The Handbook of Research on Global Information Technology Management in the Digital Economy provides comprehensive coverage and definitions of the most important issues, concepts, trends and technologies in the field of the emerging sub-discipline of global information technology management, covering topics such as the technical platform for global IS applications, information systems projects spanning cultures, managing information technology in multidomestic/ international/global/transnational corporations, and global information technology systems and socioeconomic development in developing countries. With 25 authoratative contributions from 34 of the world's leading experts, this publication is a must-have for academic and research libraries.
In response to thousands of letters and e-mails from teachers across the country who learned about Erin Gruwell and her amazing students in The Freedom Writers Diary, Erin Gruwell and a team of teacher experts have written The Freedom Writers Diary Teacher's Guide, a book that will encourage teachers and students to expand the walls of their classrooms and think outside the box.
Here Gruwell goes in-depth and shares her unconventional but highly successful educational strategies and techniques (all 150 of her students who had been deemed “un-teachable” graduated from Wilson High School): from her very successful “toast for change” (an exercise in which Gruwell exhorted her students to leave the past behind and start fresh) to writing exercises that focus on the importance of journal writing, vocabulary, and more.
In an easy-to-use format with black-and-white illustrations, this teachers’ guide will become the essential go-to manual for teachers who want to make a difference in their pupils’ lives and create students who will make a difference.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Python Crash Course is a fast-paced, thorough introduction to Python that will have you writing programs, solving problems, and making things that work in no time.
In the first half of the book, you’ll learn about basic programming concepts, such as lists, dictionaries, classes, and loops, and practice writing clean and readable code with exercises for each topic. You’ll also learn how to make your programs interactive and how to test your code safely before adding it to a project. In the second half of the book, you’ll put your new knowledge into practice with three substantial projects: a Space Invaders–inspired arcade game, data visualizations with Python’s super-handy libraries, and a simple web app you can deploy online.
As you work through Python Crash Course you’ll learn how to:
*Use powerful Python libraries and tools, including matplotlib, NumPy, and Pygal
*Make 2D games that respond to keypresses and mouse clicks, and that grow more difficult as the game progresses
*Work with data to generate interactive visualizations
*Create and customize Web apps and deploy them safely online
*Deal with mistakes and errors so you can solve your own programming problems
If you’ve been thinking seriously about digging into programming, Python Crash Course will get you up to speed and have you writing real programs fast. Why wait any longer? Start your engines and code!
Uses Python 2 and 3
For years our schools and children have lagged behind international standards in reading, arithmetic, and most other areas of academic achievement. It is no secret that American schools are in dire need of improvement, and that education has become our nation's number-one priority. But even though almost every state in the country is working to develop higher standards for what students should be learning, along with the means for assessing their progress, the quick-fix solutions implemented so far haven't had a noticeable impact.
The problem, as James Stigler and James Hiebert explain, is that most efforts to improve education fail because they simply don't have any impact on the quality of teaching inside classrooms. Teaching, they argue, is cultural. American teachers aren't incompetent, but the methods they use are severely limited, and American teaching has no system in place for getting better. It is teaching, not teachers, that must be changed.
In The Teaching Gap, the authors draw on the conclusions of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) -- an innovative new study of teaching in several cultures -- to refocus educational reform efforts. Using videotaped lessons from dozens of randomly selected eighth-grade classrooms in the United States, Japan, and Germany, the authors reveal the rich, yet unfulfilled promise of American teaching and document exactly how other countries have consistently stayed ahead of us in the rate their children learn. Our schools can be restructured as places where teachers can engage in career-long learning and classrooms can become laboratories for developing new, teaching-centered ideas. If provided the time they need during the school day for collaborative lesson study and plan building, teachers will change the way our students learn.
James Stigler and James Hiebert have given us nothing less than a "best practices" for teachers -- one that offers proof that how teachers teach is far more important than increased spending, state-of-the-art facilities, mandatory homework, or special education -- and a plan for change that educators, teachers, and parents can implement together.
Classroom management is much more than controlling misbehaving students; it is about building “good” people who can make ethical decisions in both school and personal situations. Teachers are in “loco parentis,” which means they are in place of the parent. As role models, teachers need their students to learn – not just subject-specific content – but how to interact in kind and respectful ways with others. As author, I will be discussing how teachers can implement a “virtuous” classroom management plan in place of the common discipline routines that have only short term effects on student behavior.
Making lesson plans, grading homework, and assessing students with daily exit slips are all very important aspects of teaching. But if not handled efficiently, they can overwhelm new teachers by the sheer volume of time that is needed to attend to them. It is all too common to see a time-stressed and exhausted teacher who is only getting a few hours of sleep each day, lose sight of the reasons they entered teaching and eventually fall out of love with their subject and those they teach. This book will tackle head on the above demands by posing many detailed, practical solutions to time management problems.
Most young teachers, however talented they might be, won’t survive in a school that is run by an authoritarian administration that cares more about pass rates than they do supporting and growing their new teachers. Identifying these schools before accepting a position is critical. This book will show you how to use data bases to supplement my well described job hunting strategies in order to land the best teaching position possible. As I emphasize in my book, getting a good quality job is tantamount to developing a rewarding career as a teacher.
Classroom management, time management, and job hunting: these are three necessary skills to survive and to thrive as a new teacher.
* The second section provides a unique model of lesson planning. This adaptable model helps teachers prepare organized routines to make classes more effective and easier to prepare. Includes activities for discussion, giving instructions, guided and less-guided practice, and independent practice.
* The third section includes downloadable, photocopiable worksheets for the activities described in the manual.
This book takes you step-by-step through many fun and educational possibilities. Take advantage of several preloaded programming languages. Use the Raspberry Pi with Arduino. Create Internet-connected projects. Play with multimedia. With Raspberry Pi, you can do all of this and more.Get acquainted with hardware features on the Pi’s board Learn enough Linux to move around the operating system Pick up the basics of Python and Scratch—and start programming Draw graphics, play sounds, and handle mouse events with the Pygame framework Use the Pi’s input and output pins to do some hardware hacking Discover how Arduino and the Raspberry Pi complement each other Integrate USB webcams and other peripherals into your projects Create your own Pi-based web server with Python
Our purpose in writing this book is to help educate and train a new generation of marketing managers. We aim to train marketing engineers to translate concepts into context-specific operational decisions and actions using analytical, quantitative, and computer modeling techniques. We link theory to practice and practice to theory.
A Note from the Author:
Dear Marketing Engineering Revised Edition 2 User:
The several editions of Marketing Engineering that we have published since 1998 have been aimed at a fairly narrow, somewhat technical audience interested in bringing more scientific rigor to the marketing discipline. Versions of that book were adopted by more than 150 business schools on five continents. In 2007 we published Principles of Marketing Engineering to reach a broader, less technical audience. A key complement of that book, in response to user feedback, was Marketing Engineering for Excel (ME>XL), i.e., our Marketing Engineering software as an Excel Add-in. The response to that effort has been extremely positive and we have abandoned the original Marketing Engineering software platform, the one that produced the software complement to previous editions of this book.
Hence, as the note on the cover indicates, software is not included with the book. More importantly, when we reference software in the book, those references refer to a version of the software that is no longer available.
"I am very excited about this book. Finally marketing can exhibit its scientific muscle and move from opinions-based decision making to data-based decision making. I think this is a very important book that will spawn a new discipline within marketing."
Philip Kotler, Northwestern University
When Cathy Davidson and Duke University gave free iPods to the freshman class in 2003, critics said they were wasting their money. Yet when students in practically every discipline invented academic uses for their music players, suddenly the idea could be seen in a new light-as an innovative way to turn learning on its head.
This radical experiment is at the heart of Davidson's inspiring new book. Using cutting-edge research on the brain, she shows how "attention blindness" has produced one of our society's greatest challenges: while we've all acknowledged the great changes of the digital age, most of us still toil in schools and workplaces designed for the last century. Davidson introduces us to visionaries whose groundbreaking ideas-from schools with curriculums built around video games to companies that train workers using virtual environments-will open the doors to new ways of working and learning. A lively hybrid of Thomas Friedman and Norman Doidge, Now You See It is a refreshingly optimistic argument for a bold embrace of our connected, collaborative future.
With effective communication as its theme, From Parent to Partner explores the reasons and basis for developing ongoing partnerships with parents and families of children in childcare settings and provides the tools and strategies to build the support network within which these partnerships thrive.
Like previous editions, the 3rd edition of Tools for Teaching: Discipline, Instruction, Motivation describes the specific skills of classroom management that increase learning while reducing teacher stress. Taken together, these skills provide the synergy required for both the primary prevention of discipline problems and a dramatic increase in teaching efficiency and time-on-task.
WHAT'S NEW IN THE 3RD EDITION?
The 3rd Edition includes the latest research on both successful teaching practices and the neuropsychology of skill building, as well as two completely new chapters.
Chapter 8: Say, See, Do Teaching, reviews the ground-breaking work of John Hattie, Ph.D. Dr. Hattie places the extensive outcome research regarding different teaching methodologies onto a common scale so that their effectiveness can be directly compared. Many of the sacred cows of education do not fair so well, whereas variations of Say, See Do Teaching do extremely well.
Chapter 20: Teaching Skills Efficiently, reviews the latest finds of neuropsychology concerning the amount of work needed to create mastery. Once again Say, See, Do Teaching leads the way. This new research provides critical information for teachers when making decisions about how to teach a given lesson.
In Design For How People Learn, Second Edition, you'll discover how to use the key principles behind learning, memory, and attention to create materials that enable your audience to both gain and retain the knowledge and skills you're sharing. Updated to cover new insights and research into how we learn and remember, this new edition includes new techniques for using social media for learning as well as two brand new chapters on designing for habit and best practices for evaluating learning, such as how and when to use tests. Using accessible visual metaphors and concrete methods and examples, Design For How People Learn, Second Edition will teach you how to leverage the fundamental concepts of instructional design both to improve your own learning and to engage your audience.
Laziness isn’t necessarily a bad thing but merely a condition that is natural to all human beings. Lack of efficiency and irresponsibility, on the other hand, can lead to many negative outcomes, not only with impact on the students but also on the career of the teacher.
It was thinking about laziness with efficiency that this book was created, so that teachers may achieve their expectations, but also teach properly, while not spending more than 5 minutes to prepare such classes.
In this book, the author reflects and compiles his15 years of experience as a teacher and lecturer in Europe and Asia, with multiple and different subjects, and in levels ranging from primary school to college. And also a background of extensive investigations on the topic of learning disabilities with highly positive results, as well as experiences as director in training companies and consultant, among many others. These tips, resume his best, most efficient and fastest ways to prepare a class.
The strategies are described in an abstract and wide perspective so that they may easily be applied for any topic of study and levels of teaching. And while not intending to promote laziness, but in fact help teachers prepare good classes in a quick form, and with different approaches, this book was created so that the results regarding the quality of the teaching, in any case, can be maintained.
Specific topics covered include establishing positive relationships between students and school librarians; characteristics of students in different grade levels; techniques that librarians can use for effectively managing students in the school library; ways to relate with diverse students, including students with special needs; managing students as they utilize technology in library settings; and designing a school library environment to avoid potential discipline problems.
Learn how to use and navigate Microsoft Office 365 a new revolutionary technology that allows users to work in the ‘virtual office’ in the cloud.
This visual guide covers the basics of the core applications. With plenty of screen prints, photographs and illustrations, this guide explores...What is the cloud? What is Office 365? What version to get, home, premium, student, professional etc Setting up a Microsoft Account Purchasing and Installing office 365 Applications Setting up and using Microsoft OneDrive: on PCs, iPads, tablets etc Office for Mobile Devices, type a document on the go with your iPad and sync it with your PC A look at the core office 365 applications Constructing professional looking documents with Word 2013 Creating presentations for your lessons, lectures, speeches or business presentations using PowerPoint 2013 Using Excel 2013 to create spreadsheets that analyse, present and manipulate data Keeping in touch with friends, family and colleagues using Microsoft Outlook 2013 Maintaining calendars and keeping appointments with Outlook Getting started with Microsoft Access databases and more...
Techniques are illustrated step by step using photography and screen prints throughout, together with concise, easy to follow text from an established expert in the field.
Nearly every week we read about a tragedy or scandal that could have been prevented if individuals had said no to ill-advised or illegitimate orders. In this timely book, Ira Chaleff explores when and how to disobey inappropriate orders, reduce unacceptable risk, and find better ways to achieve legitimate goals.
The inspiration for the book, and its title, comes from the concept of intelligent disobedience used in guide dog training. Guide dogs must recognize and resist a command that would put their human and themselves at risk and identify safer options for achieving the goal. This is precisely what Chaleff helps humans do. Using both deeply disturbing and uplifting examples, as well as critical but largely forgotten research, he shows how to create a culture where, rather than “just following orders,” people hold themselves accountable to do the right thing, always.
WHY does she flap her hands?
And WHAT should I do??
As inclusion becomes the norm in general education, teachers are faced with behaviors they have never seen before. Special needs educators may recognize the telltale symptom of a sensory need or a textbook-case of an avoidance behavior, but this is all new territory for the general-ed crowd!
Written by Director of Special Education Peter Gennaro, occupational therapist Beth Aune, and special needs mom and advocate Beth Burt, this book illuminates possible causes of those mysterious behaviors, and more importantly, provides solutions! Teachers can quickly look up an in-the-moment solution and learn about what the child is communicating, and why.
The authors collaboratively address problem behaviors such as:
Hiding or Running Away When Upset
Putting Head Down or "Shutting Down"
Difficulty with Class Work and Homework
Losing Materials and Missing Assignments
Not Following Directions
Saying Rude or Inappropriate Things
Difficulty Making Decisions
Laughing Excessively or Being Silly
Little or No Eye Contact
And many others!
Teachers, it is possible to accommodate learning differences and sustain a positive learning environment for ALL students. This book is a must-have for every inclusive classroom!
Written for educators of all disciplines, this third edition of a bestseller provides real examples from K–12 teachers around the world on how Web tools allow students to learn more, create more, and communicate better. Updated with materials on Web publishing and information literacy, this resource opens up a new toolbox for both novice and tech-savvy educators, with how-to steps for teaching with:Weblogs Wikis Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds and aggregators Social bookmarking Online photo galleries Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter
Along the way, you’ll discover new ways to explore math and gain valuable programming skills that you’ll use throughout your study of math and computer science. Learn how to:
-Describe your data with statistics, and visualize it with line graphs, bar charts, and scatter plots
-Explore set theory and probability with programs for coin flips, dicing, and other games of chance
-Solve algebra problems using Python’s symbolic math functions
-Draw geometric shapes and explore fractals like the Barnsley fern, the Sierpinski triangle, and the Mandelbrot set
-Write programs to find derivatives and integrate functions
Creative coding challenges and applied examples help you see how you can put your new math and coding skills into practice. You’ll write an inequality solver, plot gravity’s effect on how far a bullet will travel, shuffle a deck of cards, estimate the area of a circle by throwing 100,000 “darts” at a board, explore the relationship between the Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio, and more.
Whether you’re interested in math but have yet to dip into programming or you’re a teacher looking to bring programming into the classroom, you’ll find that Python makes programming easy and practical. Let Python handle the grunt work while you focus on the math.
Babies' young minds and eyes are captivated by ten bold, vivid, and engaging high-contrast images that show each digit zero through nine in the corresponding color with a related abstract shape.
Toddlers can use the images in the book to begin to familiarize themselves with numbers and colors, while at the same time forming the number-color associations of the resistor color code.
For older children, a unique nursery rhyme to go along with each image will further reinforce the association, while at the same time developing language and memory skills.
Possessed by a fierce idealism, Esquith works even harder than his students. As an outspoken maverick of public education (his heroes include Huck Finn and Atticus Finch), he admits to significant mistakes and heated fights with administrators and colleagues. We all—teachers, parents, citizens—have much to learn from his candor and uncompromising vision.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
There’s no one teachers trust more to give them classroom advice than Rafe Esquith. After more than thirty years on the job, Esquith still puts in the countless classroom hours familiar to every dedicated educator. But where his New York Times bestseller Teach Like Your Hair’s on Fire was food for a teacher’s mind, Real Talk for Real Teachers is food for a teacher’s soul.
Esquith candidly tackles the three stages of life for the career teacher and offers encouragement to see them through the difficult early years, advice on mid-career classroom building, and novel ideas for longtime educators. With his trademark mix of humor, practicality, and boundless compassion, Esquith proves the perfect companion for teachers who need a quick pick-me-up, a long heart-to-heart, or just a momentary reminder that they’re not alone.
Before bullying surfaces in your school, you need to be ready. This book is organized so you can find the answers you need to make meaningful changes in the way you prevent and respond to bullying.
The authors know the challenges educators face. Here they’ve distilled nearly 15 years of research into bite-sized chapters, with strategies and real-world examples to put ideas into action. You’ll learn: How to distinguish bullying from other hurtful behaviors The connection between cyberbullying and in-person bullying Responses that work—and ones that don’t Prevention strategies to put in place now
Inspiring thoughtful discussion that leads to change, this reader-friendly resource examines how the new digital landscape is transforming teaching and learning in an environment of standards, accountability, and high-stakes testing and why informed leadership is so critical. The authors present powerful strategies and compelling viewpoints, underscore the necessity of developing relevant classroom experiences, and discuss:Attributes common among digital learners The concepts of neuroplasticity and the hyperlinked mind An educational approach that supports traditional literacy skills alongside 21st-century fluencies Evaluation methods that encompass how digital generation students process new information
The Handbook of Classroom Management has four primary goals: 1) to clarify the term classroom management; 2) to demonstrate to scholars and practitioners that there is a distinct body of knowledge that directly addresses teachers’ managerial tasks; 3) to bring together disparate lines of research and encourage conversations across different areas of inquiry; and 4) to promote a vigorous agenda for future research in this area. To this end, 47 chapters have been organized into 10 sections, each chapter written by a recognized expert in that area. Cutting across the sections and chapters are the following themes:
*First, positive teacher-student relationships are seen as the very core of effective classroom management.
*Second, classroom management is viewed as a social and moral curriculum.
*Third, external reward and punishment strategies are not seen as optimal for promoting academic and social-emotional growth and self-regulated behavior.
*Fourth, to create orderly, productive environments teachers must take into account student characteristics such as age, developmental level, race, ethnicity, cultural background, socioeconomic status, and ableness.
Like other research handbooks, the Handbook of Classroom Management provides an indispensable reference volume for scholars, teacher educators, in-service practitioners, and the academic libraries serving these audiences. It is also appropriate for graduate courses wholly or partly devoted to the study of classroom management.
There is also a small troubleshooter section in Chapter 3 of this book, with things to check if anything ever goes wrong. We also provide links to external websites to troubleshoot your Chromecast in more depth.
We have input a small key to make it easier to follow depending on your devices.
A: = PC, Mac or Chromebook.
B: = iphone, ipad or Android device.
We hope you find this book extremely useful, and thanks again for purchasing How to use a Chromecast by Kieron “Chromecast Apps” Phillips and Conrad “Chromecast Guide” Jackson.
Using classroom and curricular examples, this book sets out to show how both trainee and practising teachers can identify their own ‘X-Factor’ in order to help transform their perspectives and perceptions of themselves during the ‘live act’ of teaching. The book demonstrates how teachers can transform the way in which they connect with their students, whilst also creating meaningful and potent learning experiences for them. White and Gardner show that by following simple methods borrowed from psychology and cognitive science teachers can develop their own ‘X-Factor’ and in so doing increase their enjoyment and efficacy as professionals. The techniques described include some of the following:
Facial and vocal expression
Gesture and body language
Eye contact and smiling
Teacher attire, colour and the use of space
Nonverbal communication and pedagogical approaches
In addition, the book provides a section containing fictional stories that aim to contextualise the findings detailed throughout the text. The inclusion of chapter summaries, questions aimed at identifying the readers’ own ‘X-Factor’, lesson exemplars and a user-friendly self-evaluation framework all work together to make the book a stimulating and easy read where reflective learning and the practical application of classroom techniques are the order of the day.
This comprehensive guide to developing the classroom X-Factor within you will be of value to teaching and learning and is of immense use to both practising and student teachers and to schools seeking to develop models of reflective practice. It will also be of interest to curriculum and assessment agencies, policy makers, academics and others whose roles involve the design, provision, support and evaluation of teachers’ efficacy in the classroom.
Step-by-step instructions and lush photographs take educators through the process of transforming ordinary classrooms into creative, beautiful learning spaces, providing children with an environment where they can learn and grow.
With easy-to-implement ideas that incorporate nature, children’s artwork, and everyday classroom materials, the photographs and ideas in this book promote creativity, learning, and simple beauty.
Now revised and updated, T.E.T. can mean the difference between an unproductive, disruptive classroom and a cooperative, productive environment in which students flourish and teachers feel rewarded.
You will learn:
• What to do when students give you problems
• How to talk so that students will listen
• How to resolve conflicts so no one loses and no one gets hurt
• How to best help students when they’re having a problem
• How to set classroom rules so that far less enforcement is necessary
• How to increase teaching and learning time
From the Trade Paperback edition.
It's a no-brainer! You'll learn how to:Create design mockups that meet the project goals Add images and multimedia with HTML Style text, lists, links, and forms with CSS Integrate HTML and CSS for layout Improve your site's search engine ranking Code HTML for e-mail
Simple enough for a beginner, but challenging enough for an intermediate user, Web Design Demystified gives you the tools you need to create successful websites.
An inspiring environment is essential for helping young children learn. The Rating Observation Scale for Inspiring Environments(ROSIE) is an observation rating scale that challenges teachers to examine classrooms in a totally new way: with an eye for what is aesthetically beautiful and inspiring.
Looking through an aesthetic lens of nature, color, furnishings, textures, displays, lighting, and focal points, educators will learn to determine a classroom’s level of aesthetic beauty. ROSIE then provides images and examples to assist in turning learning spaces into inspirational environments in which children can grow and learn.
"If you only have time to read one book about managing student behavior, make it this one."
"This book is a great resource for new teachers and veteran teachers."
The fastest way to get back to what you love--teaching!
Being a teacher can be one of the most rewarding professions, but also one of the most frustrating. Many teachers feel very prepared to instruct students in their chosen subjects, but don't have quite as much training in managing classroom discipline-yet experienced educators know that if challenging behavior goes unchecked, the entire year can be disrupted. 1-2-3 Magic in the Classroom shows teachers how to establish and maintain good discipline habits in their classrooms through an easy-to-understand program that you'll swear "works like magic."
1-2-3 Magic in the Classroom will help you understand:
• How to encourage courteous classroom behavior and constructive work habits
• How your personality affects your teaching style
• How to effectively manage transition times with your class
• Successful methods for handling assemblies, recess, lunchtime, and field trips
• How to communicate productively with parents
1-2-3 Magic in the Classroom takes the guesswork out of classroom discipline and will help you get back to teaching and your students get back to learning-today!
Learn to create apps using simplified interactive image sprites and to control movement using a finger on the screen or by tilting the phone or tablet. Learn how to use the "Canvas" features for drawing, including a unique way to implement traditional animation features.
Includes numerous sample apps, detailed explanations, illustrations, app source code downloads and video tutorials.
Volume 4 introduces the use of graphics drawing features, including general graphics features, image sprites, animation and charting. Charting refers to the creation of line, column, scatter plot, and strip recorder charts commonly used in business and finance.
This is volume 4 of a 4 volume set. Volume 1 introduces App Inventor programming, Volume 2 introduces advanced features and Volume 3 covers databases and files.
Visit the web site at appinventor.pevest.com to learn more about App Inventor and find more tutorials, resources, links to App Inventor books and other App Inventor web sites.
Have you just got your hands on one of these beautiful machines and don’t know where to start? Do you want to learn how to get more creative with it and create actual songs? Or do you want to become a Pocket Operator master? Then this book is for you.
Some of the topics that this book will cover is:
Tweaking a sound
Mastering the Mini drum machine
Making a song
Backing up patterns
Playing in different keys/scales
How to sync the PO-14 with external gear
Explanation of parameters
So what are you waiting for? Time to master your Pocket Operator!
Many entry level instructional designers and students enrolled in related academic programs indicate they are better prepared to accomplish the challenging work of creating effective training and education materials after they have a thorough understanding of the ADDIE principles. However, a survey of instructional development applications indicate that the overwhelming majority of instructional design models are based on ADDIE, often do not present the ADDIE origins as part of their content, and are poorly applied by people unfamiliar with the ADDIE paradigm.
The purpose of this book is to focus on fundamental ADDIE principles, written with a minimum of professional jargon. This is not an attempt to debate scholars or other educational professionals on the finer points of instructional design, however, the book's content is based on sound doctrine and supported by valid empirical research. The only bias toward the topic is that generic terms will be used as often as possible in order to make it easy for the reader to apply the concepts in the book to other specific situations.