Multiscale problems naturally pose severe challenges for computational science and engineering. The smaller scales must be well resolved over the range of the larger scales. Challenging multiscale problems are very common and are found in e.g. materials science, fluid mechanics, electrical and mechanical engineering. Homogenization, subgrid modelling, heterogeneous multiscale methods, multigrid, multipole, and adaptive algorithms are examples of methods to tackle these problems. This volume is an overview of current mathematical and computational methods for problems with multiple scales with applications in chemistry, physics and engineering.
Most problems in science involve many scales in time and space. An example is turbulent ?ow where the important large scale quantities of lift and drag of a wing depend on the behavior of the small vortices in the boundarylayer. Another example is chemical reactions with concentrations of the species varying over seconds and hours while the time scale of the oscillations of the chemical bonds is of the order of femtoseconds. A third example from structural mechanics is the stress and strain in a solid beam which is well described by macroscopic equations but at the tip of a crack modeling details on a microscale are needed. A common dif?culty with the simulation of these problems and many others in physics, chemistry and biology is that an attempt to represent all scales will lead to an enormous computational problem with unacceptably long computation times and large memory requirements. On the other hand, if the discretization at a coarse level ignoresthe?nescale informationthenthesolutionwillnotbephysicallymeaningful. The in?uence of the ?ne scales must be incorporated into the model. This volume is the result of a Summer School on Multiscale Modeling and S- ulation in Science held at Boso ¤n, Lidingo ¤ outside Stockholm, Sweden, in June 2007. Sixty PhD students from applied mathematics, the sciences and engineering parti- pated in the summer school.
This book is a snapshot of current research in multiscale modeling, computations and applications. It covers fundamental mathematical theory, numerical algorithms as well as practical computational advice for analysing single and multiphysics models containing a variety of scales in time and space. Complex fluids, porous media flow and oscillatory dynamical systems are treated in some extra depth, as well as tools like analytical and numerical homogenization, and fast multipole method.
This book covers the new topic of GPU computing with many applications involved, taken from diverse fields such as networking, seismology, fluid mechanics, nano-materials, data-mining , earthquakes ,mantle convection, visualization. It will show the public why GPU computing is important and easy to use. It will offer a reason why GPU computing is useful and how to implement codes in an everyday situation.