Applied Materials Science: Applications of Engineering Materials in Structural, Electronics, Thermal, and Other Industries fills that gap. From a cross-disciplinary perspective that reflects both the multifunctionality of many materials and the wide scope industrial needs, the author examines the practical applications of metal, ceramic, polymer, cement, carbon, and composite materials across a broad range of industries. The topics addressed include electronic packaging, smart materials, thermal management, nondestructive evaluation, and materials development. The text is clear, coherent, and tutorial in style, includes numerous up-to-date references, and provides background material in a series of appendices.
Unique in its breadth of coverage of both materials and their applications, Applied Materials Science is both scientifically rich and technologically relevant. If you work or teach those that aspire to work in an engineering capacity, you will find no text or reference that better prepares its readers for real-world applications of engineering materials.
The book is intended for use in graduate and upper-division undergraduate courses, but practicing engineers and researchers in industry and academe will also find it a useful reference. The third edition has been thoroughly updated and has a vast amount of new material, including plenty of new exercises and illustrations.
This new edition covers:
- New types of fibrous and particulate reinforcements
- New ceramic fibers, such as Nextel 720
- New processing techniques of polymer matrix composites
- Polymeric composite foams
- New processing techniques in metal matrix composites
- New applications such as power generation cables involving use of Nextel fiber reinforced aluminum composites
- Metallic composite foams
- New processing techniques for ceramic matrix composites
- A detailed derivation of thermal stresses generated in fibrous and particulate composites
- New material on the subject of thermal conductivity
- Recent work in the area of fatigue and creep of different composites
- New examples of design of components with composites
Some praise for previous editions:
"By employing an economic writing style and carefully selected references, figures, and suggested readings, [Chawla] has successfully produced a relatively short but thorough book.... Clear, concise, and complete, [it] is an excellent up-to-date introduction to fiber composite materials.... I would recommend it." -- MRS Bulletin
"Covers polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites in a well-organized, up-to-date manner. It is filled with useful tables, graphs, references, suggested readings and illustrations." -- American Scientist
"Overall, this is an excellent book for composite materials research. It can be used as a text book for undergraduate seniors,... and as a reference book for engineers." -- Applied Mechanics Review
Herbal remedies have been around for years and many people count on them every day. Some carry a strong belief that there is no need to rely on medications. Among the alternative medicine approaches, essential oils are used for a number of different conditions and offer a variety of benefits.
After a stress filled day, it would be nice to come home and just relax. Some have found that they can get fast relaxation by taking a warm bath using essential oils. A mix of the oils and the aromas can relax one so much that it puts the client to sleep.
Because essential oils are extracted from plant material, they often contain the nutritional essence of the plants themselves. In concentrated form, they can impart huge health benefits, when they are ingested into the body.
Essential Oils will guide you through the various uses and benefits of essential oils, highlighting how to use them to lose weight, relieve pain, maintain your skin, as well as strengthen your hair. The various uses of essential oils is nearly limitless. Come discover what many others have: that there is now a safer, more natural way to protect yourself and your family.
The Future of the Mind brings a topic that once belonged solely to the province of science fiction into a startling new reality. This scientific tour de force unveils the astonishing research being done in top laboratories around the world—all based on the latest advancements in neuroscience and physics—including recent experiments in telepathy, mind control, avatars, telekinesis, and recording memories and dreams. The Future of the Mind is an extraordinary, mind-boggling exploration of the frontiers of neuroscience. Dr. Kaku looks toward the day when we may achieve the ability to upload the human brain to a computer, neuron for neuron; project thoughts and emotions around the world on a brain-net; take a “smart pill” to enhance cognition; send our consciousness across the universe; and push the very limits of immortality.
The easy way to take the confusion out of organic chemistry
Organic chemistry has a long-standing reputation as a difficult course. Organic Chemistry I For Dummies takes a simple approach to the topic, allowing you to grasp concepts at your own pace.
This fun, easy-to-understand guide explains the basic principles of organic chemistry in simple terms, providing insight into the language of organic chemists, the major classes of compounds, and top trouble spots. You'll also get the nuts and bolts of tackling organic chemistry problems, from knowing where to start to spotting sneaky tricks that professors like to incorporate.Refreshed example equations New explanations and practical examples that reflect today's teaching methods Fully worked-out organic chemistry problems
Baffled by benzines? Confused by carboxylic acids? Here's the help you need—in plain English!
From the Trade Paperback edition.
As a new mom, Jessica Alba wanted to create the safest, healthiest environment for her family. But she was frustrated by the lack of trustworthy information on how to live healthier and cleaner--delivered in a way that a busy mom could act on without going to extremes. In 2012, with serial entrepreneur Brian Lee and environmental advocate Christopher Gavigan, she launched The Honest Company, a brand where parents can find reliable information and products that are safe, stylish, and affordable. The Honest Life shares the insights and strategies she gathered along the way.
The Honest Life recounts Alba's personal journey of discovery and reveals her tips for making healthy living fun, real, and stylish, while offering a candid look inside her home and daily life. She shares strategies for maintaining a clean diet (with favorite family-friendly recipes) and embraces nontoxic choices at home and provides eco-friendly decor tips to fit any budget. Alba also discusses cultivating a daily eco beauty routine, finding one's personal style without resorting to yoga pants, and engaging in fun, hands-on activities with kids. Her solutions are easy, chic, and down-to-earth: they're honest. And discovering everyday ways to live naturally and authentically--true to you--could be honestly life-changing.
From the seemingly mundane to the food fantastic, from grilled cheese sandwiches, pizzas, and soft-boiled eggs to sugar glasses and gellified beads, these essays cover a range of creations and their history and culture. They discuss the significance of an eater's background and atmosphere, the importance of a chef's methods, and strategies for extracting and concentrating aromas, among other intriguing topics. The collection will delight experts and amateurs alike, as restaurants rely more on "science-assisted" cooking and recreational cooks increasingly explore the chemistry behind their art. Contributors end each essay with personal thoughts on food, cooking, and science, offering rare insight into their professional passion for playing with food.
Kaku skillfully guides us through the latest innovations in string theory and its latest iteration, M-theory, which posits that our universe may be just one in an endless multiverse, a singular bubble floating in a sea of infinite bubble universes. If M-theory is proven correct, we may perhaps finally find answer to the question, “What happened before the big bang?” This is an exciting and unforgettable introduction into the new cutting-edge theories of physics and cosmology from one of the pre-eminent voices in the field.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Richard Feynman, winner of the Nobel Prize in physics, thrived on outrageous adventures. Here he recounts in his inimitable voice his experience trading ideas on atomic physics with Einstein and Bohr and ideas on gambling with Nick the Greek; cracking the uncrackable safes guarding the most deeply held nuclear secrets; accompanying a ballet on his bongo drums; painting a naked female toreador. In short, here is Feynman's life in all its eccentric—a combustible mixture of high intelligence, unlimited curiosity, and raging chutzpah.
Nickel, cobalt and platinum group metals are key elements for materials processing. They occur together in one book because they (i) map together on the periodic table (ii) occur together in many ores and (iii) are natural partners for further materials processing and materials manufacturing. They all are, for example, important catalysts – with platinum group metals being especially important for reducing car and truck emissions. Stainless steels and CoNiFe airplane engine super alloys are examples of practical usage.
The product emphasises a sequential, building-block approach to the subject gained through the author’s previous writings (particularly Extractive Metallurgy of Copper in four editions) and extensive experience. Due to the multiple metals involved and because each metal originates in several types of ore – e.g. tropical ores and arctic ores this necessitates a multi-contributor work drawing from multiple networks and both engineering and science.Synthesizes detailed review of the fundamental chemistry and physics of extractive metallurgy with practical lessons from industrial consultancies at the leading international plantsDiscusses Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals for the first time in one bookReviews extraction of multiple metals from the same tropical or arctic oreIndustrial, international and multidisciplinary focus on current standards of production supports best practice use of industrial resources
Integrated throughout the text are real-world applications that emphasize the relevance of thermodynamics principles to some of the most critical problems and issues of today, including a wealth of coverage of topics related to energy and the environment, biomedical/bioengineering, and emerging technologies.
"Vivid . . . impressive. . . . Splendidly informative."—The New York Times
"A tour de force."—Salon
Already internationally acclaimed for his elegant, lucid writing on the most challenging notions in modern physics, Sean Carroll is emerging as one of the greatest humanist thinkers of his generation as he brings his extraordinary intellect to bear not only on Higgs bosons and extra dimensions but now also on our deepest personal questions: Where are we? Who are we? Are our emotions, our beliefs, and our hopes and dreams ultimately meaningless out there in the void? Do human purpose and meaning fit into a scientific worldview?
In short chapters filled with intriguing historical anecdotes, personal asides, and rigorous exposition, readers learn the difference between how the world works at the quantum level, the cosmic level, and the human level—and then how each connects to the other. Carroll's presentation of the principles that have guided the scientific revolution from Darwin and Einstein to the origins of life, consciousness, and the universe is dazzlingly unique.
Carroll shows how an avalanche of discoveries in the past few hundred years has changed our world and what really matters to us. Our lives are dwarfed like never before by the immensity of space and time, but they are redeemed by our capacity to comprehend it and give it meaning.
The Big Picture is an unprecedented scientific worldview, a tour de force that will sit on shelves alongside the works of Stephen Hawking, Carl Sagan, Daniel Dennett, and E. O. Wilson for years to come.
For more than thirty years as a beloved professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lewin honed his singular craft of making physics not only accessible but truly fun, whether putting his head in the path of a wrecking ball, supercharging himself with three hundred thousand volts of electricity, or demonstrating why the sky is blue and why clouds are white. Now, as Carl Sagan did for astronomy and Brian Green did for cosmology, Lewin takes readers on a marvelous journey in For the Love of Physics, opening our eyes as never before to the amazing beauty and power with which physics can reveal the hidden workings of the world all around us. “I introduce people to their own world,” writes Lewin, “the world they live in and are familiar with but don’t approach like a physicist—yet.”
Could it be true that we are shorter standing up than lying down? Why can we snorkel no deeper than about one foot below the surface? Why are the colors of a rainbow always in the same order, and would it be possible to put our hand out and touch one? Whether introducing why the air smells so fresh after a lightning storm, why we briefly lose (and gain) weight when we ride in an elevator, or what the big bang would have sounded like had anyone existed to hear it, Lewin never ceases to surprise and delight with the extraordinary ability of physics to answer even the most elusive questions.
Recounting his own exciting discoveries as a pioneer in the field of X-ray astronomy—arriving at MIT right at the start of an astonishing revolution in astronomy—he also brings to life the power of physics to reach into the vastness of space and unveil exotic uncharted territories, from the marvels of a supernova explosion in the Large Magellanic Cloud to the unseeable depths of black holes.
“For me,” Lewin writes, “physics is a way of seeing—the spectacular and the mundane, the immense and the minute—as a beautiful, thrillingly interwoven whole.” His wonderfully inventive and vivid ways of introducing us to the revelations of physics impart to us a new appreciation of the remarkable beauty and intricate harmonies of the forces that govern our lives.
• first to provide exam data-mining in study guide
• allow students to focus on most examined concepts – cut study time and increase efficiency
• an expert guide to lead one abstract knowledge and wisdom
• provides exact, accurate, complete and independent self–education
• the only guide currently that covers Planning Questions
• advanced trade book
• complete and concise eBook editions available
• also suitable for
• Cambridge GCE AL (H1/H2)
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• Books available for other subjects including Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, Economics, English
• Primary level, Secondary level, GCE O-level, GCE A-level, iGCSE, Cambridge A-level, Hong Kong DSE
• visit www.yellowreef.com for sample chapters and more
Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd Edition introduces this important technique, to help students to design their own organic syntheses. There are forty chapters: those on the synthesis of given types of molecules alternate with strategy chapters in which the methods just learnt are placed in a wider context. The synthesis chapters cover many ways of making each type of molecule starting with simple aromatic and aliphatic compounds with one functional group and progressing to molecules with many functional groups. The strategy chapters cover questions of selectivity, protection, stereochemistry, and develop more advanced thinking via reagents specifically designed for difficult problems.
Examples are drawn from pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, natural products, pheromones, perfumery and flavouring compounds, dyestuffs, monomers, and intermediates used in more advanced synthetic work. Reasons for wishing to synthesise each compound are given.
This second edition has been fully revised and updated with a modern look. Recent examples and techniques are included and illustrated additional material has been added to take the student to the level required by the sequel, “Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control”.
Several chapters contain extensive new material based on courses that the authors give to chemists in the pharmaceutical industry.
Organic Synthesis: The Disconnection Approach, 2nd edition provides a full course in retrosynthetic analysis for chemistry and biochemistry students and a refresher for organic chemists working in industry and academia.
With its balanced presentation of polymer chemistry, physics, and engineering applications, the Third Edition of this classic text continues to instill readers with a solid understanding of the core concepts underlying polymeric materials. Both students and instructors have praised the text for its clear explanations and logical organization. It begins with molecular-level considerations and then progressively builds the reader's knowledge with discussions of bulk properties, mechanical behavior, and processing methods.
Following a brief introduction, Fundamental Principles of Polymeric Materials is divided into four parts:
Part 1: Polymer Fundamentals
Part 2: Polymer Synthesis
Part 3: Polymer Properties
Part 4: Polymer Processing and Performance
Thoroughly Updated and Revised
Readers familiar with the previous edition of this text will find that the organization and style have been updated with new material to help them grasp key concepts and discover the latest science, techniques, and applications. For example, there are new introductory sections on organic functional groups focusing on the structures found in condensation polymerizations. The text also features new techniques for polymer analysis, processing, and microencapsulation as well as emerging techniques such as atom transfer radical polymerization.
At the end of each chapter are problems—including many that are new to this edition—to test the reader's grasp of core concepts as they advance through the text. There are also references leading to the primary literature for further investigation of individual topics.
A classic in its field, this text enables students in chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science, and mechanical engineering to fully grasp and apply the fundamentals of polymeric materials, preparing them for more advanced coursework.
This book presents an overview of the technological advances that have occurred since the publication of the Editors earlier book High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: The Physical Basis. In this latest book, contributions from internationally recognized professionals and researchers in the field provide expanded treatment of the practical aspects of the subject. High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: Basic Concepts and Technological Practice provides a modern working manual for this specialized technology that is generic to a wide range of applications. The format makes the text suitable for use as a basis for special topic lecture courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level.Provides the fundamental physical concepts of the subjectFocuses on practical applicationsGives a historical survey of the fieldIncludes a detailed account of system design criteriaReviews theoretical models developed to explain the pinhole phenomenaPresents results of a series of experimental investigations on the subject
Assuming no prior knowledge, the book discusses everything from the simplest mixed acid nitration of toluene, to the complex synthesis of highly energetic caged nitro compounds.Reviews laboratory and industrial methods, which can be used to introduce aliphatic C-nitro, aromatic C-nitro, N-nitro, and nitrate ester functionality into organic compounds Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method or route, with scope, limitations, substrate compatibility and other important considerations Features numerous examples in the form of text, reaction diagrams, and tables.
In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films.
This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.
Drawing on the expertise of leading researchers in their fields, Current Topics in Elastomers Research provides the first comprehensive overview of rubber research activities from around the world. Divided into seven sections, this seminal work begins with a general introduction before presenting the chemistry and structure-property relationships of a variety of new materials and composites. The second section covers the most important rubber ingredients along with the current thinking on their mechanism of action.
Two important new characterization techniques, 3D-TEM and AFM, are evaluated in the third section, while the fourth considers the physics and engineering aspects of elastomers, including reinforcement mechanisms, viscoelastic properties, fatigue life, abrasion, adhesion, rheology, mixing and processing, and the effects of time, temperature and fluids. The fifth section pays respect to the tire, a driving impetus for research and one of the major applications of rubber. Finally, the book includes two chapters on eco-friendly technology and recycling, perhaps the most important engineering topic in this age of globalization and environmental responsibility.
Barring the inaccessibility of truly classified information, Current Topics in Elastomers Research is a complete review of current elastomers research and applications, compiling once-guarded knowledge and outlining the future directions of the field.
The first book to consider this topic, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science examines the fundamentals of click chemistry, its application to the precise design and synthesis of macromolecules, and its numerous applications in materials science and biotechnology. The book surveys the current research, discusses emerging trends and future applications, and provides an important nucleation point for research.
Edited by one of the top 100 young innovators with the greatest potential to have an impact on technology in the 21st century according to Technology Review and with contributions from pioneers in the field, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science provides an ideal reference for anyone wanting to learn more about click reactions.
Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.
This essential reference to SPS covers:
The preparation of syndiotactic polystyrene by half-metallocenes and other transition metal catalysts
The structure and fundamental properties, especially morphology and crystallization and solution behavior
The commercial process for SPS manufacturing
Properties, processing, and applications of syndiotactic polystyrenes
Polymers based on syndiotactic polystyrenes, for example, by functionalization and modification, and nanocomposites
Ideal for polymer chemists, physicists, plastics engineers, materials scientists, and all those dealing with plastics manufacturing and processing, this important resource provides the information one needs to compare, select, and integrate an appropriate materials solution for industrial use or research.
Polymers constitute the basis for the plastics, rubber, adhesives, fiber, and coating industries. The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Physical Polymer Science acknowledges the industrial success of polymers and the advancements made in the field while continuing to deliver the comprehensive introduction to polymer science that made its predecessors classic texts.
The Fourth Edition continues its coverage of amorphous and crystalline materials, glass transitions, rubber elasticity, and mechanical behavior, and offers updated discussions of polymer blends, composites, and interfaces, as well as such basics as molecular weight determination. Thus, interrelationships among molecular structure, morphology, and mechanical behavior of polymers continue to provide much of the value of the book.
Newly introduced topics include:
* Nanocomposites, including carbon nanotubes and exfoliated montmorillonite clays
* The structure, motions, and functions of DNA and proteins, as well as the interfaces of polymeric biomaterials with living organisms
* The glass transition behavior of nano-thin plastic films
In addition, new sections have been included on fire retardancy, friction and wear, optical tweezers, and more.
Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, Fourth Edition provides both an essential introduction to the field as well as an entry point to the latest research and developments in polymer science and engineering, making it an indispensable text for chemistry, chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, and polymer science and engineering students and professionals.
In an age of custom-fabricated, do-it-yourself product design and creation, the collective potential of a million garage tinkerers and enthusiasts is about to be unleashed, driving a resurgence of American manufacturing. A generation of “Makers” using the Web’s innovation model will help drive the next big wave in the global economy, as the new technologies of digital design and rapid prototyping gives everyone the power to invent--creating “the long tail of things”.
assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions as well as further supplementary material available free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website.
In order to establish links and similarities the book places prominence on principles and deductive reasoning with cross-referencing. This informal text also places the main emphasis on understanding and predicting reactivity rather than synthetic methodology as well as utilising a mechanism based layout and featuring annotated schemes to reduce the need for textual explanations.
* tailored specifically to the needs of students of Pharmacy Medical Chemistry and Biological Chemistry
* numerous pharmaceutical and biochemical examples
* mechanism based layout
* focus on principles and deductive reasoning
This will be an invaluable reference for students of Pharmacy Medicinal and Biological Chemistry.
Aimed at a wide readership ranging from educated laypeople and students to practitioners in engineering and environmental science.
Part one covers the principles of fabric construction as applied to textile design, with chapters on fundamental principles, woven and knitted textile design. Part two discusses surface approaches to textile design, with chapters on such topics as surface design of textiles, printed and embroidered textile design, dyeing and finishing and the use of colour in textile design. Finally, part three focuses on the applications and advances in textile design, including chapters covering colour trend forecasting, sustainable textile design, fashion, interior and 2D to 3D design considerations and new developments in technical and future textiles.
With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Textile design is an essential reference for design professionals in the textile and fashion industries, as well as those who specialise in interior textiles and academics with a research interest in the area.A broad overview of textile design covering fundamental topics such as principles of fibres and fabrics, knitted fabric design, through to the dyeing, finishing and printing aspects of textile designExplores the design aspects of technical textiles and future textilesAn invaluable source of information on textile design and suitable for design professionals in the textile and fashion industries, as well as those in academia
After an introductory chapter covering the importance of chemical finishing, the following chapters focus on particular finishing techniques, from softening, easy-care and permanent press, non-slip and soil-release, to flame-retardant, antistatic and antimicrobial. Within each chapter, sections include an introduction, mechanisms, chemistries, applications, evaluations and troubleshooting. The book concludes with a chapter on the future trends in chemical finishing.
Chemical finishing of textiles is an essential reference for all academic and industrial textile chemists and for those studying textile education programmes.Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of every important type of chemical finishCombines technical understanding and practical experience conciselyEssential tool to assist in the demanding challenge of chemical finishing for textiles
Beginning with the various types of woven three-dimensional fabrics, the text then examines 3-D knitted, braided, and non-woven textiles, and the main applications and uses of three-dimensional textiles.Presents the most recent advances in the production of three-dimensional fibrous structures and how their use has resulted in the creation of novel fabrics and applicationsExamines many types of 3-D textiles, including knitted, braided, and non-woven textiles, and the main uses of three-dimensional textilesCovers their structures, properties, and uses within the textiles industry
With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Specialist yarn, woven and fabric structures is essential reading for all textile researchers, technicians, engineers and technologies, and will also be suitable for academic purposes.Looks at developments that have occurred in the manufacturing of specialist yarn, weave and fabric structuresDiscusses different types of specialist yarn structures, such as hybrid, fancy and compound yarnsOffers insight into multicomponent fabric structures such as 3D nonwovens, flocked, knotted and jacquard woven fabrics
Microorganisms in Foods 5, 7, and the second edition of Microorganisms in Foods 6 are for anyone using microbiological testing and/or engaged in setting Microbiological Criteria, whether for the purpose of Governmental Food Inspection and Control or in Industry, and for those identifying the most effective use of microbiological testing in the food chain. The contents are essential reading for food processors, food microbiologists, food technologists, veterinarians, public health workers and regulatory officials. For students in Food Science and Technology they offer a wealth of information on Food Microbiology and Food Safety Management, with many references for further study.
The information has been prepared by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF). The ICMSF was formed in response to the need for internationally acceptable and authoritative decisions on microbiological limits for foods moving in international commerce. Currently the membership consists of eighteen food microbiologists from eleven countries, drawn from governmental laboratories in public health, agriculture, and food technology, from universities and from the food industry.
This book gives a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and their behavior and potential use in tribological applications. It provides the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, properties of polymeric nanocomposites, characterization, evaluation and selection methodology. It also provides various examples of application of polymeric nanocomposites.
* Provides a complete reference from the preparation to the selection of polymeric nanocomposites
* Explains the theory through examples of real-world applications
* More than 20 international tribology experts contribute to their area of expertise
This book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods.... This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder..., has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste.
Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, ...pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P process...does not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technology...has grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock.
...[I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different component viscosities, resulting in the elimination of phase inversion. The S3P process directly produces blends with matrix and dispersed phase morphology like those obtained after phase inversion during a long melt-mixing process. This phenomenon is of practical importance because a long processing time is required by conventional melt-mixing to produce a stable blend morphology. S3P is also advantageous for producing thermoplastic or thermoset powder-coating compounds in a one-step process as opposed to a conventional multi-step operation that involves melt extrusion followed by batch grinding. The major capabilities of this new process can be summarized as follows:
o Continuous powder production from plastics or rubber feedstocks
o Blending of immiscible polymers
o Efficient mixing of polymers with unmatched viscosities
o Environmentally friendly recycling of multicolored, commingled plastics waste
o Sold-state dispersion of heat-sensitive additives
o Engineered plastic/rubber blends
Materials and processes well illustrated
The text is well illustrated with 60 photographs, micrographs, diagrams and others figures. Here is a small sampling of the captions of these figures. o Particle-size distribution for virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Optical photograph of virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Layout for a three-stage rubber pulverizer o Flow chart for powder coating production by conventional process and with new S3P technology o SEM image of pulverized virgin PP at 40X (first in series of SEM images of polymer powders) o Optical micrograph of melt-crystallized thin films of unpulverized virgin PP under polarized light o Log of viscosity vs. log shear rate for virgin HDPE after S3P processing o Gel permeation chromatograms (GPC) of polystyrene subjected to S3P processing
One of the several functions of Solid-State Shear Pulverization technology is recycling mixed plastic waste. This section of twenty full-color photographs and micrographs illustrates different processed materials, as well as the machinery and mixed waste used. Here is a small sampling of the photo and micrograph captions. o Resultant flake feedstock from granulation o S3P-made uniform powder from feedstock o Flake feedstock of post-consumer HDPE/PP blend (90/10 ratio) o Injection-molded test bar (with translucence) made from S3P powder without pelletization o Injection-molded test bar made from S3P powder without pelletization showing uniform color o Several test bars subjected to tensile testing showing exceptionally high elongation at break
Useful reference data in tables
More than 60 tables provide useful data in convenient form. Here is a small sampling of table captions. o Physical properties of virgin PP 8020 GU injection-molded from S3P-made powder (first in series of tables on physical properties of various plastics processed from S3P-made powder) o Sieve analysis of powder resulting from S3P of virgin LDPE 509.48 (one of series of tables on sieve analysis of polymer powders) o Melt-flow rate before and after S3P processing for virgin PS and two PP samples o Key physical properties of injection-molded post-consumer polyolefin blends pulverized by S3P process
Klementina Khait, M.S. Ch.E., Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Polymer Technology Center in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University. Her industrial experience in polymer science and engineering includes work with Borg-Warner Chemicals and Quantum Chemical Corporation. She received her two advanced degrees, in chemical engineering and polymer chemistry, from the Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dr. Khait holds several patents and has published more than 50 papers in scientific and technical journals.
Stephen Carr, Ph.D., is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. His industrial work includes work in polymer science and engineering with General Motors Corp. He received a doctorate in polymer science from Case Western Reserve University. He has been on the Northwestern University faculty since 1969.
Martin H. Mack is Vice President for R&D with the Berstorff Division of Krauss-Maffei Corporation. He holds an engineering degree from the University of Stuttgart. He has served for more than ten years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).
The data is supported by a full explanation of its interpretation, and an introduction to the engineering aspects of permeability in polymers.
The third edition includes expanded explanatory text which makes the book accessible to novices as well as experienced engineers, written by industry insider and author Larry McKeen (DuPont), and 20% new data and major new explanatory text sections to aid in the interpretation and application of the data.A unique collection of permeability data designed to enable quick like-for-like comparisons between different materialsThird edition includes 20% new data and expanded explanatory text, which makes the book accessible to novices as well as experienced engineersEssential reference for materials engineers, design engineers and applications engineers across sectors including packaging, automotive and medical devices
* The first reference work on named reactions to present colored schemes for easier understanding
* 250 frequently used named reactions are presented in a convenient two-page layout with numerous examples
* An opening list of abbreviations includes both structures and chemical names
* Contains more than 10,000 references grouped by seminal papers, reviews, modifications, and theoretical works
* Appendices list reactions in order of discovery, group by contemporary usage, and provide additional study tools
* Extensive index quickly locates information using words found in text and drawings
This comprehensive, well structured handbook presents the fundamental principles and the recent advances in carbene complex chemistry. Arranged according to structure and reactivity, all relevant classes of carbene complexes, their generation, and application in organic synthesis are discussed in detail. Critically selected, up-to-date references and valuable experimental procedures await the reader. Every chemist searching for a concise introduction and reference work for carbene complex chemistry will welcome this practical guide.
"...this concise presentation of all the aspects of the use of carbene complexes in synthesis will help provide the impetus for even more rapid developments in this field of research." R. H. Grubbs (Caltech)
Providing a comprehensive overview of chemosensors—organic molecules designed to bind and sense small molecules or metal ions—and their applications, Chemosensors: Principles, Strategies, and Applications is an accessible one-stop resource for analysts, clinicians, and graduate students studying advanced chemistry and chemosensing.
Chemosensors function on a molecular level, generating a signal upon binding. The book reviews their synthesis, design, and applications for detecting biological and organic molecules as well as metal ions. The text highlights applications in drug discovery and catalyses that have not been well covered elsewhere.
Covering such topics as molecular recognition, detection methods, design strategies, and important biological issues, the book is broken into four sections that examine intermolecular interactions, strategies in sensor design, detection methods, and case studies in metal, saccharide, and amino acid sensing.
An indispensable source of information for chemical and biomedical experts using sensors, Chemosensors includes case studies to make the material both accessible and understandable to chemists of all backgrounds.