Today physicists and mathematicians throughout the world are feverishly working on one of the most ambitious theories ever proposed: superstring theory. String theory, as it is often called, is the key to the Unified Field Theory that eluded Einstein for more than thirty years. Finally, the century-old antagonism between the large and the small-General Relativity and Quantum Theory-is resolved. String theory proclaims that all of the wondrous happenings in the universe, from the frantic dancing of subatomic quarks to the majestic swirling of heavenly galaxies, are reflections of one grand physical principle and manifestations of one single entity: microscopically tiny vibrating loops of energy, a billionth of a billionth the size of an atom. In this brilliantly articulated and refreshingly clear book, Greene relates the scientific story and the human struggle behind twentieth-century physics' search for a theory of everything.
Through the masterful use of metaphor and analogy, The Elegant Universe makes some of the most sophisticated concepts ever contemplated viscerally accessible and thoroughly entertaining, bringing us closer than ever to understanding how the universe works.
There was a time when "universe" meant all there is. Everything. Yet, a number of theories are converging on the possibility that our universe may be but one among many parallel universes populating a vast multiverse. Here, Briane Greene, one of our foremost physicists and science writers, takes us on a breathtaking journey to a multiverse comprising an endless series of big bangs, a multiverse with duplicates of every one of us, a multiverse populated by vast sheets of spacetime, a multiverse in which all we consider real are holographic illusions, and even a multiverse made purely of math--and reveals the reality hidden within each.
Using his trademark wit and precision, Greene presents a thrilling survey of cutting-edge physics and confronts the inevitable question: How can fundamental science progress if great swaths of reality lie beyond our reach? The Hidden Reality is a remarkable adventure through a world more vast and strange than anything we could have imagined.
The authors outline how their positions have further diverged on a number of key issues, including the spatial geometry of the universe, inflationary versus cyclic theories of the cosmos, and the black-hole information-loss paradox. Though much progress has been made, Hawking and Penrose stress that physicists still have further to go in their quest for a quantum theory of gravity.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Parallel universes are a staple of science fiction, and it's no wonder. They allow us to explore the question, "what if?" in a way that lets us step completely outside of the world we know, rather than question how that world might have turned out differently. For cosmologists, the question isn't "what if the South won the Civil War?" but "what if the constants that make up the fundamental building blocks of physics were different?" Physicists argue that any slight change to the laws of physics would mean a disruption in the evolution of the universe, and thus our existence. Take gravity, for example: too strong and stars would burn through their fuel far more quickly. If the universe expanded too fast, matter would spread out too thin for galaxies to form. The list of examples goes on – to the point where the laws of physics might seem finely tuned to make our existence possible. Short of a supernatural or divine explanation, one possibility is that our universe isn't the only one. That's the idea explored in this eBook, Possibilities in Parallel: Seeking the Multiverse. In Section 1, we explore why scientists think other universes could exist. After that, we get a look at the implications. Is it possible to have life in a universe with different physical laws? It would seem so. In "Cracking Open a Window," George Musser discusses the possibility that our universe has more than three spatial dimensions – the others happen to be very small. Other articles, including "The Universe's Unseen Dimensions," analyze the idea that our universe is one of many "branes" – three-dimensional structures stretched out over a higher-dimensional space. The concept of a parallel universe also touches time travel, and then there's the question of what the term "parallel universe" actually means. It's a triumph of the sciences that the very question of why the universe looks as it does can be asked at all. There are currently several possibilities for a multiverse, if it exists. Time and a lot of scientific spadework will reveal which one is right – and get us closer to answering those metaphysical questions: what if, why us, why now?
For most people, quantum theory is a byword for mysterious, impenetrable science. And yet for many years it was equally baffling for scientists themselves.
In this magisterial book, Manjit Kumar gives a dramatic and superbly-written history of this fundamental scientific revolution, and the divisive debate at its core. Quantum theory looks at the very building blocks of our world, the particles and processes without which it could not exist.
Yet for 60 years most physicists believed that quantum theory denied the very existence of reality itself. In this tour de force of science history, Manjit Kumar shows how the golden age of physics ignited the greatest intellectual debate of the twentieth century.
Quantum theory is weird. In 1905, Albert Einstein suggested that light was a particle, not a wave, defying a century of experiments. Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Erwin Schrodinger's famous dead-and-alive cat are similarly strange. As Niels Bohr said, if you weren't shocked by quantum theory, you didn't really understand it.
While "Quantum" sets the science in the context of the great upheavals of the modern age, Kumar's centrepiece is the conflict between Einstein and Bohr over the nature of reality and the soul of science. 'Bohr brainwashed a whole generation of physicists into believing that the problem had been solved', lamented the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann. But in "Quantum", Kumar brings Einstein back to the centre of the quantum debate. "Quantum" is the essential read for anyone fascinated by this complex and thrilling story and by the band of brilliant men at its heart.
Professor Brian Cox and Professor Jeff Forshaw go on a journey to the frontier of 21st century science to consider the real meaning behind the iconic sequence of symbols that make up Einstein’s most famous equation, E=mc2. Breaking down the symbols themselves, they pose a series of questions: What is energy? What is mass? What has the speed of light got to do with energy and mass? In answering these questions, they take us to the site of one of the largest scientific experiments ever conducted. Lying beneath the city of Geneva, straddling the Franco-Swiss boarder, is a 27 km particle accelerator, known as the Large Hadron Collider. Using this gigantic machine—which can recreate conditions in the early Universe fractions of a second after the Big Bang—Cox and Forshaw will describe the current theory behind the origin of mass.
Alongside questions of energy and mass, they will consider the third, and perhaps, most intriguing element of the equation: 'c' - or the speed of light. Why is it that the speed of light is the exchange rate? Answering this question is at the heart of the investigation as the authors demonstrate how, in order to truly understand why E=mc2, we first must understand why we must move forward in time and not backwards and how objects in our 3-dimensional world actually move in 4-dimensional space-time. In other words, how the very fabric of our world is constructed. A collaboration between two of the youngest professors in the UK, Why Does E=mc2? promises to be one of the most exciting and accessible explanations of the theory of relativity in recent years.
Your plain-English guide to understanding and working with the micro world
Quantum physics — also called quantum mechanics or quantum field theory — can be daunting for even the most dedicated student or enthusiast of science, math, or physics. This friendly, concise guide makes this challenging subject understandable and accessible, from atoms to particles to gases and beyond. Plus, it's packed with fully explained examples to help you tackle the tricky equations like a pro!Compatible with any classroom course — study at your own pace and prepare for graduate or professional exams Your journey begins here — understand what quantum physics is and what kinds of problems it can solve Know the basic math — from state vectors to quantum matrix manipulations, get the foundation you need to proceed Put quantum physics to work — make sense of Schrödinger's equation and handle particles bound in square wells and harmonic oscillators Solve problems in three dimensions — use the full operators to handle wave functions and eigenvectors to find the natural wave functions of a system Discover the latest research — learn the cutting-edge quantum physics theories that aim to explain the universe itself
From the New York Times–bestselling author of Seven Brief Lessons on Physics, a closer look at the mind-bending nature of the universe.
What are the elementary ingredients of the world? Do time and space exist? And what exactly is reality? Theoretical physicist Carlo Rovelli has spent his life exploring these questions. He tells us how our understanding of reality has changed over the centuries and how physicists think about the structure of the universe today.
In elegant and accessible prose, Rovelli takes us on a wondrous journey from Democritus to Albert Einstein, from Michael Faraday to gravitational waves, and from classical physics to his own work in quantum gravity. As he shows us how the idea of reality has evolved over time, Rovelli offers deeper explanations of the theories he introduced so concisely in Seven Brief Lessons on Physics.
This book culminates in a lucid overview of quantum gravity, the field of research that explores the quantum nature of space and time, seeking to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. Rovelli invites us to imagine a marvelous world where space breaks up into tiny grains, time disappears at the smallest scales, and black holes are waiting to explode—a vast universe still largely undiscovered.
The subatomic realm has a reputation for weirdness, spawning any number of profound misunderstandings, journeys into Eastern mysticism, and woolly pronouncements on the interconnectedness of all things. Cox and Forshaw's contention? There is no need for quantum mechanics to be viewed this way. There is a lot of mileage in the “weirdness” of the quantum world, and it often leads to confusion and, frankly, bad science. The Quantum Universe cuts through the Wu Li and asks what observations of the natural world made it necessary, how it was constructed, and why we are confident that, for all its apparent strangeness, it is a good theory.
The quantum mechanics of The Quantum Universe provide a concrete model of nature that is comparable in its essence to Newton's laws of motion, Maxwell's theory of electricity and magnetism, and Einstein's theory of relativity.
Raised in Depression-era Rockaway Beach, physicist Richard Feynman was irreverent, eccentric, and childishly enthusiastic—a new kind of scientist in a field that was in its infancy. His quick mastery of quantum mechanics earned him a place at Los Alamos working on the Manhattan Project under J. Robert Oppenheimer, where the giddy young man held his own among the nation’s greatest minds. There, Feynman turned theory into practice, culminating in the Trinity test, on July 16, 1945, when the Atomic Age was born. He was only twenty-seven. And he was just getting started. In this sweeping biography, James Gleick captures the forceful personality of a great man, integrating Feynman’s work and life in a way that is accessible to laymen and fascinating for the scientists who follow in his footsteps.
Time moves forward, not backward—everyone knows you can’t unscramble an egg. In the hands of one of today’s hottest young physicists, that simple fact of breakfast becomes a doorway to understanding the Big Bang, the universe, and other universes, too. In From Eternity to Here, Sean Carroll argues that the arrow of time, pointing resolutely from the past to the future, owes its existence to conditions before the Big Bang itself—a period modern cosmology of which Einstein never dreamed. Increasingly, though, physicists are going out into realms that make the theory of relativity seem like child’s play. Carroll’s scenario is not only elegant, it’s laid out in the same easy-to- understand language that has made his group blog, Cosmic Variance, the most popular physics blog on the Net.
From Eternity to Here uses ideas at the cutting edge of theoretical physics to explore how properties of spacetime before the Big Bang can explain the flow of time we experience in our everyday lives. Carroll suggests that we live in a baby universe, part of a large family of universes in which many of our siblings experience an arrow of time running in the opposite direction. It’s an ambitious, fascinating picture of the universe on an ultra-large scale, one that will captivate fans of popular physics blockbusters like Elegant Universe and A Brief History of Time.
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The book is designed to meet the requirements of undergraduate and postgraduate students of physics for their courses in solid state physics, condensed matter physics and material science.
• Puts a conceptual emphasis on the subject.
• Includes numerous diagrams and figures to clarify the concepts.
• Gives step-by-step explanations of theories.
• Provides chapter-end exercises to test the knowledge acquired.
This book presents an overview of the technological advances that have occurred since the publication of the Editors earlier book High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: The Physical Basis. In this latest book, contributions from internationally recognized professionals and researchers in the field provide expanded treatment of the practical aspects of the subject. High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: Basic Concepts and Technological Practice provides a modern working manual for this specialized technology that is generic to a wide range of applications. The format makes the text suitable for use as a basis for special topic lecture courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level.Provides the fundamental physical concepts of the subjectFocuses on practical applicationsGives a historical survey of the fieldIncludes a detailed account of system design criteriaReviews theoretical models developed to explain the pinhole phenomenaPresents results of a series of experimental investigations on the subject
In a remarkable career spanning more than six decades, Philip W Anderson has made many fundamental contributions to physics. As codified in his oft-quoted phrase "More is Different", Anderson has been the most forceful and persuasive proponent of the radical, but now ubiquitous, viewpoint of emergent phenomena: truly fundamental concepts that can and do emerge from studies of Nature at each layer of complexity or energy scale. Anderson''s ideas have also extended deeply into other areas of physics, including the Anderson–Higgs mechanism and the dynamics of pulsars.
PWA90: A Lifetime of Emergence is a volume of original scientific essays and personal reminiscences of Philip W Anderson by experts in the field, that were presented as part of "PWA90: Emergent Frontiers of Condensed Matter" meeting held at Princeton in December 2013 to highlight Anderson''s contributions to physics.Contents: Recollections of a Graduate Student (Khandker A Muttalib)P W Anderson Seen Through the Eyes of a Student (Clare C Yu)Random Walks in Anderson''s Garden: A Journey from Cuprates to Cooper Pair Insulators and Beyond (G Baskaran)Some Reminiscences on Anderson Localization (Elihu Abrahams)Anderson and Condensed Matter Physics (T V Ramakrishnan)Superfluidity and Symmetry Breaking — An Anderson Living Legacy (Frank Wilczek)Phil Anderson and Gauge Symmetry Breaking (Edward Witten)A Short History of the Theory and Experimental Discovery of Superfluidity in 3He (W F Brinkman)Superconductivity in a Terrestrial Liquid: What Would It Be Like? (A J Leggett)40 Years of Quantum Spin Liquid: A Tale of Emergence from Frustration (Patrick A Lee)High Tc Superconductivity and RVB (Mohit Randeria)Paired Insulators and High Temperature Superconductors (T H Geballe and S A Kivelson)Special Properties of High Tc Cuprates, Radically Different from Other Transition Metal Oxides (T M Rice)From Bacteria to Artificial Cells, the Problem of Self-Reproduction (Albert Libchaber)Spin Glasses and Frustration (Scott Kirkpatrick)Frustration and Fluctuations in Systems with Quenched Disorder (D L Stein)Phil Anderson''s Magnetic Ideas in Science (Piers Coleman)
Readership: Students, academics and researchers in condensed matter.
Keywords:P W Anderson;Superfluidity;Anderson–Higgs Mechanism;Pulsars;Condensed Matter Physics;Anderson;Localization;High-Temperature Superconductors;Spin Classes'
Some things are both waves and particles. . .at the same time.
Electrons simply disappear . . . all the time.
If the universe is this wild and unpredictable, so full of possibility, why are your thoughts about your own life so limited?
Hundreds of years ago, science and religion split apart; they became antagonists in the great game of explanation and discovery. But science and religion are two sides of the same coin. They both help explain the universe, our place in the great plan and the meaning of our lives. In fact, they can only begin to do that adequately when they work together.
What the Bleep Do We Know?!TM is a book of amazing science. With the help of more than a dozen research and theoretical scientists, it takes you through the looking glass of quantum physics into a universe that is more bizarre and alive than ever imagined. Then it takes you beyond, into the outer-inner edges of our scientific knowledge of consciousness, perception, body chemistry and brain structure. What is a thought made of? What is reality made of? And most importantly, how does a thought change the nature of reality?
This science leads not just to the material world, but deep into the realm of spirituality. If observation affects the outcome, we aren’t merely part of the universe, but participants in it. If thoughts are more than random neural firings, than consciousness is more than an anatomical accident. A higher power exists, but is it truly out there? Where is the dividing line between out there and in here?
This is not a book of definitive answers. This is a book of mind stretching questions. It is a book that shows you not the path, but the endless possibilities. Do you think you have to go to the same job every day, do the same errands, think the same thoughts, feel the same way? Well, think again.
Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation?
Using first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics. Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge illustrates one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe.
Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden describe the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge.
– Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
The book can be used in conjunction with a survey course in solid state physics, or as the basis of a first graduate-level course. It can be read by anyone who has had basic grounding in quantum mechanics.Contents:Introduction:Preparation and TextsPlan of the CourseGeneralities and Classification of SolidsOne-Electron Theory:Hartree–Fock TheoryEnergy Bands in SolidsOne-Electron Band Theory in the Presence of Perturbation FieldsElementary Excitations:The Idea of Elementary Excitations: Generalities on Many-Body TheoryThe N + 1 Body Problem, Quasi-Particles in Metals: The Fermi LiquidCollective Excitations
Readership: Condensed matter physicists.
keywords:Solid State Physics;Band Theory;Elementary Excitation;Effective Hamiltonian;Quasiparticles;Collective Excitations;Spin Waves;Broken Symmetry
In The Intention Experiment, internationally bestselling author Lynne McTaggart, an award-winning science journalist and leading figure in the human consciousness studies community, presents a gripping scientific detective story and takes you on a mind-blowing journey to the farthest reaches of consciousness. She profiles the colorful pioneers in intention science and works with a team of renowned scientists from around the world, including physicist Fritz-Albert Popp of the International Institute of Biophysics and Dr. Gary Schwartz, professor of psychology, medicine, and neurology at the University of Arizona, to determine the effects of focused group intention on scientifically quantifiable targets -- animal, plant, and human.
The Intention Experiment builds on the discoveries of McTaggart's first book, international bestseller The Field: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe, which documented discoveries that point to the existence of a quantum energy field. The Field created a picture of an interconnected universe and a scientific explanation for many of the most profound human mysteries, from alternative medicine and spiritual healing to extrasensory perception and the collective unconscious. The Intention Experiment shows you myriad ways that all this information can be incorporated into your life.
After narrating the exciting developments in the science of intention, McTaggart offers a practical program to get in touch with your own thoughts, to increase the activity and strength of your intentions, and to begin achieving real change in your life. After you've begun to realize the amazing potential of focused intention, and the times when it is most powerful, McTaggart invites you to participate in an unprecedented experiment: Using The Intention Experiment website to coordinate your involvement and track results, you and other participants around the world will focus your power of intention on specific targets, giving you the opportunity to become a part of scientific history.
The Intention Experiment redefines what a book does. It is the first "living" book in three dimensions. The book's text and website are inextricably linked, forming the hub of an entirely self-funded research program, the ultimate aim of which is philanthropic. An original piece of scientific investigation that involves the reader in its quest, The Intention Experiment explores human thought and intention as a tangible energy -- an inexhaustible but simple resource with an awesome potential to focus our lives, heal our illnesses, clean up our communities, and improve the planet.
The Intention Experiment also forces you to rethink what it is to be human. As it proves, we're connected to everyone and everything, and that discovery demands that we pay better attention to our thoughts, intentions, and actions. Here's how you can.
The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topological indices. The book also analyzes recent topics in condensed matter theory and concludes by surveying active subfields of research such as insulators with point-group symmetries and the stability of topological semimetals. Problems at the end of each chapter offer opportunities to test knowledge and engage with frontier research issues. Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors will provide graduate students and researchers with the physical understanding and mathematical tools needed to embark on research in this rapidly evolving field.
Quantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman's crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.
His explanation of quantum physics for lay readers, called "a model of clarity" by Kirkus Reviews, sets the stage for a voyage of discovery through the common ground of science and religion, the entwined nature of mind and body, and our interconnectedness with all of creation.
Readership: Researchers, academics and graduate students in condensed matter physics.
Keywords:Condensed Matter Hamiltonian;Statistical Mechanics;Lattice Dynamics;Crystals;Liquid Dynamics;Phase Transitions;Metastable StatesReviews:“This is a valuable and clearly written book in an important area of condensed matter theory. There is extensive contact between theoretical predictions and experiments. For both students and young research workers there are useful collections of problems which lead to further insight into the area covered. Quantitative equations of state are given prominence.”Norman H March
“This is an authoritative account of the physics and thermodynamics behind an understanding of the equation of state. It concentrates on elements and the use of pseudopotential perturbation theory for the simple metals provides insight and a basis for computer simulations. The account combines careful theoretical analyses, and Local-Density-Theory results, with interpretation of the best experimental data available and may be unique in incorporating the liquid, as well as the crystalline state. The very complete set of problems included would make it very appropriate as the text for a general course on the equation of state.”Walt Harrison
“Whatever the author does, he does it first class. His book is something we use to gauge excellence in the field, and I have no doubt that this one will be no exception. But this book is different from other books he wrote. It is more personal in that he has not hesitated to express his personal views strongly, but in a scholarly fashion.”Y Horie
Los Alamos National Laboratory
“This is a book of condensed matter physics that gives equal emphasis to solids and liquids. The author focuses on the equation of state of the simple elements and reviews the methods for passing from the Hamiltonian through statistical mechanics to the equation of state of the solid and liquid and the computation of the melting curve. For the reader who wants an introduction to the capability of modern statistical physics for accurate prediction of thermodynamic functions, this is the book.”David Young
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
“This book, in my mind, represents an extremely powerful resource to any researcher working in condensed matter physics and especially equation of state theory. It is clear from 'Statistical Physics of Crystals and Liquids' that Dr Wallace has a special gift of taking complex physics concepts and explaining them with the greatest of clarity. His ability clearly distinguishes this book from those written by more novice authors … In summary, I believe this book should be highly marketed as I expect that there is a large condensed matter community that would benefit from reading it.”Brad Clements
Los Alamos National Laboratory
“The three investigated subjects, only fragments of which are covered in other textbooks and research treatises, make this book a very useful one for specialists in statistical mechanics and structure of matter.”Zentralblatt MATH
“… the book comprises a brisk overview of solids that reaches timely topics of nonequilibrium processes … its structure lends itself well to being used as an instructional text in either an advanced undergraduate course or a graduate treatment of the subject … The review of statistical mechanics is straightforward to anyone with prior exposure to the subject, and is nearly complete … Wallace has done an excellent job of achieving the goals set out in the introduction of the book in a format that is clean and easy to read with a notation that is not confusing.”MRS Bulletin
“This book covers ‘equation of state’ but also atomic dynamics. In these fields it offers a useful summary of methods and results, which prove how successful modern computational methods have become.”Contemporary Physics
This book focuses on phonons and electrons, which the student needs to learn first in solid state physics. The required quantum theory and statistical physics are derived from scratch. Systematic in structure and tutorial in style, the treatment is filled with detailed mathematical steps and physical interpretations. This approach ensures a self-sufficient content for easier teaching and learning. The objective is to introduce the concepts of phonons and electrons in a more rigorous and yet clearer way, so that the student does not need to relearn them in more advanced courses. Examples are the transition from lattice vibrations to phonons and from free electrons to energy bands.
The book can be used as the beginning module of a one-year introductory course on solid state physics, and the instructor will have a chance to choose additional topics. Alternatively, it can be taught as a stand-alone text for building the most-needed foundation in just one semester.
Contents:Crystal StructureReciprocal Lattice and X-Ray DiffractionLattice Vibrations and PhononsThermal Properties of InsulatorsFree Electron Fermi GasElectron Energy Bands
Readership: Undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in physics, materials science and electronic devices.
Keywords:Crystal Symmetries;Lattice Vibrations;Phonons;Free Electrons;X-Ray DiffractionReviews:“The book is focused, rigorous, and self sufficient. It is filled with meticulous details. I am pleased to see that many questions the students may have when learning these subjects are answered in this book … I strongly recommend it to both the teacher and students.”J J Chang
Professor of Physics
Wayne State University
“The presentation is done well and the author has an easy-to-read style that is almost chatty … Overall, I think that the author has succeeded in providing a book for a niche where the beginning student of solid-state physics wants a self-contained book without having to go to another textbook.”MRS Bulletin
Electrochemistry of Porous Materials focuses on generalized theoretical modeling and describes redox processes for different porous materials, assessing their electrochemical applications. Considering the large variety of materials that can be classified as porous, the text focuses on nanostructured micro- and mesoporous materials. Using this approach, the book offers a more focused and practical analysis of key porous materials that are considered relatively homogeneous from an electrochemical point of view. These include:
Porous silicates and aluminosilicates
Porous metal oxides and related compounds
Porous carbons, nanotubes, and fullerenes
Porous polymers and certain hybrid materials
With its detailed presentation of advances in electrochemistry of nanostructured materials, this text specifically addresses the foundation and applications of the electrochemistry of microporous materials. It incorporates the latest breakthroughs in applied fields (development of fuel cells, supercapacitors, etc.) and fundamental research (in areas including fractal scaling, photoelectrocatalysis, magnetoelectrochemistry, etc.).
Designed to make the topic accessible and understandable for researchers and graduate students working in the field of material chemistry, this volume approximates porous materials chemistry to electrochemists. Selective and streamlined, it culls a wide range of relevant and practically useful material from the extensive literature on the subject, making it an invaluable reference for readers of all levels of understanding.
While the first volume presents the theory and fabrication of SQUIDs, the second volume is devoted to applications. It starts with an important aspect of the analysis of measured magnetic signals generated by current sources (the inverse problem), and includes several chapters devoted to various areas of application, namely biomagnetism (research on and diagnostics of human brain, heart, liver, etc.), detection of extremely weak signals, for example electromagnetic radiation and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
The volume closes with a chapter on motion detectors and the detection of gravity waves.
The conference celebrated the exceptional achievements using Yang–Mills theory over the years but also many other truly remarkable contributions to different branches of physics from Prof C N Yang. This volume collects the invaluable talks by Prof C N Yang and the invited speakers reviewing these remarkable contributions and their importance for the future of physics.Contents:The Future of Physics — Revisited (C N Yang)Quantum Chromodynamics — The Perfect Yang–Mills Gauge Field Theory (David Gross)Maximally Supersymmetric Yang–Mills Theory: The Story of N = 4 Yang–Mills Theory (Lars Brink)The Lattice and Quantized Yang–Mills Theory (Michael Creutz)Yang–Mills Theories at High Energy Accelerators (George Sterman)Yang–Mills Theory at 60: Milestones, Landmarks and Interesting Questions (Ling-Lie Chau)Discovery of the First Yang–Mills Gauge Particle — The Gluon (Sau Lan Wu)Yang–Mills Gauge Theory and Higgs Particle (Tai Tsun Wu & Sau Lan Wu)Scenario for the Renormalization in the 4D Yang–Mills Theory (L D Faddeev)Statistical Physics in the Oeuvre of Chen Ning Yang (Michael E Fisher)Quantum Vorticity in Nature (Kerson Huang)Yang–Mills Theory and Fermionic Path Integrals (Kazuo Fujikawa)Yang–Mills Gauge Theory and the Higgs Boson Family (Ngee-Pong Chang)On the Physics of the Minimal Length: The Questions of Gauge Invariance (Lay Nam Chang, Djordje Minic, Ahmed Roman, Chen Sun & Tatsu Takeuchi)Generalization of the Yang–Mills Theory (G Savvidy)Some Thoughts about Yang–Mills Theory (A Zee)Gauging Quantum Groups: Yang–Baxter Joining Yang–Mills (Yong-Shi Wu)The Framed Standard Model (I) — A Physics Case for Framing the Yang–Mills Theory? (Chan Hong-Mo & Tsou Sheung Tsun)The Framed Standard Model (II) — A First Test Against Experiment (Chan Hong-Mo & Tsou Sheung Tsun)On the Study of the Higgs Properties at a Muon Collider (Mario Greco)Aharonov–Bohm Types of Phases in Maxwell and Yang–Mills Field Theories (Bruce H J McKellar)Yang–Mills for Historians and Philosophers (R P Crease)Gauge Concepts in Theoretical Applied Physics (Seng Ghee Tan & Mansoor B A Jalil)Yang–Yang Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics: A Brilliant Method (Xi-Wen Guan & Yang-Yang Chen)Chern–Simons Theory, Vassiliev Invariants, Loop Quantum Gravity and Functional Integration Without Integration (Louis H Kauffman)The Scattering Equations and Their Off-Shell Extension (York-Peng Yao)Feynman Geometries (Sen Hu & Andrey Losev)Particle Accelerator Development: Selected Examples (Jie Wei)A New Storage-Ring Light Source (Alex Chao)New Contributions to Physics by Prof C N Yang: 2009–2011 (Zhong-Qi Ma)Brief Overview of C N Yang's 13 Important Contributions to Physics (Yu Shi)
Readership: Graduate students and scientists working in high energy physics, statistical physics and condensed matter physics.
Philip Anderson was educated at University High School in Urbana, Illinois, at Harvard (BS 1943, PhD 1949), and further educated at Bell Laboratories, where his career (1949-1984) coincided with the greatest period of that remarkable institution. Starting in 1967, he shared his time with Cambridge University (until 1975) and then with Princeton, where he continued full time as Joseph Henry Professor until 1997. As an emeritus he remains active in research, and at press time he was involved in several scientific controversies about high profile subjects, in which his point of view, though unpopular at the moment, is likely to prevail eventually. His colleagues have made him one of the two physicists most often cited in the scientific literature, for several decades.
His work is characterized by mathematical simplicity combined with conceptual depth, and by profound respect for experimental findings. He has explored areas outside his main discipline, the quantum theory of condensed matter (for which he won the 1977 Nobel Prize), on several occasions: his paper on what is now called the “Anderson-Higgs mechanism” was a main source for Peter Higgs' elucidation of the boson; a crucial insight led to work on the dynamics of neutron stars (pulsars); and his concept of the spin glass led far afield, to developments in practical computer algorithms and neural nets, and eventually to his involvement in the early years of the Santa Fe Institute and his co-leadership with Kenneth Arrow of two influential workshops on economics at that institution. His writing career started with a much-quoted article in Science titled “More is Different” in 1971; he was an occasional columnist for Physics Today in the 1980s and 1990s. He was more recently a reviewer of science and science-related books for the Times (London) Higher Education Supplement as well as an occasional contributor to Science, Nature, and other journals.Contents:Personal Reminiscences:Introduction“BCS” and MeA Mile of Dirty Lead Wire: A Fable for the Scientifically LiterateScientific and Personal Reminiscences of Ryogo KuboHistory:IntroductionPhysics at Bell Labs, 1949–1984: Young Turks and Younger TurksIt's Not Over Till the Fat Lady SingsReflections on Twentieth Century Physics: Historical Overview of the 20th Century in Physics21st Century PhysicsY Nambu and Broken SymmetryNevill Mott, John Slater, and the “Magnetic State”: Winning the Prize and Losing the PR BattlePhilosophy and Sociology:IntroductionEmergence vs ReductionismIs the Theory of Everything the Theory of Anything?Is Measurement Itself an Emergent Property?Good News and Bad NewsThe Future Lies AheadCould Modern America Have Invented Wave Mechanics?Loose Ends and Gordian Knots of the String CultImaginary Friend, Who Art in HeavenScience Tactics and Strategy:IntroductionSolid State Experimentalists: Theory Should be on Tap, Not on TopShadows of DoubtThe Reverend Thomas Bayes, Needles in Haystacks, and the Fifth ForceEmerging PhysicsOn the Nature of Physical LawsOn the “Unreasonable Efficacy of Mathematics” — A Proposition by WignerWhen Scientists Go AstrayFurther InvestigationsGenius:IntroductionWhat Mad PursuitComplexities of FeynmanCoffee-Table ComplexitiesSearch for Polymath's Elementary ParticlesGiant Who Started the Silicon AgeThe Quiet Man of PhysicsA Theoretical PhysicistSome Thoughtful Words (Not Mine) on Research Strategy for TheoristsScience Wars:IntroductionThey Think It's All OverScience: A 'Dappled World' or a 'Seamless Web'?Reply to CartwrightPostmodernism, Politics and ReligionPolitics and Science:IntroductionPolitics and ScienceThe Case Against Star WarsA Dialogue About Star WarsNo Facts, Just the Right AnswersFuturology:IntroductionFuturologyDizzy with Future SchlockEinstein and the p-BranesForecaster Fails to Detect Any CloudsComplexity:IntroductionPhysics: The Opening to ComplexityIs Complexity Physics? Is It Science? What Is It?Complexity II: The Santa Fe InstituteWhole Truths False In PartPopularization Attempts:IntroductionWho Or What Is RVB?More on RVBBrainwashed by Feynman?Just Exactly What Do You Do, Dr Anderson?What Is a Condensed Matter Theorist?Global Economy II: Or, How Do You Follow a Great Act?
Readership: Students, scientists and lay people.
Keywords:Philip Anderson;Condensed Matter Theory;Anderson-Higgs Mechanism;Spin Glass;ComplexityReviews:
“Philip W Anderson is the doyen of present-day condensed matter physics, and has written widely and provocatively on many subjects both within and without the discipline.This collection of his essays is guaranteed to instruct, amuse and in some cases annoy readers irrespective of their specialist backgrounds.”Anthony Leggett
“This is that rare book which may stimulate the reader into seeing the future, present and past of science in a new light. Philip Anderson is not only the most influential and original scientist in the second half of the 20th century in condensed matter physics, but also happens to be one who thinks deeply and broadly, and writes beautifully and vividly. It is of inestimable value especially to those curious about the scientific enterprise and possibly interested in contributing to it. The book title is a twist on an Andersonian phrase which has become a modern mantra.”T V Ramakrishnan
Banaras Hindu University, India
“Phil Anderson has made many wonderful contributions to physics, often illustrating his favorite theme of how more is different. I am sure readers of diverse interests will enjoy this book and learn much from it.”Edward Witten
Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton
“Anderson has put together an entertaining and instructive collection of highly readable reviews, columns, talks, and unpublished essays on science and the scientists he has known. He is rarely inappropriately provocative, and he is a pleasure to read.”Physics Today
Beginning with a description of Green's function in classical physics from a modern point of view, the text progresses to the definition and properties of Green's functions in quantum physics. Most of the book explores applications, focusing on transport coefficients of a metal, the Coulomb gas, Fermi liquids, electrons and phonons, superconductivity, superfluidity, and magnetism. The treatment assumes a good working knowledge of quantum mechanics and a familiarity with the occupation number representation. An appendix provides the main formulas and the correspondence with wave mechanics. Each chapter concludes with references and problems for further study.
New to the Second Edition
This edition includes three new chapters on elasticity of slender rods, energy, and entropy. It also offers more margin drawings and photographs and improved images of simulations. Along with reorganizing much of the material, the author has revised many of the physics arguments and mathematical presentations to improve clarity and consistency. The collection of problems at the end of each chapter has been expanded as well. These problems further develop the physical and mathematical concepts presented.
With worked examples throughout, this book clearly illustrates both qualitative and quantitative physics reasoning. It emphasizes the importance in understanding the physical principles behind equations and the conditions underlying approximations. A companion website provides a host of ancillary materials, including software programs, color figures, and additional problems.
The first section of the book discusses the fundamentals of the radiation field. In the second section, the authors describe the cross sections for electrons and heavy ions—the most important information needed for simulating radiation track at the molecular level. The third section details the inelastic scattering and energy loss of charged particles in condensed media, particularly liquid water. The final section contains a large number of questions and problems to reinforce learning.
Designed for radiation interaction courses, this textbook is the ideal platform for teaching students in medical/health physics and nuclear engineering. It gives students a solid grounding in the physical understanding of radiation track structure in living matter, enabling them to pursue further work in radiological physics and radiation dosimetry.