"Extradition" is the formal surrender of a person by a state to another state for prosecution or punishment. Extradition to or from the United States is a creature of treaty. The United States has extradition treaties with over a hundred of the nations of the world, although they are many with whom it has no extradition treaty. International terrorism and drug trafficking have made extradition an increasingly important law enforcement tool. This book is a review of the adjustments made in recent treaties to accommodate American law enforcement interests, and then a nutshell overview of the federal law governing foreign requests to extradite a fugitive found in this country and a United States request for extradition of a fugitive found in a foreign country.
Commuter rail agencies provide mobility to millions of people across the country, often using Amtrak infrastructure and services. Given these interactions, an abrupt Amtrak cessation could have a significant impact on commuter rail operations. Amtrak's chronic financial problems and recent budget proposals make such cessation possibility. This book was asked to examine:(1) The extent to which commuter rail agencies rely on Amtrak for access to infrastructure and services,(2) Issues that commuter rail agencies would face if Amtrak abruptly ceased to provide them with services and infrastructure access, and(3) The options available to commuter rail agencies should Amtrak abruptly cease to provide those services and infrastructure access.
The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (referred to hereafter as the Reform Act) included provisions to better inform individuals who file for personal bankruptcy about their options for reaffirming debt--whereby filers may voluntarily agree to pay certain creditors in an effort to retain assets, such as an automobile. Reaffirmation agreements between debtors and creditors are required, by law, to formally disclose to debtors the terms of the agreement, such as the amount of debt reaffirmed. Some requirements differ for credit unions, such as an exemption for reporting debtor financial information when the debtor's attorney signs the agreement. This book discusses (1) the extent to which required Reform Act disclosures and other information have been incorporated into reaffirmation agreements, (2) the types of debts reaffirmed and the percent this debt comprised of debtors' overall debt burden, and (3) how reaffirmed and original interest rates compare.
This book identifies over 5,500 HPSAs designated throughout the United States as of September 2005; multiple federal programs relied on these designations to allocate resources or provide benefits. We estimated that slightly more than half of the HPSAs were designated for geographic areas or population groups, and these geographic and population-group HPSAs were located in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Facility HPSAs, which accounted for slightly less than half of the total number of HPSAs, were also located in every state and the District of Columbia. In fiscal year 2005, more than 30 federal programs-including programs administered by HRSA, CMS, and federal agencies outside of HHS-relied on HPSA designations and, in some cases, HPSA scores, to allocate resources or provide benefits. These included NHSC programs that award scholarships or educational loan repayment to students and health professionals in exchange for a commitment to practice in HPSAs for at least 2 years. Other programs relying on HPSA designations to allocate resources or provide benefits included programs that pay physicians bonus payments for services provided to Medicare beneficiaries in geographic HPSAs and programs that waive certain requirements for foreign physicians if they agree to practice in HPSAs or other underserved areas of the United States. The use of the HPSA designation by numerous federal programs to allocate resources or provide benefits is an incentive for obtaining and retaining a HPSA designation.
This book describes: (1) U.S. sanctions targeting Iran and their implementation, (2) the reported impact of the sanctions, and (3) factors that affect the ability of U.S. sanctions to reduce Iran's proliferation and terrorism-related activities. This book is an excerpted and indexed edition.