Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation?
Using first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics. Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge illustrates one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe.
Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden describe the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge.
– Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
Wall Street Journal
From one of the most influential scientists of our time, a dazzling exploration of the hidden laws that govern the life cycle of everything from plants and animals to the cities we live in.
Visionary physicist Geoffrey West is a pioneer in the field of complexity science, the science of emergent systems and networks. The term “complexity” can be misleading, however, because what makes West’s discoveries so beautiful is that he has found an underlying simplicity that unites the seemingly complex and diverse phenomena of living systems, including our bodies, our cities and our businesses.
Fascinated by aging and mortality, West applied the rigor of a physicist to the biological question of why we live as long as we do and no longer. The result was astonishing, and changed science: West found that despite the riotous diversity in mammals, they are all, to a large degree, scaled versions of each other. If you know the size of a mammal, you can use scaling laws to learn everything from how much food it eats per day, what its heart-rate is, how long it will take to mature, its lifespan, and so on. Furthermore, the efficiency of the mammal’s circulatory systems scales up precisely based on weight: if you compare a mouse, a human and an elephant on a logarithmic graph, you find with every doubling of average weight, a species gets 25% more efficient—and lives 25% longer. Fundamentally, he has proven, the issue has to do with the fractal geometry of the networks that supply energy and remove waste from the organism’s body.
West’s work has been game-changing for biologists, but then he made the even bolder move of exploring his work’s applicability. Cities, too, are constellations of networks and laws of scalability relate with eerie precision to them. Recently, West has applied his revolutionary work to the business world. This investigation has led to powerful insights into why some companies thrive while others fail. The implications of these discoveries are far-reaching, and are just beginning to be explored. Scale is a thrilling scientific adventure story about the elemental natural laws that bind us together in simple but profound ways. Through the brilliant mind of Geoffrey West, we can envision how cities, companies and biological life alike are dancing to the same simple, powerful tune.
One of the most diverse of modern scientific disciplines, biophysics applies methods and technologies from physics to the study of biological systems and phenomena, from the human nervous system to soil erosion to global warming. What are the best options for satisfying the world's growing energy demands? How can we feed the world's growing population? How can we contain, or reverse, global warming? How can we vouchsafe a plentiful supply of potable water for future generations? These are among the critical questions to which biophysicists work to provide answers.Biophysics courses are increasingly taken by students of biology, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, statistics, bioengineering, neuroscience, computer science, pharmacology, agriculture,and many more Provides a friendly, unintimidating overview of the material covered in a typical college-level biophysics course A one-stop reference, course supplement and exam preparation tool for university students currently enrolled in an introductory biophysics courses An indispensable resource for those studying the natural sciences, biological sciences, and physics, as well as math, statistics,computer science, pharmacology and many other disciplines The current job market for people well versed in biophysics is very strong, and biophysics is currently listed as one of the fast-growing occupations in the North America
An Introduction to Systems Biology: Design Principles of Biological Circuits builds a solid foundation for the intuitive understanding of general principles. It encourages the reader to ask why a system is designed in a particular way and then proceeds to answer with simplified models.
This new edition discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques. The volume is organized into 18 chapters encompassing thermodynamics, electricity, optics, sound, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Each chapter provides a brief review of the background physics before focusing on the applications of physics to biology and medicine. Topics range from the role of diffusion in the functioning of cells to the effect of surface tension on the growth of plants in soil and the conduction of impulses along the nervous system. Each section contains problems that explore and expand some of the concepts. The text includes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body.
Physics in Biology and Medicine will be a valuable resource for students and professors of physics, biology, and medicine, as well as for applied health workers.Provides practical techniques for applying knowledge of physics to the study of living systemsPresents material in a straight forward manner requiring very little background in physics or biologyIncludes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body
After providing a brief introduction, the book describes the models for AT service delivery, the design tools and principles of universal design, and various technology-transfer mechanisms, models, and principles. The text then explains the process for creating assistive device standards, followed by a review of seating biomechanics and soft tissue biomechanics. Subsequent chapters examine design and service delivery principles of wheelchairs and scooters, functional electrical stimulation and its applications, wheelchair-accessible transportation legislation, and the applications of robotics in medical rehabilitation. The book proceeds to discuss prosthetic and orthotic design and usage, visual and hearing impairment, Web-related AT, and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology. It concludes with an introduction to adaptive sports and recreation.
Incorporating the critical aspects of RE and AT, An Introduction to Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on the principles, modeling, standards, devices, and technologies of RE and AT. It presents a concise yet complete overview of RE to provide a solid foundation in the subject as well as to stimulate further study.
The Second Edition includes a robust instructor ancillary package that allows professors to easily incorporate the book's unique approach into their lectures. And in addition to the many free resources for students––including the E-Tutor, Bug Parade, Flashcards, and MicroMovies–– a new online homework platform, will be available for Spring 2016 courses. The homework platform will have a module for each chapter including tutorials, media assessments, and quizzes, and is accompanied by an instructor dashboard which displays data on student performance.
This book thus covers the spectrum ranging from fundamental interactions between light, cells, vascular tissue, and cell labeling particles, to strategies and opportunities for preclinical and clinical research. General topics include light scattering by cells, fast video microscopy, polarization, laser-scanning, fluorescence, Raman, multi-photon, photothermal, and photoacoustic methods for cellular diagnostics and monitoring of disease treatment in living organisms. Also presented are discussions of advanced methods and techniques of classical flow cytometry.
- CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
For more than thirty years, this serial has helped to broaden the technical scope and expand the scientific base of clinical chemistry. These volumes will clarify the areas of molecular biology, informatics, and the monitoring of physiological parameters in crticial situations as they pertain to clinical chemistry. Each volume of Advances in Clinical Chemistry contains an index, and each chapter includes references.
"Its continuity of pertinence, excellence, and authority remains unbroken - a tribute to the skilful editing and writing involved. Every informed laboratory staff must have available a copy of this volume."
For more than thirty years, this serial has broadened the technical scope and expanded the scientific base of clinical chemistry. These volumes clarify the areas of molecular biology, informatics, and the monitoring of physiological parameters in critical situations as they pertain to clinical chemistry. Each volume of Advances in Clinical Chemistry contains an index, and each chapter includes references.
As biology increasingly depends on data, algorithms, and models, it has become necessary to use a computing language, such as the user-friendly MATLAB, to focus more on building and analyzing models as opposed to configuring tedious calculations. Explorations of Mathematical Models in Biology with MATLAB provides an introduction to model creation using MATLAB, followed by the translation, analysis, interpretation, and observation of the models.
With an integrated and interdisciplinary approach that embeds mathematical modeling into biological applications, the book illustrates numerous applications of mathematical techniques within biology, ecology, and environmental sciences. Featuring a quantitative, computational, and mathematical approach, the book includes:Examples of real-world applications, such as population dynamics, genetics, drug administration, interacting species, and the spread of contagious diseases, to showcase the relevancy and wide applicability of abstract mathematical techniques Discussion of various mathematical concepts, such as Markov chains, matrix algebra, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, first-order linear difference equations, and nonlinear first-order difference equations Coverage of difference equations to model a wide range of real-life discrete time situations in diverse areas as well as discussions on matrices to model linear problems Solutions to selected exercises and additional MATLAB codes
Explorations of Mathematical Models in Biology with MATLAB is an ideal textbook for upper-undergraduate courses in mathematical models in biology, theoretical ecology, bioeconomics, forensic science, applied mathematics, and environmental science. The book is also an excellent reference for biologists, ecologists, mathematicians, biomathematicians, and environmental and resource economists.
Adaptive Radiation Therapy describes technological and methodological advances in the field of ART, as well as initial clinical experiences using ART for selected anatomic sites. Divided into three sections (radiobiological basis, current technologies, and clinical applications), the book covers:
Morphological and biological biomarkers for patient-specific planning Design and optimization of treatment plans Delivery of IMRT and IGRT intervention methodologies of ART Management of intrafraction variations, particularly with respiratory motion Quality assurance needed to ensure the safe delivery of ART ART applications in several common cancer types / anatomic sites
The technology and methodology for ART have advanced significantly in the last few years and accumulated clinical data have demonstrated the need for ART in clinical settings, assisted by the wide application of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This book shows the real potential for supplying every patient with individualized radiation therapy that is maximally accurate and precise.
The sixth edition of this established text takes readers through the general background of the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement, and the biological effects of radiation. These principles are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector, and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation, and organizational issues.
Supplemented by clear diagrams and photographs, summary sections, and revision questions, the book is suitable for the beginner as well as the more advanced radiation practitioner. It remains an ideal primer for those working in the nuclear industry, nuclear medicine technicians, radiographers and medical physics technicians, health and safety executives and occupational health professionals. It is also an invaluable companion for anyone training or undertaking a course in radiation protection.
* Detailed reviews by practicing scientists
* Covers a broad range of clinical chemistry on a theoretical and practical basis
* Includes easy to read chapters combining science and perspectives in a changing scientific landscape
Tomosynthesis produces quasi-three-dimensional images that can significantly enhance the visualization of important diagnostic features. This book highlights the flexibility of tomosynthesis systems for new clinical applications, and provides a detailed discussion of the tomosynthesis acquisition process and the impact of physical factors. It explores such topics as acquisition parameters, system components, modeling, image reconstruction algorithms, and system evaluation.Provides in-depth coverage of system design considerations, as well as image reconstruction strategies Describes the current state of clinical applications of tomosynthesis, including imaging of the breast and chest, as well as its use in radiotherapy Illustrates the merits of tomosynthesis imaging and its potential clinical applications in imaging of the breast and chest, as well as for radiation therapy
Divided into five sections, this text delves into the history and development of tomosynthesis. It introduces tomosynthesis imaging, discusses imaging system design considerations, and reviews image reconstruction algorithms that have been developed for tomosynthesis. It also describes system evaluation methodologies, emphasizes current clinical applications, and examines the future direction for tomosynthesis.
In Cannabinoids, Vincenzo Di Marzo has assembled contributions from international experts to provide the definitive guide to what continues to be a rapidly developing research field. After an introductory historical chapter, the book continues by looking at the biochemical, genetic and molecular elements of cannabinoids, followed by chapters covering their role in health and disease. The final chapter outlines the need for a new nomenclature to reflect the complex and multi-disciplinary nature of this area.
Ion channels control the electrical properties of neurons and cardiac cells, mediate the detection and response to sensory stimuli, and regulate the response to physical stimuli. They can often interact with the cellular environment due to their location at the surface of cells. In nonexcitable tissues, they also help regulate basic salt balance critical for homeostasis. All of these features make ion channels important targets for pharmaceuticals.
Handbook of Ion Channels illustrates the fundamental importance of these membrane proteins to human health and disease. Renowned researchers from around the world introduce the technical aspects of ion channel research, provide a modern guide to the properties of major ion channels, and present powerful methods for modeling ion channel diseases and performing clinical trials for ion channel drugs.
Conveniently divided into five parts, the handbook first describes the basic concepts of permeation and gating mechanisms, balancing classic theories and the latest developments. The second part covers the principles and practical issues of both traditional and new ion channel techniques and their applications to channel research. The third part organizes the material to follow the superfamilies of ion channels. This part focuses on the classification, properties, gating mechanisms, function, and pharmacology of established and novel channel types. The fourth part addresses ion channel regulation as well as trafficking and distribution. The final part examines several ion channel-related diseases, discussing genetics, mechanisms, and pharmaceutical advances.
Most extensive compilation of values of physical properties of tissue**Presents data for thermal, optical, ultrasonic, mechanical, x-ray, electrical, and magnetic resonance properties**Comprehensive bibliography
Both size and time ranges are so vast that multiple instrumentations must be employed, often simultaneously. As a result, a variety of highly specialized and esoteric biochemical and biophysical methodologies are often utilized. This book addresses the salient features of membranes at the molecular level, offering cohesive, foundational information for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, biochemists, and membranologists who seek a broad overview of membrane science.Significantly expanded coverage on function, composition, and structure Brings together complex aspects of membrane research in a universally understandable mannerFeatures profiles of membrane pioneers detailing how contemporary studies originatedIncludes a timeline of important discoveries related to membrane science