For months in early 1980, scientists, journalists, sightseers, and nearby residents listened anxiously to rumblings in Mount St. Helens, part of the chain of western volcanoes fueled by the 700-mile-long Cascadia fault. Still, no one was prepared when an immense eruption took the top off of the mountain and laid waste to hundreds of square miles of verdant forests in southwestern Washington State. The eruption was one of the largest in human history, deposited ash in eleven U.S. states and five Canadian provinces, and caused more than one billion dollars in damage. It killed fifty-seven people, some as far as thirteen miles away from the volcano’s summit.
Shedding new light on the cataclysm, author Steve Olson interweaves the history and science behind this event with page-turning accounts of what happened to those who lived and those who died.
Powerful economic and historical forces influenced the fates of those around the volcano that sunny Sunday morning, including the construction of the nation’s railroads, the harvest of a continent’s vast forests, and the protection of America’s treasured public lands. The eruption of Mount St. Helens revealed how the past is constantly present in the lives of us all. At the same time, it transformed volcanic science, the study of environmental resilience, and, ultimately, our perceptions of what it will take to survive on an increasingly dangerous planet.
Rich with vivid personal stories of lumber tycoons, loggers, volcanologists, and conservationists, Eruption delivers a spellbinding narrative built from the testimonies of those closest to the disaster, and an epic tale of our fraught relationship with the natural world.
Beginning with Mt. Vesuvius, whose eruption in Roman times helped spark the science of geology, and ending in a lab in the West of England where mathematical models and lab experiments replace direct observation, Richard Fortey tells us what the present says about ancient geologic processes. He shows how plate tectonics came to rule the geophysical landscape and how the evidence is written in the hills and in the stones. And in the process, he takes us on a wonderful journey around the globe to visit some of the most fascinating and intriguing spots on the planet.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Laki is Iceland’s largest volcano. Its eruption in 1783 is one of history’s great, untold natural disasters. Spewing out sun-blocking ash and then a poisonous fog for eight long months, the effects of the eruption lingered across the world for years. It caused the deaths of people as far away as the Nile and created catastrophic conditions throughout Europe.
Island on Fire is the story not only of a single eruption but the people whose lives it changed, the dawn of modern volcanology, as well as the history—and potential—of other super-volcanoes like Laki around the world. And perhaps most pertinently, in the wake of the eruption of another Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, which closed European air space in 2010, acclaimed science writers Witze and Kanipe look at what might transpire should Laki erupt again in our lifetime.
In The Earthquake Observers, Deborah R. Coen acquaints readers not only with the century’s most eloquent seismic commentators, including Alexander von Humboldt, Charles Darwin, Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, Karl Kraus, Ernst Mach, John Muir, and William James, but also with countless other citizen-observers, many of whom were women. Coen explains how observing networks transformed an instant of panic and confusion into a field for scientific research, turning earthquakes into natural experiments at the nexus of the physical and human sciences. Seismology abandoned this project of citizen science with the introduction of the Richter Scale in the 1930s, only to revive it in the twenty-first century in the face of new hazards and uncertainties. The Earthquake Observers tells the history of this interrupted dialogue between scientists and citizens about living with environmental risk.
Notwithstanding the tremendous advances in volcanology since ancient times, some of the mystery surrounding volcanic eruptions remains today. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our present knowledge of volcanoes. Through its thematic organization around the melting of the earth, it provides a comprehensive source of information on the multidisciplinary influences of volcanic eruptions--both the destructive as well as the beneficial aspects.
The majority of the chapters focus on the geoscience-related aspects of volcanism (radioactive heat source, melting rock, ascent of magma, surface phenomena associated with exiting magma, extraterrestrial volcanism, etc.). In addition, complementary chapters discuss the multidisciplinary aspects of volcanism; these include the history of volcanology, geothermal energy resources, interaction with the oceans and atmosphere, health aspects of volcanism, mitigation of volcanic disasters, post-eruption ecology, and the impact of eruptions on organismal biodiversity.
In addition to its appeal to educators, students, and professional and amateur scientists, the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes functions as an important information resource for administrators and officials responsible for developing and implementing volcanic hazard mitigation around the world.
* The first and only reference work to cover all aspects of volcanology
* More than 80 separate peer-reviewed articles--all original contributions by leading authors from major institutions of science around the world, commissioned for this work
* An integrated transition from the volcanic process through hazards, risk, and societal impacts, with an emphasis on how volcanoes have influenced and shaped society
* Convenient single-volume format with topics arranged thematically--articles provide coverage of nine different aspects of volcanology
* Each entry in the Encyclopedia begins with an outline of the article content and a concise definition of the subject of the article
* 3,000 Glossary entries explain key terms
* Further Reading lists appear at the end of each entry
* Extensive cross-referencing system links related articles
* Sixteen pages of color will convey the science and excitement of this often violent phenomena
* Large 8 1/2" x 11" page size, easy-to-read double-column format
Here, Gillen D’Arcy Wood traces Tambora’s global and historical reach: how the volcano’s three-year climate change regime initiated the first worldwide cholera pandemic, expanded opium markets in China, and plunged the United States into its first economic depression. Bringing the history of this planetary emergency to life, Tambora sheds light on the fragile interdependence of climate and human societies to offer a cautionary tale about the potential tragic impacts of drastic climate change in our own century.
It’s a geological structure that spans almost the entire length of California. Dozens of major highways and interstates cross it. Scores of housing developments have been built over it. And its name has become so familiar that it’s now synonymous with the very concept of an earthquake.
Yet, to many of those who are affected by it, the San Andreas Fault is practically invisible and shrouded in mystery. For decades, scientists have warned that the fault is primed for a colossal quake. According to geophysicist John Dvorak, such a sudden shift of the Earth’s crust is inevitable—and may be a geologic necessity.
In Earthquake Storms, Dvorak explains the science behind the San Andreas Fault, a transient, evolving system that’s key to our understanding of worldwide seismic activity. He traces it from the redwood forests to the east edge of the Salton Sea, through two of the largest urban areas of the country: San Francisco and Los Angeles. Its network of subsidiary faults runs through Hollywood, Beverly Hills, and Santa Monica, and the Hayward Fault slices the football stadium at the University of California in half. As he warns of peril, Dvorak lays out the worst-case scenario, which he believes is coming: an awakening of the fault leading to years of volatile “earthquake storms.”
Hailed by Booklist as “a fascinating look at what could be in store,” Dvorak’s comprehensive and accessible study will change the way you see the ground beneath your feet.
The book is divided into two parts: a verbal description (Chapters 1-6) and a collection of 55 plates (Chapter 7) with interpretations. The verbal description explains in a rather elementary form the most fundamental physical phenomena relevant to seismogram appearance. The collection of plates exhibits a large variety of seismogram examples, and the corresponding interpretations cover different seismic sources (tectonic and volcanic earthquakes, underground explosions, cavity collapse, sonic booms), wave types, epicentral distances, focal depths and recording instruments (analog, digital, short- and long-period, broad band).
The book compliments older manuals in that both analog and digital records are considered. Seismograms from more traditional narrow-band as well as from modern, broad-band instruments are displayed. Tectonic and volcanic earthquakes are represented, and the exhibited seismograms form a worldwide collection of records acquired from seismographic stations located in North and Central America, Asia, Europe and New Zealand, i.e. in various geological and tectonic environments. Terminology and usage of definition does vary among agencies in different parts of the world; that used in this book is common to Europe.
In late April 1902, Mount Pelée, a volcano on the Caribbean island Martinique, began to wake up. It emitted clouds of ash and smoke for two weeks until violently erupting on May 8. Over 30,000 residents of St. Pierre were killed; they burned to death under rivers of hot lava and suffocated under pounds of hot ash. Only three people managed to survive: a prisoner trapped in a dungeon-like jail cell, a man on the outskirts of town, and a young girl found floating unconscious in a boat days later.
So how did a town of thousands not heed the warnings of nature and local scientists, instead staying behind to perish in the onslaught of volcanic ash? Why did the newspapers publish articles assuring readers that the volcano was harmless? And why did the authorities refuse to allow the American Consul to contact Washington about the conditions? The answer lies in politics: With an election on the horizon, the political leaders of Martinique ignored the welfare of their people in order to consolidate the votes they needed to win.
A gripping and informative book on the disastrous effects of a natural disaster coupled with corruption, The Day the World Ended reveals the story of a city engulfed in flames and the political leaders that chose to kill their people rather than give up their political power.
This book explains in accessible terms how different areas of science have been combined to reach our current level of knowledge of volcanic systems. It includes an introduction to eruption types, an outline of the development of physical volcanology, a comprehensive overview of subsurface processes, eruption mechanisms, the nature of volcanic eruptions and their products, and a review of how volcanoes affect the environment.
Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology is essential reading for undergraduate students in earth science.
The Geology of the Canary Islandsprovides a concise overview of the geology and volcanology of the Canary Islands, along with 27 carefully planned day excursions comprising trips on all of the islands. Each stop includes a description on how to approach a site and where to park with GPS locations provided.
The book covers all the spectacular features of the islands, including active ocean island volcanoes whose origins are linked to a hot spot or plume causing anomalously hot mantle material to intrude the African plate, submarine volcanic sequences uplifted inside the islands, sub- aerial shield volcanoes, and the remains of giant lateral collapses.
Through its clearly written and richly color-illustrated introduction and field guide, this book is essential reading for geologists who visit the Canary Islands, one of the largest and most fascinating active volcanic systems in Europe.Includes a forward by Prof. C. J. Stillman (Trinity College Dublin), a leading expert on the volcanology and geology of the Canary Islands Features 500 full color images, coupled with in-depth introductory text and a chapter on each island, followed by 27 guided excursions that include all of the seven islands of the archipelagoFamiliarizes the reader with the variety of volcanic landforms and eruptive products in the Canary Islands and provides practical support in recognition, recording, and interpretationDevelops understanding of growth, evolution, and destruction of ocean island volcanoes, promoting temporal and spatial thinking within a given geological framework
During the past 2,000 years, four volcanic eruptions have taken place in the Zapotitán Valley of southern El Salvador. One, the devastating eruption of Ilopango around A.D. 300, forced a major migration, pushing the Mayan people north to the Yucatán Peninsula. Although later eruptions did not have long-range implications for cultural change, one of the subsequent eruptions preserved the Cerén site—a Mesoamerican Pompeii where the bodies of the villagers, the palm-thatched roofs of their houses, the pots of food in their pantries, even the corn plants in their fields were preserved with remarkable fidelity.
Throughout 1978, a multidisciplinary team of anthropologists, archeologists, geologists, biologists, and others sponsored by the University of Colorado's Protoclassic Project researched and excavated the results of volcanism in the Zapotitan Valley—a key Mesoamerican site that contemporary political strife has since rendered inaccessible.
The result is an outstanding contribution to our understanding of the impact of volcanic eruptions on early Mayan civilization. These investigations clearly demonstrate that the Maya inhabited this volcanically hazardous valley in order to reap the short-term benefits that the volcanic ash produced—fertile soil, fine clays, and obsidian deposits.
This volume will interest structural engineers, engineers-designers, geophysicists, mechanical and geotechnical engineers. It is intended to serve both readers already acquainted with problems of earthquake engineering and beginners in this field.
This book is designed to give students a balanced and comprehensive coverage of these new advances, as well as a firm grounding in the classical aspects of igneous and metamorphic petrology. The emphasis throughout is on the processes controlling petrogenesis, but care is taken to present the important descriptive information so crucial to interpretation.
One of the most up-to-date synthesis of igneous and metamorphic petrology available.
Emphasis throughout on latest experimental and field data.
Igneous and metamorphic sections can be used independently if necessary.
Surface waves have become critical to near-surface geophysics both for geotechnical goals and seismic-hazard studies. Included in this book are the related theories, approaches and applications which the lead editor has assembled from a range of authored contributions carefully selected from the latest developments in research.
A unique blend of theory and practice, the book’s concepts are based on exhaustive field research conducted over the past decade from the world’s leading seismologists and geophysicists.Edited by a geophysicist with nearly 20 years of experience in research, consulting, and geoscience software development.Nearly 100 figures, photographs, and examples aid in the understanding of fundamental concepts and techniquesPresents the latest research in seismic wave characteristics and analysis, the fundamentals of signal processing, wave data acquisition and inversion, and the latest developments in horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR).Each chapter features a real-world case study—13 in all—to bring the book’s key principles to life.
* Includes a comprehensive review of the techniques currently used in paleoseismology
* Emphasizes practical methods of data collection and field studies
* Covers interpretation of field data based on current theory concerning fault segmentation and recurrence cycles
* Contains more than 170 line drawings and 50 photographs of paleoseismic phenomena
Geology of Utah introduces the state’s deep earth, plate tectonics, and the development of its ancient mountains. It describes the geology of the three main geological provinces, ancient elevations, cliffs, valleys, and the history of the region’s climate. This book will enrich the experience of enthusiastic amateur geologists who want to understand and explore the development of Utah's highlands and the history of this dynamic landscape.
This book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may also find this text useful.
New to this edition: This new edition presents the fundamentals of wave propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous Media while also incorporating the latest research from the past 7 years, including that of the author. The author presents all the equations and concepts necessary to understand the physics of wave propagation. These equations form the basis for modeling and inversion of seismic and electromagnetic data. Additionally, demonstrations are given, so the book can be used to teach post-graduate courses. Addition of new and revised content is approximately 30%.Examines the fundamentals of wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porous mediaPresents all equations and concepts necessary to understand the physics of wave propagation, with examplesEmphasizes geophysics, particularly, seismic exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs, which is essential for exploration and production of oil
On the one hand this figure represents the domain for the application of a reciprocity theorem in the analysis of a wavefield and on the other hand it symbolizes the power of a consistent wavefield description of this theorem.
The roots of the reciprocity theorem lie in Green's theorem for Laplace's equation and Helmholtz's extension to the wave equation. In 1894, J.W. Strutt, who later became Lord Rayleigh, introduced in his book The Theory of Sound this extension under the name of Helmholtz's theorem. Nowadays it is known as Rayleigh's reciprocity theorem.
Progress in seismic data processing requires the knowledge of all the theoretical aspects of the acoustic wave theory. The reciprocity theorem was chosen as the central theme of this book as it constitutes the fundaments of the seismic wave theory. In essence, two states are distinguished in this theorem. These can be completely different, although sharing the same time-invariant domain of application, and they are related via an interaction quantity. The particular choice of the two states determines the acoustic application, in turn making it possible to formulate the seismic experiment in terms of a geological system response to a known source function.
In linear system theory, it is well known that the response to a known input function can be written as an integral representation where the impulse response acts as a kernel and operates on the input function. Due to the temporal invariance of the system, this integral representation is of the convolution type. In seismics, the temporal behaviour of the system is dealt with in a similar fashion; however the spatial interaction needs a different approach. The reciprocity theorem handles this interaction by identifying one state with the spatial impulse function, also known as the Green's function, while the other state is connected with the actual source distribution. In general, the resulting integral representation is not a spatial convolution. Moreover, the systematic use of the reciprocity theorem leads to a hierarchical description of the seismic experiment in terms of increasing complexity. Also from an educational point of view this approach provides a hierarchy and the student learns to break down the seismic problem into constituent partial solutions.
This book should contribute to the understanding that the reciprocity theorem is a powerful tool in the analysis of the seismic experiment.
- How do collapse calderas form?
- What are the conditions to create fractures and slip along them to initiate caldera collapse and when are these conditions fulfilled?
- How do these conditions relate to explosive volcanism?
- Most products of large caldera-forming eruptions show evidence for pre-eruptive reheating. Is this a pre-requisite to produce large volume eruptions and large calderas?
- What are the time-scales behind caldera processes?
- How long does it take magma to reach conditions ripe enough to generate a caldera-forming eruption?
- What is the mechanical behavior of magma chamber walls during caldera collapse? Elastic, viscoelastic, or rigid?
- Do calderas form by underpressure following a certain level of magma withdrawal from a reservoir, or by magma chamber loading due to deep doming (underplating), or both?
- How to interpret unrest signals in active caldera systems?
- How can we use information from caldera monitoring to forecast volcanic phenomena?
In the form of 14 contributions from various disciplines this book samples the state-of-the-art of caldera studies and identifies still unresolved key issues that need dedicated cross-boundary and multidisciplinary efforts in the years to come.
* International contributions from leading experts
* Updates and informs on all the latest developments
* Highlights hot topic areas and identifies and analyzes unresolved key issues
Volcanoes have fascinated—and terrified—people for ages. They have destroyed cities and ended civilizations. John Dvorak, the acclaimed author of Earthquake Storms, looks into the early scientific study of volcanoes and the life of the man who pioneered the field, Thomas Jaggar.
Educated at Harvard, Jaggar went to the Caribbean after Mount Pelee exploded in 1902, killing more than 26,000 people. Witnessing the destruction and learning about the horrible deaths these people had suffered, Jaggar vowed to dedicate himself to a study of volcanoes. What followed was fifty years of global travel to eruptions in Italy, Alaska, Central America, Japan and the Pacific.
In 1912, he built a small science station at the edge of a lake of molten lava at Kilauea volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, with the goal of solving the mystery of why volcanoes erupt and how they could be predicted. Jaggar found something else at Kilauea: true love.
She was Isabel Maydwell, a widowed school teacher who came to Kilauea to restart her life. For more than twenty ears, she and Jaggar ran the science station, living in a small house at the edge of a high cliff that overlooked the lava lake. Maydwell would quickly becoming one of the world’s most astute observers of volcanic activity.
Mixed with tales of myths and rituals, as well as the author’s own experiences and insight into volcanic activity, The Last Volcano reveals the lure and romance of confronting nature in its most magnificent form—the edge of a volcanic eruption.
In the first part of the book the tectonic- geodynamic setting and the present upper mantle structure of the Aegean area are discussed. It includes an interesting interpretation of data on the spatial distribution of intermediate focal depth earthquakes, fault plane solutions and deep velocity structures, to further investigate active tectonics related to the deep structure of the southern Aegean volcanic arc.
The second part deals with general volcanological, petrological and tectonic characteristics of the SAAVA presenting an extensive review of volcanological, chemical, isotope and tectonic data, using a large amount of new field and laboratory data. Interesting conclusions are presented regarding the present volcanic associations, the volcanic fields location and shape in respect to the large tectonic lineaments and the plate motions, the source of the SAAVA parental magmas.
Presented in the third part is an extensive review on the volcanic hazard assessment and the monitoring state of the SAAVA centers. Seismic and geodetic monitoring of the Santorini volcano and the recent (1995-1998) crisis of Nisyros volcano are presented and discussed.
The last part deals with hydrothermal deposits and processes in the SAAVA, as well as products and processes in adjacent areas with a particular interest and significance that link them to the SAAVA processes.
*Systematic re-evaluation on the geodynamic and tectonic setting of the Aegean active volcanic centers
*Thorough review with new data and ideas on the magma source region, the magma differentiation processes in both the deep and shallow levels, and the volcanological processes related both to the magma composition and storage depth as well as to the tectonic regime of the volcano growth area
*Up to date estimation of the volcanic hazard in the Aegean area, and a detailed presentation of the present state and the monitoring efforts of the South Aegean active centers
The interest in seismic stratigraphic techniques to interpret reflection datasets is well established. The advent of sophisticated subsurface reservoir studies and 4D monitoring for optimizing the hydrocarbon production in existing fields demonstrate the importance of the 3D seismic methodology. The added value of reflection seismics to the petroleum industry has clearly been proven over the last few decades. Seismic profiles and 3D cubes form a vast and robust data source to unravel the structure of the subsurface. Larger offsets and velocity anisotropy effects give access to more details on reservoir flow properties like fracture density, porosity and permeability distribution. Elastic inversion and modeling may tell something about the change in petrophysical parameters. Seismic investigations provide a vital tool for the delineation of subtle hydrocarbon traps, and they are the basis for understanding the regional basin framework and the stratigraphic subdivision. Seismic stratigraphy combines two very different scales of observation: the seismic and well control. The systematic approach applied in seismic stratigraphy explains why many workers are using the principles to evaluate their seismic observations.Discusses the link between seismic stratigraphic principles and sequence stratigraphyProvides techniques for seismic reservoir characterization as well as well controlAnalyzes inversion, AVO and seismic attributes
Greg Breining explores the shocking answer to this question and others in a scientific yet accessible look at the enormous natural disaster brewing beneath the surface of the United States. Yellowstone is one of the world's five "super volcanoes." When it erupts, much of the nation will be hit hard.
Though historically Yellowstone has erupted about every 600,000 years, it has not done so for 630,000, meaning it is 30,000 years overdue. Starting with a scenario of what will happen when Yellowstone blows, this fascinating study describes how volcanoes function and includes a timeline of famous volcanic eruptions throughout history.
Authored by two experts in the field of geophysics. this insightful text is designed for the first-year graduate course in seismology. Exploration seismologists will also find it an invaluable resource on topics such as elastic-wave propagation, seismicinstrumentation, and seismogram analysis useful in interpreting their high-resolution images of structure for oil and mineral resource exploration.More than 400 illustrations, many from recent research articles, help readers visualize mathematical relationships49 Boxed Features explain advanced topicsProvides readers with the most in-depth presentation of earthquake physics availableContains incisive treatments of seismic waves, waveform evaluation and modeling, and seismotectonicsProvides quantitative treatment of earthquake source mechanicsContains numerous examples of modern broadband seismic recordingsFully covers current seismic instruments and networksDemonstrates modern waveform inversion methodsIncludes extensive references for further reading
* Overview reflection seismic methods and its limitations.
* Link between basic seismic stratigraphic principles and high resolution sequence stratigraphy.
* Description of various techniques for seismic reservoir characterization and synthetic modelling.
* Overview nversion techniques, AVO and seismic attributes analysis.
Following an introduction reviewing igneous nomenclature, each chapter addresses a specific compositional category of magmatic rocks, covering definition, mineralogy, eruption/ emplacement processes, textures and crystallization processes, geotectonic distribution, geochemistry, and aspects of magma genesis. One chapter is devoted to phase equilibrium experiments and magma evolution; another introduces pyroclastic volcanology. Each chapter concludes with exercises, with the answers being provided at the end of the book.
Appendices provide a summary of techniques and optical data for microscope mineral identification, an introduction to petrographic calculations, a glossary of petrological terms, and a list of symbols and units. The book is richly illustrated with line drawings, monochrome pictures and colour plates.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/gill/igneous.
Segall highlights analytical methods of continuum mechanics applied to problems of active crustal deformation. Topics include elastic dislocation theory in homogeneous and layered half-spaces, crack models of faults and planar intrusions, elastic fields due to pressurized spherical and ellipsoidal magma chambers, time-dependent deformation resulting from faulting in an elastic layer overlying a viscoelastic half-space and related earthquake cycle models, poroelastic effects due to faulting and magma chamber inflation in a fluid-saturated crust, and the effects of gravity on deformation. He also explains changes in the gravitational field due to faulting and magmatic intrusion, effects of irregular surface topography and earth curvature, and modern concepts in rate- and state-dependent fault friction. This textbook presents sample calculations and compares model predictions against field data from seismic and volcanic settings from around the world.
Earthquake and Volcano Deformation requires working knowledge of stress and strain, and advanced calculus. It is appropriate for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in geophysics, geology, and engineering.
Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual is available for this book. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. For information on how to obtain a copy, refer to: http://press.princeton.edu/class_use/solutions.html
This book addresses these and other questions by reviewing the latest advances in a wide range of Earth Science disciplines: from the measurement of short-lived radionuclides to the study of element diffusion in crystals and numerical modelling of magma behaviour. It will be invaluable reading for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as igneous petrologists, mineralogists and geochemists involved in the study of igneous rocks and processes.
Richly illustrated with over 300 original color photographs and diagrams the book is written in an informal manner, with minimum use of jargon, and relies heavily on first-person, eye-witness accounts of eruptive activity at both "red" (effusive) and "grey" (explosive) volcanoes to illustrate the full spectrum of volcanic processes and their products. Decades of teaching in university classrooms and fieldwork on active volcanoes throughout the world have provided the authors with unique experiences that they have distilled into a highly readable textbook of lasting value. Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion, Suggestions for Further Reading, and a comprehensive list of source references make this work a major resource for further study of volcanology.
Volcanoes maintains three core foci:Global perspectives explain volcanoes in terms of their tectonic positions on Earth and their roles in earth history Environmental perspectives describe the essential role of volcanism in the moderation of terrestrial climate and atmosphere Humanitarian perspectives discuss the major influences of volcanoes on human societies. This latter is especially important as resource scarcities and environmental issues loom over our world, and as increasing numbers of people are threatened by volcanic hazards
Volcanologists, advanced undergraduate, and graduate students in earth science and related degree courses, and volcano enthusiasts worldwide.
A companion website is also available for this title at www.wiley.com/go/lockwood/volcanoes
After learning and mastering the Hawaiian language, he won the confidence of the Hawaiians and converted thousands to Christianity. He set up schools, as did his wife, and provided medical assistance and comfort to a rapidly changing culture. He later established churches and trained native converts to act as missionaries among their own people.
He traveled extensively, and at times with great peril, throughout his island home and later to the Marquesas Islands. His adventures and descriptions of first-time encounters with both the environment and the people are quite remarkable. This was a time of great excitement and great despair. Foreign interests in Hawaii, military engagements, visitors of renown, and Hawaiian Kings all provide a rather colorful backdrop against which his story is told.
In addition to his missionary labors, Titus Coan added a great deal to our knowledge of volcanic eruptions. He corresponded and worked with geologist James Dwight Dana, performed many observations, and published with the American Journal of Science. For decades he explored and recorded the volcanic activity on the island of Hawaii.
This book begins with a presentation of a selection of concepts and properties of seismic migration from vector analysis. These topics are followed by considerable chapters on the mathematical aspects of migration, including discrete spectral analysis, two-dimensional Fourier transforms, and wave theory. The subsequent chapters describe the derivation of the Kirchhoff integral for upward traveling wave field and wave field extrapolation for downward traveling source waves and upward traveling reflected waves. These chapters also propose a matrix formulation to represent single seismic record and multi-record data sets, along with different modeling algorithms. A chapter examines inverse wave field extrapolation, in which the medium must be horizontally layered, the layers being homogeneous. The book ends with a summary and comparison of different approaches to seismic migration.
Organized into five inter-related sections, this Handbook contains sixty-five contributions from leading scholars. Section one situates hazards and disasters in their broad political, cultural, economic, and environmental context. Section two contains treatments of potentially damaging natural events/phenomena organized by major earth system. Section three critically reviews progress in responding to disasters including warning, relief and recovery. Section four addresses mitigation of potential loss and prevention of disasters under two sub-headings: governance, advocacy and self-help, and communication and participation. Section five ends with a concluding chapter by the editors.
The engaging international contributions reflect upon the politics and policy of how we think about and practice applied hazard research and disaster risk reduction. This Handbook provides a wealth of interdisciplinary information and will appeal to students and practitioners interested in Geography, Environment Studies and Development Studies.
This book will be essential for students and practitioners of volcanic seismology to understand the essential elements of volcanic eruptions.Provides a comprehensive overview of seismic signals at different stages of volcano eruption.Discusses dozens of case histories from around the world to provide real-world applications.Illustrations accompany detailed descriptions of volcano eruptions alongside the theories involved.
The goal of the Scholz expedition was to determine, by recording tiny natural earthquakes, if a previously unknown arm of the East African Rift system had propagated into the Kalahari Desert from the north. Fieldwork tracks the quest of the scientist for a solution to a specific geological problem from the motivations of the scientist, to the initial formulation of the problem, through to the data collection, and finally, the assembly of the critical evidence.
Originally published in 1997.
The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Also available is The International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Part A.Authoritative articles by more than 100 leading scientistsExtensive glossary of terminology plus 2000+ biographical sketches of notable seismologists
Our planet appears tranquil from outer space. And yet the arcs of volcanoes, the earthquake zones, and the auroral glow rippling above our heads are testimony to the remarkable happenings within the earth’s core. For thousands of years these phenomena were explained in legend and myth. Only in recent times has the brave new science of seismology emerged. One hundred and fifty years after the extraordinary, imaginative feat of Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth, David Whitehouse embarks on a voyage of scientific discovery into the heart of our world.
Seismologists today reveal a planet astonishingly buried within a planet. We watch as supercomputers convert signals from the ground into three-dimensional scans of subterranean continents. We will visit laboratories where scientists attempt to reproduce the intense conditions at the center of the Earth, travel down the throat of a volcano, look into the deepest hole ever drilled, and imagine a voyage through enormous crystals of iron...all at the center of our incredible Earth.