This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including adult and embryonic stem cells and progenitor populations that may soon lead to new tissue engineering therapies for heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies is complemented by a series of new chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering. The result is a comprehensive textbook that we believe will be useful to students and experts alike.
New to this edition:
*Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves
*Expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems
Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation?
Using first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics. Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge illustrates one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe.
Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden describe the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge.
– Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
This new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and has been redesigned to give the book a more contemporary look. As with previous editions it contains numerous examples, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding. Updates include: Increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, more detailed description of time of flight spectrometers, new material on isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and an expanded range of applications.
Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition is an invaluable resource for all undergraduate and postgraduate students using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, material science and food science. It is also of interest for researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.
Reviews of the First Edition
“For anyone wishing to know what really goes on in their NMR experiments, I would highly recommend this book” – Chemistry World
“…I warmly recommend for budding NMR spectroscopists, or others who wish to deepen their understanding of elementary NMR theory or theoretical tools” – Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry
This new edition discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques. The volume is organized into 18 chapters encompassing thermodynamics, electricity, optics, sound, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Each chapter provides a brief review of the background physics before focusing on the applications of physics to biology and medicine. Topics range from the role of diffusion in the functioning of cells to the effect of surface tension on the growth of plants in soil and the conduction of impulses along the nervous system. Each section contains problems that explore and expand some of the concepts. The text includes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body.
Physics in Biology and Medicine will be a valuable resource for students and professors of physics, biology, and medicine, as well as for applied health workers.Provides practical techniques for applying knowledge of physics to the study of living systemsPresents material in a straight forward manner requiring very little background in physics or biologyIncludes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body
The Olympics are the world's most prestigious stage for athletic competition. Fans both casual and hardcore tune in religiously every few years to watch as men and women push themselves to the limits of human performance. But what makes a champion? Is it genetics? Hours of training? A psychological advantage? Of all the athletes who dedicate their lives - and bodies - to achieving that perfect moment of triumph, why will one person or team win out over another? Science has some compelling answers, and in this book, The Science of Sports: Winning in the Olympics, Scientific American explores this topic from various angles. Beginning with Section 1: The Psychology of Winning, the book opens with a look inside the mind of an elite athlete and tackles questions of how to face a rivalry or maintain a positive attitude in the face of defeat. Other sections discuss the sticky issues surrounding genetic advantages and physical prowess, drugs and doping, injury and recovery, and - finally - the latest scientific advice for the rest of us mere mortals to be fit and healthy. You'll find both inspiration and answers in this indispensable book from the editors of Scientific American, the leading authority on science, technology and innovation.
This book presents an overview of the technological advances that have occurred since the publication of the Editors earlier book High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: The Physical Basis. In this latest book, contributions from internationally recognized professionals and researchers in the field provide expanded treatment of the practical aspects of the subject. High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: Basic Concepts and Technological Practice provides a modern working manual for this specialized technology that is generic to a wide range of applications. The format makes the text suitable for use as a basis for special topic lecture courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level.Provides the fundamental physical concepts of the subjectFocuses on practical applicationsGives a historical survey of the fieldIncludes a detailed account of system design criteriaReviews theoretical models developed to explain the pinhole phenomenaPresents results of a series of experimental investigations on the subject
Interested in unraveling the physics of living things? Here's your starting point. Biophysics Demystified is the fast and easy way to understand this fascinating topic.
Written in a step-by-step format, this practical guide begins with an introduction to the science of biophysics, covering biophysical techniques and applications. Next, you'll learn the principles of physics, biology, and chemistry required to understand biophysics, including free energy, entropy, and statistical mechanics. Biomolecules and the forces that influence their structure and conformation are also covered, as are protein, nucleic acid, and membrane biophysics. Detailed examples and concise explanations make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help reinforce key concepts.
It's a no-brainer! You'll get:Molecular, subcellular, physiological, anatomical, and environmental biophysics The laws of thermodynamics as they apply to biophysical systems Forces affecting conformation in biological molecules The composition and structure of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids The fluid mosaic model
Simple enough for a beginner, but challenging enough for an advanced student, Biophysics Demystified makes this interdisciplinary subject easy to master.
One of the most diverse of modern scientific disciplines, biophysics applies methods and technologies from physics to the study of biological systems and phenomena, from the human nervous system to soil erosion to global warming. What are the best options for satisfying the world's growing energy demands? How can we feed the world's growing population? How can we contain, or reverse, global warming? How can we vouchsafe a plentiful supply of potable water for future generations? These are among the critical questions to which biophysicists work to provide answers.Biophysics courses are increasingly taken by students of biology, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, statistics, bioengineering, neuroscience, computer science, pharmacology, agriculture,and many more Provides a friendly, unintimidating overview of the material covered in a typical college-level biophysics course A one-stop reference, course supplement and exam preparation tool for university students currently enrolled in an introductory biophysics courses An indispensable resource for those studying the natural sciences, biological sciences, and physics, as well as math, statistics,computer science, pharmacology and many other disciplines The current job market for people well versed in biophysics is very strong, and biophysics is currently listed as one of the fast-growing occupations in the North America
In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films.
This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.
The handbook begins with a series of historical vignettes of pioneers from the last two centuries. It also presents the fundamentals of physics and biology as applied to photomedicine. It next examines conditions and diseases caused by light, including skin cancer, dermatoses, and immunosuppression.
The remainder of the book focuses on the most important clinical therapeutic applications of different kinds of light that vary in both wavelength and intensity. The book discusses ultraviolet phototherapy for skin diseases and infections and presents the basic science of photodynamic therapy and its use in cancer therapy and other medical specialties. It then covers mechanistic studies and clinical applications of low-level laser (light) therapy as well as the use of high power or surgical laser therapy in specialties, such as dentistry and dermatology. The book concludes with a collection of miscellaneous types of phototherapy.
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions as well as further supplementary material available free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website.
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy deals with the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. It measure the absorption of different IR frequencies by a sample positioned in the path of an IR beam. Currently, infrared spectroscopy is one of the most common spectroscopic techniques used in the food industry. With the rapid development in infrared spectroscopic instrumentation software and hardware, the application of this technique has expanded into many areas of food research. It has become a powerful, fast, and non-destructive tool for food quality analysis and control.
Infrared Spectroscopy for Food Quality Analysis and Control reflects this rapid technology development. The book is divided into two parts. Part I addresses principles and instruments, including theory, data treatment techniques, and infrared spectroscopy instruments. Part II covers the application of IRS in quality analysis and control for various foods including meat and meat products, fish and related products, and others.
*Explores this rapidly developing, powerful and fast non-destructive tool for food quality analysis and control
*Presented in two Parts -- Principles and Instruments, including theory, data treatment techniques, and instruments, and Application in Quality Analysis and Control for various foods making it valuable for understanding and application
*Fills a need for a comprehensive resource on this area that includes coverage of NIR and MVA
Principle, experimental set ups, parameters and interpretation rules of several advanced IR-based techniques; application to biointerface characterisation through the presentation of recent examples, will be given in this book. It will describe how to characterise amino acids, protein or bacterial strain interactions with metal and oxide surfaces, by using infrared spectroscopy, in vacuum, in the air or in an aqueous medium. Results will highlight the performances and perspectives of the technique.Description of the principles, expermental setups and parameter interpretation, and the theory for several advanced IR-based techniques for interface characterisationContains examples which demonstrate the capacity, potential and limits of the IR techniquesHelps finding the most adequate mode of analysisContains examplesContains a glossary by techniques and by keywords
This concise introductory paperback surveys and relates basic physics to living systems. It discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques.
This text is designed for premed students, doctors, nurses, physiologists, or other applied health workers, and other individuals who wish to understand the nature of the mechanics of our bodies.
- Provides practical techniques for applying knowledge of physics to the study of living systems
- Presents material in a straight forward manner requiring very little background in physics or biology
- Includes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics
A discussion is then presented on carbon-13 NMR, detailing its pros and cons and showing how it can be used in conjunction with proton NMR via the pivotal 2-D techniques (HSQC and HMBC) to yield vital structural information. Some of the more specialist techniques available are then discussed, i.e. flow NMR, solvent suppression, Magic Angle Spinning, etc. Other important nuclei are then discussed and useful data supplied. This is followed by a discussion of the neglected use of NMR as a tool for quantification and new techniques for this explained. The book then considers the safety aspects of NMR spectroscopy, reviewing NMR software for spectral prediction and data handling and concludes with a set of worked Q&As.
This book is an easy-to-use compendium of problems encountered when using various commonly used analytical techniques. Emphasis is on impurities, by-products, contaminants and other artifacts. A separate entry is provided for each artifact. For specific chemicals, this entry provides the common name, mass spectrum, gas chromatographic data, CAS name and registry number, synonyms and a narrative discussion. More than 1100 entries are included. Mass spectral data are indexed in a 6-peak index (molecular ion, base peak, second peak, third peak) and there are also formula, author and subject indexes. An extensive bibliography contains complete literature citations.
The book is designed to be used. It will not only allow experienced analysts to profit from the mistakes of others, but it will also be invaluable to other scientists who use analytical instruments in their work.
The aim of the book is twofold. Firstly, to reveal to the reader the combined use of different spectroscopic data, to facilitate an insight into the structure and conformational properties of any new piperidine derivative. Secondly, to establish a consistent link between conformation and reactivity for a variety of piperidine derivatives. Such a bridge is a key step for stereocontrol when dealing with the application of piperidine derivatives as synthetic intermediates. The book is conceived so that most of the information comes from visual inspection of the very abundant graphic material. An exhaustive subject index of more than 450 entries is also included.
This book guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use telescopes (from small amateur models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and to observe objects in the sky. Mathematics to around Advanced Placement standard (US) or A level (UK) is assumed, although High School Diploma (US) or GCSE-level (UK) mathematics plus some basic trigonometry will suffice most of the time. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires no prior knowledge or experience.
This is a ‘how to’ book that provides the knowledge and background required to understand how and why telescopes work. Equipped with the techniques discussed in this book, the observer will be able to operate with confidence his or her telescope and to optimize its performance for a particular purpose. In principle the observer could calculate his or her own predictions of planetary positions (ephemerides), but more realistically the observer will be able to understand the published data lists properly instead of just treating them as ‘recipes.’ When the observer has obtained measurements, he/she will be able to analyze them in a scientific manner and to understand the significance and meaning of the results.
“Telescopes and Techniques, 3rd Edition” fills a niche at the start of an undergraduate astronomer’s university studies, as shown by it having been widely adopted as a set textbook. This third edition is now needed to update its material with the many new observing developments and study areas that have come into prominence since it was published. The book concentrates on the knowledge needed to understand how small(ish) optical telescopes function, their main designs and how to set them up, plus introducing the reader to the many ways in which objects in the sky change their positions and how they may be observed. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the most advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable the reader to see some of the developments possible from the basic observing techniques covered in the main parts of the book.
In a remarkable career spanning more than six decades, Philip W Anderson has made many fundamental contributions to physics. As codified in his oft-quoted phrase "More is Different", Anderson has been the most forceful and persuasive proponent of the radical, but now ubiquitous, viewpoint of emergent phenomena: truly fundamental concepts that can and do emerge from studies of Nature at each layer of complexity or energy scale. Anderson''s ideas have also extended deeply into other areas of physics, including the Anderson–Higgs mechanism and the dynamics of pulsars.
PWA90: A Lifetime of Emergence is a volume of original scientific essays and personal reminiscences of Philip W Anderson by experts in the field, that were presented as part of "PWA90: Emergent Frontiers of Condensed Matter" meeting held at Princeton in December 2013 to highlight Anderson''s contributions to physics.Contents: Recollections of a Graduate Student (Khandker A Muttalib)P W Anderson Seen Through the Eyes of a Student (Clare C Yu)Random Walks in Anderson''s Garden: A Journey from Cuprates to Cooper Pair Insulators and Beyond (G Baskaran)Some Reminiscences on Anderson Localization (Elihu Abrahams)Anderson and Condensed Matter Physics (T V Ramakrishnan)Superfluidity and Symmetry Breaking — An Anderson Living Legacy (Frank Wilczek)Phil Anderson and Gauge Symmetry Breaking (Edward Witten)A Short History of the Theory and Experimental Discovery of Superfluidity in 3He (W F Brinkman)Superconductivity in a Terrestrial Liquid: What Would It Be Like? (A J Leggett)40 Years of Quantum Spin Liquid: A Tale of Emergence from Frustration (Patrick A Lee)High Tc Superconductivity and RVB (Mohit Randeria)Paired Insulators and High Temperature Superconductors (T H Geballe and S A Kivelson)Special Properties of High Tc Cuprates, Radically Different from Other Transition Metal Oxides (T M Rice)From Bacteria to Artificial Cells, the Problem of Self-Reproduction (Albert Libchaber)Spin Glasses and Frustration (Scott Kirkpatrick)Frustration and Fluctuations in Systems with Quenched Disorder (D L Stein)Phil Anderson''s Magnetic Ideas in Science (Piers Coleman)
Readership: Students, academics and researchers in condensed matter.
Keywords:P W Anderson;Superfluidity;Anderson–Higgs Mechanism;Pulsars;Condensed Matter Physics;Anderson;Localization;High-Temperature Superconductors;Spin Classes'
As advances in algorithms and computer technology have bolstered the digital signal processing capabilities of real-time sonar, radar, and non-invasive medical diagnostics systems, cutting-edge military and defense research has established conceptual similarities in these areas. Now civilian enterprises can use government innovations to facilitate optimal functionality of complex real-time systems. Advanced Signal Processing details a cost-efficient generic processing structure that exploits these commonalities to benefit commercial applications.
Learn from a Renowned Defense Scientist, Researcher, and Innovator
The author preserves the mathematical focus and key information from the first edition that provided invaluable coverage of topics including adaptive systems, advanced beamformers, and volume visualization methods in medicine. Integrating the best features of non-linear and conventional algorithms and explaining their application in PC-based architectures, this text contains new data on:
Advances in biometrics, image segmentation, registration, and fusion techniques for 3D/4D ultrasound, CT, and MRI
Fully digital 3D/ (4D: 3D+time) ultrasound system technology, computing architecture requirements, and relevant implementation issues
State-of-the-art non-invasive medical procedures, non-destructive 3D tomography imaging and biometrics, and monitoring of vital signs
Cardiac motion correction in multi-slice X-ray CT imaging
Space-time adaptive processing and detection of targets interference-intense backgrounds comprised of clutter and jamming
With its detailed explanation of adaptive, synthetic-aperture, and fusion-processing schemes with near-instantaneous convergence in 2-D and 3-D sensors (including planar, circular, cylindrical, and spherical arrays), the quality and illustration of this text’s concepts and techniques will make it a favored reference.
The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
The overall layout of the book is similar to that of the previous two editions however, there are considerable changes in emphasis and several key additions including:
•up-to-date presentation of modern theories of liquid-vapour coexistence and criticality
•areas of considerable present and future interest such as super-cooled liquids and the glass transition
•the area of liquid metals, which has grown into a mature subject area, now presented as part of the chapter ionic liquids
•Provides cutting-edge research in the principles of liquid-state theory
•Includes frequent comparisons of theoretical predictions with experimental and simulation data
•Suitable for researchers and post-graduates in the field of condensed matter science (Physics, Chemistry, Material Science), biophysics as well as those in the oil industry
The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental data. The subjects dealt with include:
- electronic transport theory based on the test-particle and correlation-function concepts;
- scattering by phonons, impurities, surfaces, magnons, dislocations, electron-electron scattering and electron temperature;
- two-phonon scattering, spin-flip scattering, scattering in degenerate and many-band models.
Developed at MIT in collaboration with award-winning high school teachers, BioBuilder teaches the foundational ideas of the emerging synthetic biology field, as well as key aspects of biological engineering that researchers are exploring in labs throughout the world. These lessons will empower teachers and students to explore and be part of solving persistent real-world challenges.Learn the fundamentals of biodesign and DNA engineeringExplore important ethical issues raised by examples of synthetic biologyInvestigate the BioBuilder labs that probe the design-build-test cycleTest synthetic living systems designed and built by engineersMeasure several variants of an enzyme-generating genetic circuitModel "bacterial photography" that changes a strain’s light sensitivityBuild living systems to produce purple or green pigmentOptimize baker’s yeast to produce ?-carotene
Each chapter of the book investigates a facet of the physical world, including the drag on small projectiles; the importance of diffusion and convection; the size-dependence of acceleration; the storage, conduction, and dissipation of heat; the relationship among pressure, flow, and choice in biological pumps; and how elongate structures tune their relative twistiness and bendiness. Vogel considers design-determining factors all too commonly ignored, and builds a bridge between the world described by physics books and the reality experienced by all creatures. Glimpses of Creatures in Their Physical Worlds contains a wealth of accessible information related to functional biology, and requires little more than a basic background in secondary-school science and mathematics.
Drawing examples from creatures of land, air, and water, the book demonstrates the many uses of biological diversity and how physical forces impact biological organisms.