Today physicists and mathematicians throughout the world are feverishly working on one of the most ambitious theories ever proposed: superstring theory. String theory, as it is often called, is the key to the Unified Field Theory that eluded Einstein for more than thirty years. Finally, the century-old antagonism between the large and the small-General Relativity and Quantum Theory-is resolved. String theory proclaims that all of the wondrous happenings in the universe, from the frantic dancing of subatomic quarks to the majestic swirling of heavenly galaxies, are reflections of one grand physical principle and manifestations of one single entity: microscopically tiny vibrating loops of energy, a billionth of a billionth the size of an atom. In this brilliantly articulated and refreshingly clear book, Greene relates the scientific story and the human struggle behind twentieth-century physics' search for a theory of everything.
Through the masterful use of metaphor and analogy, The Elegant Universe makes some of the most sophisticated concepts ever contemplated viscerally accessible and thoroughly entertaining, bringing us closer than ever to understanding how the universe works.
The book is designed to meet the requirements of undergraduate and postgraduate students of physics for their courses in solid state physics, condensed matter physics and material science.
• Puts a conceptual emphasis on the subject.
• Includes numerous diagrams and figures to clarify the concepts.
• Gives step-by-step explanations of theories.
• Provides chapter-end exercises to test the knowledge acquired.
This book is composed of seven chapters, and begins with an introduction to the general concepts of time dependent flow, including induced current, the techniques of linearization, calculating variational transit time, and obtaining equivalent circuits. The following chapters present the classical linear analysis, which includes the space-charge effects, with several applications. These chapters also explore the existence of a maximum stable current in a space-charge limited diode. The discussion then shifts to the basics of high velocity, klystron, gap with nonuniform field distributions, and the application of the multicavity klystron. This text further covers the analysis and examples of crossed-field gaps. The final chapters deal with the fundamentals of velocity and current distributions obtained from common electron emitters, with some attempt to show how the multivelocity streams evolve into single-velocity equivalents needed for the methods of earlier chapters. Results of applying the Lagrangian starting analysis to semiconductor diode regions, necessarily from a new equation of motion, are also provided.
This book is intended for graduate courses, seminars, and research studies.
This book addresses the fundamental issues underlying the semiconductor test discipline. The test engineer must understand the basic principles of semiconductor fabrication and process and have an in-depth knowledge of circuit functions, instrumentation and noise sources.Introduces a novel component-testing philosophy for semiconductor test, product and design engineersBest new source of information for experienced semiconductor engineers as well as entry-level personnelEight chapters about semiconductor testing
The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topological indices. The book also analyzes recent topics in condensed matter theory and concludes by surveying active subfields of research such as insulators with point-group symmetries and the stability of topological semimetals. Problems at the end of each chapter offer opportunities to test knowledge and engage with frontier research issues. Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors will provide graduate students and researchers with the physical understanding and mathematical tools needed to embark on research in this rapidly evolving field.
The exposition is succinct, with minimal narration, but with
a maximum of explicit and hierarchically structured mathematical derivations. The text covers all essential topics of university courses of quantum mechanics – from general mathematical formalism to specific applications. The formulation of quantum theory is accompanied by illustrations of the general concepts of elementary quantum systems. Some subtleties of mathematical foundations are overviewed, but the formalism is used in an accessible, intuitive way. Besides the traditional topics of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, such as single-particle dynamics, symmetries, semiclassical and perturbative approximations, density-matrix formalism, scattering theory, theory of angular momentum, description of
many-particle systems – the course also touches upon some modern issues, including quantum entanglement, decoherence, measurement, nonlocality, and quantum information. Historical context and chronology of basic achievements is outlined in brief remarks. The book is intended for beginners as a supplement to lectures, however, it may also be used by more advanced students as a compact and comprehensible overview of elementary quantum
See What’s New in the Second Edition:
Eight new chapters that give detailed crystallographic analyses of one crystal chosen for each crystal system Numerous molecular examples and suggestions for student projects Coverage of special topics that naturally arise in the treatment of the crystals Suggestions for student projects with date that can be found in the free Teaching Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database Point group and space group diagrams have been color coded using a new scheme devised by the author to emphasize the change of handedness of the symmetry operations All the Starter Programs have been rewritten and improved, and a new one has been added in Chapter 6 on the graphing of intensity vs. 2θ for powder diffraction data New appendices contain detailed information about the 32 three-dimensional point groups and the 10 two-dimensional point groups
The book explains the individual entities, such as symmetry operations, and also explains how they fit together in a larger context. Coverage includes lattices, symmetry operations, metric matrices, point groups, space groups, reciprocal lattices, properties of x-rays, and electron density maps, all leading to a formal description of the crystal structures and an interpretation of the published crystallographic data. The author connects general properties such as the piezoelectric effect, compressibility, thermal expansion, and Mosely’s relationship in ordering the elements of the periodic table giving students a thorough foundation in the subject.
Written by the originator of the gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) concept, this book:Offers an overview of ion beam technologies, from the discovery of monomer ions to the introduction of GCIBs Explores the development of sources for producing cluster beams from solid materials Describes the engineering characteristics of gas cluster ion beam equipment Covers cluster ion-solid surface interaction kinetics as well as sputtering, implantation, and ion-assisted deposition Details surface processing techniques for smoothing, shallow implantation, and preparation of high-quality thin films Introduces representative examples of emerging GCIB industrial applications
Materials Processing by Cluster Ion Beams: History, Technology, and Applications provides a deeper understanding of the importance of cluster ion beams and their applications.
The author, B. Jayant Baliga, invented the IGBT in 1980 while working for GE. His book will unlock IGBT for a new generation of engineering applications, making it essential reading for a wide audience of electrical engineers and design engineers, as well as an important publication for semiconductor specialists.Essential design information for applications engineers utilizing IGBTs in the consumer, industrial, lighting, transportation, medical and renewable energy sectors.Readers will learn the methodology for the design of IGBT chips including edge terminations, cell topologies, gate layouts, and integrated current sensors.The first book to cover applications of the IGBT, a device manufactured around the world by more than a dozen companies with sales exceeding $5 Billion; written by the inventor of the device.
Electron emission is both a fundamental phenomenon and an enabling component that lies at the very heart of modern science and technology. Written by a recognized authority in the field, with expertise in both electron emission physics and electron beam physics, An Introduction to Electron Emission provides an in-depth look at the physics behind thermal, field, photo, and secondary electron emission mechanisms, how that physics affects the beams that result through space charge and emittance growth, and explores the physics behind their utilization in an array of applications.
The book addresses mathematical and numerical methods underlying electron emission, describing where the equations originated, how they are related, and how they may be correctly used to model actual sources for devices using electron beams. Writing for the beam physics and solid state communities, the author explores applications of electron emission methodology to solid state, statistical, and quantum mechanical ideas and concepts related to simulations of electron beams to condensed matter, solid state and fabrication communities.Provides an extensive description of the physics behind four electron emission mechanisms—field, photo, and secondary, and how that physics relates to factors such as space charge and emittance that affect electron beams. Introduces readers to mathematical and numerical methods, their origins, and how they may be correctly used to model actual sources for devices using electron beams Demonstrates applications of electron methodology as well as quantum mechanical concepts related to simulations of electron beams to solid state design and manufacture Designed to function as both a graduate-level text and a reference for research professionals
Introduction to the Physics of Electron Emission is a valuable learning tool for postgraduates studying quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, solid state physics, electron transport, and beam physics. It is also an indispensable resource for academic researchers and professionals who use electron sources, model electron emission, develop cathode technologies, or utilize electron beams.
The book is divided into four main parts. In the first part, the concept of entanglement, and methods for computing it, in quantum field theories is reviewed. In the second part, an overview of the AdS/CFT correspondence is given and the holographic entanglement entropy prescription is explained. In the third part, the time-dependence of entanglement entropy in out-of-equilibrium systems, and applications to many body physics are explored using holographic methods. The last part focuses on the connection between entanglement and geometry. Known constraints on the holographic map, as well as, elaboration of entanglement being a fundamental building block of geometry are explained.
The book is a useful resource for researchers and graduate students interested in string theory and holography, condensed matter and quantum information, as it tries to connect these different subjects linked by the common theme of quantum entanglement.
The book divides naturally into two parts. Chapters 1 to 9 consider bonding in ceramics and their resultant physical structures, and the electrical, thermal, and other properties that are dependent on bonding type. The second part (Chapters 11 to 16) deals with those factors that are determined by microstructure, such as fracture and fatigue, and thermal, dielectric, magnetic, and optical properties. Linking the two sections is Chapter 10, which describes sintering, grain growth, and the development of microstructure.
Fundamentals of Ceramics is ideally suited to senior undergraduate and graduate students of materials science and engineering and related subjects.
This memorial volume is dedicated to Prof. Huang who passed away peacefully at home on September 1, 2016 at the age of 88. The volume features the recollections of Prof. Huang by his former colleagues and students, including Profs Chen-Ning Yang and Samuel Ting, as well as their reflections on Prof. Huang's achievements in the various subdivisions of physics.
The emphasis is on effective field theories which provide an efficient and powerful description that is valid at long wavelengths and low frequencies. In conjunction with the emphasis on effective theories, a modern approach towards renormalization is taken, whereby a wavenumber cut-off is introduced to set a scale beyond which the microscopic model under consideration ceases to be valid.
The unique and innovative character of this presentation, free of historical constraints, allows for a compact and self-contained treatment of the main topics in contemporary condensed matter physics.
Electrochemistry of Porous Materials focuses on generalized theoretical modeling and describes redox processes for different porous materials, assessing their electrochemical applications. Considering the large variety of materials that can be classified as porous, the text focuses on nanostructured micro- and mesoporous materials. Using this approach, the book offers a more focused and practical analysis of key porous materials that are considered relatively homogeneous from an electrochemical point of view. These include:
Porous silicates and aluminosilicates
Porous metal oxides and related compounds
Porous carbons, nanotubes, and fullerenes
Porous polymers and certain hybrid materials
With its detailed presentation of advances in electrochemistry of nanostructured materials, this text specifically addresses the foundation and applications of the electrochemistry of microporous materials. It incorporates the latest breakthroughs in applied fields (development of fuel cells, supercapacitors, etc.) and fundamental research (in areas including fractal scaling, photoelectrocatalysis, magnetoelectrochemistry, etc.).
Designed to make the topic accessible and understandable for researchers and graduate students working in the field of material chemistry, this volume approximates porous materials chemistry to electrochemists. Selective and streamlined, it culls a wide range of relevant and practically useful material from the extensive literature on the subject, making it an invaluable reference for readers of all levels of understanding.
While the first volume presents the theory and fabrication of SQUIDs, the second volume is devoted to applications. It starts with an important aspect of the analysis of measured magnetic signals generated by current sources (the inverse problem), and includes several chapters devoted to various areas of application, namely biomagnetism (research on and diagnostics of human brain, heart, liver, etc.), detection of extremely weak signals, for example electromagnetic radiation and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.
The volume closes with a chapter on motion detectors and the detection of gravity waves.