## Similar Ebooks

Starting with Volume 30, the title of the series, Thin Films, is being changed to Thin Films and Nanostructures. We feel that this new title

reflects more accurately the rapidly growing inclusion of research and

development efforts on nanostructures, especially in relation to novel

solid-state device formats

The first book devoted to a systematic consideration of electronic excitations and electronic energy transfer in organic

crystalline multilayers and organics based nanostructures(quantum wells, quantum wires,

quantum dots, microcavities). The ingenious combination of organic with inorganic materials in one and the

same hybrid structure is shown to give qualitatively new opto-electronic phenomena, potentially important for

applications in nonlinear optics, light emitting devices, photovoltaic cells, lasers and so on. The book will be useful not only

for physicists but also for chemists and biologists.To help the nonspecialist reader,

three Chapters which contain a tutorial and updated introduction to the physics of electronic excitations in organic

and inorganic solids have been included.

* hybrid Frenkel-Wannier-Mott excitons

* microcavities with crystalline and disordered organics

* electronic excitation at donor-acceptor interfaces

* cold photoconductivity at donor-acceptor interface

* cummulative photovoltage

* Feorster transfer energy in microcavity

* New concepts for LEDs

· The book is oriented to a general reader and is easy to read for a non-specialist.

· Contains an overview of the most essential effects in physics of microcavities experimentally observed and theoretically predicted during the recent decade such as:.

· Bose-Einstein condensation at room temperature.

· Lasers without inversion of population.

· Microcavity boom: optics of the XXI century!

· Frequently asked questions on microcavities and responses without formulas.

· Half-light-half-matter quasi-particles: base for the future optoelectronic devices

Measurement techniques of determination of the absorption coefficient, refractive index and thickness of the dielectric, semiconductor or metallic films are considered.

This book is highly recommended for specialists in the fields of integrated and thin film optics and for graduated students in related specialties.

There are new techniques of measurement of thin-film parameters statedBoth experimental and theoretical descriptions are represented. Media rearrangement coupled with the reagent transformation largely determines the absolute value and temperature dependence of the rate constants and other characteristics of the considered processes. These effects are described at the atomic or molecular level based on the multi-phonon theory, starting from the first pioneering studies through to contemporary studies.

A number of questions are included at the end of many chapters to further reinforce the material presented.

· Unified approach to the description of numerous physico-chemical phenomena in different materials

· Based on the pioneering research work of the authors

· Explantion of a variety of experimental observations

· Material is presented at two levels of complexity for specialists and non-specialists

· Identifies existing and potential applications of the processes and phenomena

· Includes questions at the end of some chapters to further reinforce the material discussed

The book gives the steps to follow to understand fundamental theories and to apply these to real materials.

The book is designed to meet the requirements of undergraduate and postgraduate students of physics for their courses in solid state physics, condensed matter physics and material science.

KEY FEATURES

• Puts a conceptual emphasis on the subject.

• Includes numerous diagrams and figures to clarify the concepts.

• Gives step-by-step explanations of theories.

• Provides chapter-end exercises to test the knowledge acquired.

The book begins with a brief introduction to binary rare earth oxides, their physical and chemical stabilities, polymorphism, crystal structures and phase transformation and the association with current applications. The book goes on to present the band structure of the oxides using several quantum chemical calculations, which belong to a newly developed area in the binary rare earth oxides. Central to this chapter are the characterizations of electrical, magnetic and optical properties, as well as details of single crystal growth and particle preparation methods that have progressed in recent years. Later chapters concentrate on thermo-chemical properties and trace determination techniques. The final chapter contains a variety of useful applications in various fields such as phosphors, glass abrasives, automotive catalysts, fuel cells, solid electrolytes, sunscreens, iron steels, and biological materials.

This book is an invaluable resource for materials scientists and solid-state physicists and chemists with an interest in rare earth oxides, as well as advanced students and graduates who require an approach to familiarize them with this field. This book provides guidance through a comprehensive review of all the characteristics of binary rare earth oxides.

This book is composed of seven chapters, and begins with an introduction to the general concepts of time dependent flow, including induced current, the techniques of linearization, calculating variational transit time, and obtaining equivalent circuits. The following chapters present the classical linear analysis, which includes the space-charge effects, with several applications. These chapters also explore the existence of a maximum stable current in a space-charge limited diode. The discussion then shifts to the basics of high velocity, klystron, gap with nonuniform field distributions, and the application of the multicavity klystron. This text further covers the analysis and examples of crossed-field gaps. The final chapters deal with the fundamentals of velocity and current distributions obtained from common electron emitters, with some attempt to show how the multivelocity streams evolve into single-velocity equivalents needed for the methods of earlier chapters. Results of applying the Lagrangian starting analysis to semiconductor diode regions, necessarily from a new equation of motion, are also provided.

This book is intended for graduate courses, seminars, and research studies.

The aim of this book is to make the analysis of these materials accessible to designers by developing a "strength of materials" approach to the analysis and design of such SMA components inspired from their various applications with a review of various factors influencing the design process for such materials.

This fifth edition includes an additional chapter on 'Quantum Optical Effects' where the theory of quantum optical effects in semiconductors is detailed. Besides deriving the 'semiconductor luminescence equations' and the expression for the stationary luminescence spectrum, results are presented to show the importance of Coulombic effects on the semiconductor luminescence and to elucidate the role of excitonic populations.

The book is divided into four main parts. In the first part, the concept of entanglement, and methods for computing it, in quantum field theories is reviewed. In the second part, an overview of the AdS/CFT correspondence is given and the holographic entanglement entropy prescription is explained. In the third part, the time-dependence of entanglement entropy in out-of-equilibrium systems, and applications to many body physics are explored using holographic methods. The last part focuses on the connection between entanglement and geometry. Known constraints on the holographic map, as well as, elaboration of entanglement being a fundamental building block of geometry are explained.

The book is a useful resource for researchers and graduate students interested in string theory and holography, condensed matter and quantum information, as it tries to connect these different subjects linked by the common theme of quantum entanglement.

Today physicists and mathematicians throughout the world are feverishly working on one of the most ambitious theories ever proposed: superstring theory. String theory, as it is often called, is the key to the Unified Field Theory that eluded Einstein for more than thirty years. Finally, the century-old antagonism between the large and the small-General Relativity and Quantum Theory-is resolved. String theory proclaims that all of the wondrous happenings in the universe, from the frantic dancing of subatomic quarks to the majestic swirling of heavenly galaxies, are reflections of one grand physical principle and manifestations of one single entity: microscopically tiny vibrating loops of energy, a billionth of a billionth the size of an atom. In this brilliantly articulated and refreshingly clear book, Greene relates the scientific story and the human struggle behind twentieth-century physics' search for a theory of everything.

Through the masterful use of metaphor and analogy, The Elegant Universe makes some of the most sophisticated concepts ever contemplated viscerally accessible and thoroughly entertaining, bringing us closer than ever to understanding how the universe works.

A cocktail party. A terrorist cell. Ancient bacteria. An international conglomerate. All are networks, and all are a part of a surprising scientific revolution. In Linked, Albert-László Barabási, the nation's foremost expert in the new science of networks, takes us on an intellectual adventure to prove that social networks, corporations, and living organisms are more similar than previously thought. Barabási shows that grasping a full understanding of network science will someday allow us to design blue-chip businesses, stop the outbreak of deadly diseases, and influence the exchange of ideas and information. Just as James Gleick and the Erdos-Rényi model brought the discovery of chaos theory to the general public, Linked tells the story of the true science of the future and of experiments in statistical mechanics on the internet, all vital parts of what would eventually be called the Barabási-Albert model.

Density functional theory (DFT) is one of the most frequently used computational tools for studying and predicting the properties of isolated molecules, bulk solids, and material interfaces, including surfaces. Although the theoretical underpinnings of DFT are quite complicated, this book demonstrates that the basic concepts underlying the calculations are simple enough to be understood by anyone with a background in chemistry, physics, engineering, or mathematics. The authors show how the widespread availability of powerful DFT codes makes it possible for students and researchers to apply this important computational technique to a broad range of fundamental and applied problems.

Density Functional Theory: A Practical Introduction offers a concise, easy-to-follow introduction to the key concepts and practical applications of DFT, focusing on plane-wave DFT. The authors have many years of experience introducing DFT to students from a variety of backgrounds. The book therefore offers several features that have proven to be helpful in enabling students to master the subject, including:

Problem sets in each chapter that give readers the opportunity to test their knowledge by performing their own calculations

Worked examples that demonstrate how DFT calculations are used to solve real-world problems

Further readings listed in each chapter enabling readers to investigate specific topics in greater depth

This text is written at a level suitable for individuals from a variety of scientific, mathematical, and engineering backgrounds. No previous experience working with DFT calculations is needed.

This work, of which this is the first volume, aims to provide the means by which this challenge may be met. Starting from the mechanics of deformation, it develops the laws governing macroscopic behaviour – expressed as the constitutive equations – always taking account of the physical phenomena which underlie rheological behaviour. The most recent developments are presented, in particular those concerning

heterogeneous materials such as metallic alloys, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of material behaviour.

As the subtitles indicate, Volume 1 deals with micro- and macroscopic constitutive behaviour and Volume 2 with damage and fracture mechanics. A third volume will be devoted to exercises and their full solutions complementing the content of these two first volumes.

Most of the chapters end with a set of exercises, to many of which either the full solution or hints on how to obtain this are given; each volume is profusely illustrated with explanatory diagrams and with electron-microscope photographs.

This book, now in its second edition, has been rigorously re-written, updated and modernised for a new generation. The authors improved the existing material, in particular in modifying the organisation, and added new up-to-date content. Understanding the subject matter requires a good knowledge of solid mechanics and materials science; the main elements of these fields are given in a set of annexes at the

end of the first volume. The authors also thought it interesting for the readers to give as footnotes some information about the many scientists whose names are attached to theories and formulae and whose memories must be celebrated.

Whilst the present book, as well as Volume 2, is addressed primarily to graduate students, part of it can be used in undergraduate courses; and it is hoped that practising engineers and scientists will find the information it conveys useful. It is the authors’ hope also that English-speaking readers will want to learn about the aspects of French

culture, and more particularly of the French school of micromechanics of materials, which this treatment undoubtedly displays.

Widely regarded as the standard text in its field, Theory of Simple Liquids gives an advanced but self-contained account of liquid state theory within the unifying framework provided by classical statistical mechanics. The structure of this revised and updated Fourth Edition is similar to that of the previous one but there are significant shifts in emphasis and much new material has been added.

Major changes and Key Features in content include:

Expansion of existing sections on simulation methods, liquid-vapour coexistence, the hierarchical reference theory of criticality, and the dynamics of super-cooled liquids.New sections on binary fluid mixtures, surface tension, wetting, the asymptotic decay of pair correlations, fluids in porous media, the thermodynamics of glasses, and fluid flow at solid surfaces.An entirely new chapter on applications to 'soft matter' of a combination of liquid state theory and coarse graining strategies, with sections on polymer solutions and polymer melts, colloidal dispersions, colloid-polymer mixtures, lyotropic liquid crystals, colloidal dynamics, and on clustering and gelation. Expansion of existing sections on simulation methods, liquid-vapour coexistence, the hierarchian reference of criticality, and the dynamics of super-cooled liquids.New sections on binary fluid mixtures, surface tension, wetting, the asymptotic decay of pair correlations, fluids in porous media, the thermodynamics of glasses, and fluid flow at solid surfaces.An entirely new chapter on applications to 'soft matter' of a combination of liquid state theory and coarse graining strategies, with sections on polymer solutions and polymer melts, colloidal dispersions, colloid-polymer mixtures, lyotropic liquid crystals, colloidal dynamics, and on clustering and gelation.Some of the world’s leading geometers present a treasury of ideas, history, and culture to make the beauty of polyhedra accessible to students, teachers, polyhedra hobbyists, and professionals such as architects and designers, painters and sculptors, biologists and chemists, crystallographers, physicists and earth scientists, engineers and model builders, mathematicians and computer scientists.

The creative chapters by more than 25 authors explore almost every imaginable side of polyhedra. From the beauty of natural forms to the monumental constructions made by man, there is something to fascinate every reader. The book is dedicated to the memory of the legendary geometer H. S. M. Coxeter and the multifaceted design scientist Arthur L. Loeb.

Contributing Authors: P. Ash, T. F. Banchoff, J. Baracs, E. Bolker, C. Chieh, R. Connelly, H.S.M. Coxeter, H. Crapo, E. Demaine, M. Demaine, G. Fleck, B. Grünbaum, I. Hargittai, M. Hargittai, G. Hart, V. Hart, A. Loeb, J. Malkevitch, B. Monson, J. O'Rourke, J. Pedersen, D. Schattschneider, M. Schmitt, E. Schulte, M. Senechal, G.C. Shephard, I. Streinu, M. Walter, M. Wenninger, W. Whiteley, J. M. Wills, and G. M. Ziegler.

–Kenneth S. Schweizer, Morris Professor of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (from the Foreword)

This book provides a timely and comprehensive overview of molecular level insights into polymer glasses in confined geometries and under deformation. Polymer glasses have become ubiquitous to our daily life, from the polycarbonate eyeglass lenses on the end of our nose to large acrylic glass panes holding water in aquarium tanks, with advantages over glass in that they are lightweight and easy to manufacture, while remaining transparent and rigid. The contents include an introduction to the field, as well as state of the art investigations. Chapters delve into studies of commonalities across different types of glass formers (polymers, small molecules, colloids, and granular materials), which have enabled microscopic and molecular level frameworks to be developed. The authors show how glass formers are modeled across different systems, thereby leading to treatments for polymer glasses with first-principle based approaches and molecular level detail. Readers across disciplines will benefit from this topical overview summarizing the key areas of polymer glasses, alongside an introduction to the main principles and approaches.

"Prof. Readey gives a grand tour of the kinetics of materials suitable for experimentalists and modellers.... In an easy-to-read and entertaining style, this book leads the reader to fundamental, model-based understanding of kinetic processes critical to development, fabrication and application of commercially-important soft (polymers, biomaterials), hard (ceramics, metals) and composite materials. It is a must-have for anyone who really wants to understand how to make materials and how they will behave in service." --Prof. Bill Lee, Imperial College London, Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering

"A much needed text filing the gap between an introductory course in materials science and advanced materials-specific kinetics courses. Ideal for the undergraduate interested in an in-depth study of kinetics in materials." –Prof. Mark E. Eberhart, Colorado School of Mines

This book provides an in-depth introduction to the most important kinetic concepts in materials science, engineering, and processing. All types of materials are addressed, including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, biomaterials, and composites. The expert author with decades of teaching and practical experience gives a lively and accessible overview, explaining the principles that determine how long it takes to change material properties and make new and better materials. The chapters cover a broad range of topics extending from the heat treatment of steels, the processing of silicon integrated microchips, and the production of cement, to the movement of drugs through the human body. The author explicitly avoids "black box" equations, providing derivations with clear explanations.

This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t follow all the mathematical detail.

The revised edition has been carefully updated to present an up-to-date account of the essential topics and recent developments in this exciting field of physics. The coverage now includes ground-breaking materials with high relevance for applications in communication and energy, like graphene and topological insulators, as well as transparent conductors.

The text assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website. The author's webpage provides Online Notes on x-ray scattering, elastic constants, the quantum Hall effect, tight binding model, atomic magnetism, and topological insulators.

This new edition includes the following updates and new features:

* Expanded coverage of mechanical properties of solids, including an improved discussion of the yield stress

* Crystal structure, mechanical properties, and band structure of graphene

* The coverage of electronic properties of metals is expanded by a section on the quantum hall effect including exercises. New topics include the tight-binding model and an expanded discussion on Bloch waves.

* With respect to semiconductors, the discussion of solar cells has been extended and improved.

* Revised coverage of magnetism, with additional material on atomic magnetism

* More extensive treatment of finite solids and nanostructures, now including topological insulators

* Recommendations for further reading have been updated and increased.

* New exercises on Hall mobility, light penetrating metals, band structure

The emphasis is on effective field theories which provide an efficient and powerful description that is valid at long wavelengths and low frequencies. In conjunction with the emphasis on effective theories, a modern approach towards renormalization is taken, whereby a wavenumber cut-off is introduced to set a scale beyond which the microscopic model under consideration ceases to be valid.

The unique and innovative character of this presentation, free of historical constraints, allows for a compact and self-contained treatment of the main topics in contemporary condensed matter physics.