple time durations. Usually 2 animals per C x t interval are used. Animals (the preferred species is the rat) should be observed for at least 14 days. The study includes measurements (including weighing), daily and detailed observations, as well as gross necropsy.
Recently, Portugal has emphasized two new areas of development co-operation. First, private sector development, based on economic policy reforms supported by the international institutions, and on instruments which encourage the involvement of the Portuguese private sector. The second new area of emphasis is the strengthening of the governance systems in the PALOPs, the Portuguese-speaking countries in Africa, focusing particularly on legal systems and the judiciary, but also extending to parliamentary institutions, electoral systems, local governments and constitutional advice.
In its review of Portugal's programme the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) noted that Portugal has the potential to play a larger role, particularly in Mozambique and Angola, where critical post-conflict development needs have to be met. It noted that a new Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (the CPLP), including Brazil, has recently been formed to enhance dialogue and mutual development efforts.
This report presents the OECD analytical framework for measuring well-being at the regional level, as well as internationally comparable indicators on 9 well-being dimensions for 362 regions across 34 OECD countries. It also sets out guidance for all levels of government in using well-being measures to better target policies at the specific needs of different communities. Drawing on a variety of practical experiences from OECD regions and cities, the report discusses methodological and political solutions for selecting regional well-being outcome indicators, monitoring the progress of regional well-being performance over time, and implementing a process of multi-stakeholder engagement to promote social change.
Animals are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) by an appropriate route of exposure (usually by gavage using a stomach tube or a suitable intubation cannula, or by intraperitoneal injection) and are sacrificed at appropriate times after treatment. Prior to sacrifice, animals are treated with a metaphase-arresting agent. Chromosome preparations are then made from the bone marrow cells and stained, and metaphase cells are analysed for chromosome aberrations. Each treated and control group must include at least 5 analysable animals per sex. The limit dose is 2000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment up to 14 days, and 1000 mg/kg/body weight/day for treatment longer than 14 days.
In this book, the OECD identifies an increasingly successful "carrot-and-stick" approach – applying stiffer punishment for cartel operators and enhancing programmes aimed at rewarding cartel members who decide to defect and co-operate with the authorities. This book contributes to the existing knowledge about the extent of cartels' overcharges and other harm to businesses and consumers worldwide, and sheds light on new and effective "leniency programmes", as well as on optimal sanctions in cartel cases.
What are the potential economic impacts of nanotechnology, how are companies using nanotechnology for innovation, and what are the key challenges in its commercialisation? These are some of the issues that this book addresses, based on a large number of company case studies in several countries.
The OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2010 reviews key trends in science, technology and innovation in OECD countries and a number of major emerging economies including Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa. Using the latest available data and indicators, it examines topics high on the agenda of economic policy makers, including performance in science and innovation, trends in national science, technology and innovation policies and the design and assessment of innovation policy, including policy interactions and the “policy mix”. It provides individual profiles of the science and innovation performance of each country and relates these to their national context and current policy challenges.
"a comprehensive, up-to-date and authoritative source for graduate students, researchers, and the general public. Recommended." -Choice
This compendium updates the data issued in Environmental Performance of Agriculture at a Glance and provides comprehensive data and analysis on the environmental performance of agriculture in OECD countries since 1990, covering soil, water, air and biodiversity and looking at recent policy developments in all 34 OECD countries.
This book highlights the core elements of a possible performance measurement framework to assess health systems at the international and national levels. It also addresses further challenges which remain: how do we overcome the lack of health outcome measures? How do we better align performance information and incentives with policy objectives? And how do we reconcile the traditional professional self-regulation approach with greater public accountability for health care quality?
This report has been prepared by the Forum on Tax Administration’s E-services and Digital Delivery Programme. The work was initiated by the FTA Bureau as part of its 2015/16 work programme and was led by the Federal Tax Service of Russia (FTS). With tax administrations clear that e-service options can improve taxpayer compliance levels and participation while at the same time lowering their cost of operation; but with available options many and varied, and with the cost of implementation high, the FTA has over the last five years provided a wide range of guidance in the deployment of effective e-services.
“A highly useful contribution to the debate on policy challenges in textiles and clothing, the book stands out from the others in recognising the influence that trade policy measures continue to exert on investment and production decisions, and in providing a synthesis of key market developments and policy issues.”
Munir Ahmad, Executive Director, International Textiles and Clothing Bureau
“Policy makers in all textile and clothing trading countries would be wise to heed the sound advice proffered in this comprehensive and thorough, fact-based assessment."
Laura Baughman, President, Trade Partnership Worldwide, LLC.
“A must read for anybody interested in the future of textiles and clothing around the world. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the expected adjustment process in usefully underscoring the role of technology and innovation and the growing importance of the business facilitation agenda.”
Carlos A. Primo Braga, Senior Adviser, International Trade Department, The World Bank
The methods listed are appropriate in principle for the investigation of Newtonian liquids. The measurement of non-Newtonian liquids is only possible with the rotational viscometer. Viscosity measurements are carried out predominantly according to five methods: the capillary viscometer, the flow cup, the rotational viscometer, the rolling ball viscometer and the drawing ball viscometer. Each determination of viscosity should preferably be made at a temperature of 20°C and at one other temperature approximately 20°C higher. At least two determinations should be made at each temperature. The evaluation of the viscosity measurement is to be carried out according to the standards in the case of capillary and forced ball viscometers. In the case of rotational viscometers, the specification of a viscosity is appropriate only for Newtonian fluids. For non- Newtonian fluids the results obtained are preferred in the form of flow curves which must be interpreted, assuming the validity of various laws of flow.
A key conclusion of the report is that traditional agricultural support policies are increasingly ineffective in accomplishing rural development objectives. Agricultural policy reform can enhance agro-food's contribution to the viable development of rural economies, although the benefits are not immediate. A coherent, well co-ordinated and targeted policy approach aimed at diversification, promotion of high-quality regional products, provision of information, direct payments and public goods would improve the competitiveness of rural areas. How to strike the right balance between the need for greater economic efficiency, and social and environmental concerns in rural areas is a key challenge facing policy makers.
The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.
The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. “Fishing expeditions” are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction’s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined – Phase 1 plus Phase 2 – reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.
All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.
For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please visit www.oecd.org/tax/transparency
By diverting exports to domestic markets, export restrictions raise prices for foreign consumers and importers. At the same time, by reducing domestic prices in the applying countries and increasing global uncertainty concerning future prices, export restrictions negatively affect investment, thus potentially reducing the overall supply of raw materials in the long term. In view of existing alternative policy tools that have a different impact on trade, the effectiveness of export restrictions to achieve stated policy objectives should be carefully reviewed.
This publication presents a selection of papers discussed at the OECD Workshop on Raw Materials, held in Paris in October 2009. This workshop was organised in response to the growing concern on the use of export restrictions on raw materials, particularly by emerging economies.
This publication presents responses from the most recent round of the OECD survey implemented in 2011 in 5 areas (energy, food, transport, waste and water) and 11 countries: Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
Analysis comparing the data across countries, policy conditions and households’ characteristics reveals which measures most effectively change behaviour. Each round of the survey also allows to track changes over time and to explore new emerging issues.
The new survey confirms the importance of providing the right economic incentives for influencing our decisions. The findings indicate that “soft” measures such as labelling and public information campaigns also have a significant complementary role to play. Spurring desirable behaviour change requires a mix of these instruments.
This book is a milestone for all those interested by the challenging question of ways to promote greener behaviour, from policy makers to individual citizens.
The Glossary examines and elaborates on the requirements of the conventions and explains how they can be effectively introduced into the national legislation. The Glossary is also a practical tool for monitoring country compliance with the international anti-corruption conventions, as well as raising awareness of these conventions.
Regional policies are increasingly focusing on human resources and their orientation towards market demand and improvement of partnerships. The great diversity of regional approaches to human resource development in industrialised countries shows that an efficient regional governance, coupled with concern for equity, can reinforce and consolidate national policies. This volume casts a new light on these issues, providing a useful source of information and inspiration for regional actors and their national partners.
This report is the third OECD review of Italy’s environmental performance. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on policies that promote more effective and efficient water management and provide better incentives to tackle climate change.
The condensed version 2010, previously published and also available, includes only the articles, commentaries, non-member economies positions and the Recommendation of the OECD Council.
This report contains - for Australia - a survey of the main barriers to employment for young people, an assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of existing measures to improve the transition from school-to-work, as well as a set of policy recommendations for further action.
The report provides a framework for policy discussions around financing water resources management that are taking place at local, basin, national, or transboundary levels. The report goes beyond the traditional focus on financing water supply and sanitation to examine the full range of water management tasks that governments have to fulfill; when appropriate, a distinction is made on distinctive water issues.
The report identifies four principles (Polluter Pays, Beneficiary Pays, Equity, Policy Coherence), which have to be combined. In addition, it identifies five empirical issues, which have to be addressed on a case-by-case basis. Finally, it sketches a staged approach that governments might wish to consider, to assess the financial status of their water policies and to design robust financial strategies for water management. Case studies provide illustrations of selected instruments and how they can be used to finance water resources management.
If there is a caveat, amidst such a tremendous success story, it is that the very rapid growth of mobile communications has tended to conceal large performance differences across the OECD area. There is an ongoing need to examine performance against fast moving international benchmarks. Without such analysis the challenges to mobile communications meeting wider policy goals, in relation to electronic commerce and local infrastructure competition, will remain impervious to critical review. In addition, high growth rates have tended to mask some problem areas where there has been insufficient price competition.
In many countries, the mobile communications sector has been successfully used to pioneer liberalisation. Nevertheless, it is incumbent on policy makers to continually review regulatory frameworks. This book highlights a number of areas for policy review and decision.