What does E=mc2 actually mean? Dr. Brian Cox and Professor Jeff Forshaw go on a journey to the frontier of twenty-first century science to unpack Einstein's famous equation. Explaining and simplifying notions of energy, mass, and light-while exploding commonly held misconceptions-they demonstrate how the structure of nature itself is contained within this equation. Along the way, we visit the site of one of the largest scientific experiments ever conducted: the now-famous Large Hadron Collider, a gigantic particle accelerator capable of re-creating conditions that existed fractions of a second after the Big Bang.A collaboration between one of the youngest professors in the United Kingdom and a distinguished popular physicist, Why Does E=mc2? is one of the most exciting and accessible explanations of the theory of relativity.
Timeless and collectible, the lectures are essential reading, not just for students of physics but for anyone seeking an introduction to the field from the inimitable Feynman.
Particle physics as we know it depends on the Higgs boson: It’s the missing link between the birth of our universe—as a sea of tiny, massless particles—and the tangible world we live in today. But for more than 50 years, scientists wondered: Does it exist?
Physicist Jon Butterworth was at the frontlines of the hunt for the Higgs at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider—perhaps the most ambitious experiment in history. In Most Wanted Particle, he gives us the first inside account of that uncertain time, when an entire field hinged on a single particle, and life at the cutting edge of science meant media scrutiny, late-night pub debates, dispiriting false starts in the face of intense pressure, and countless hours at the collider itself. As Butterworth explains, our first glimpse of the elusive Higgs brings us a giant step closer to understanding the universe—and points the way to an entirely new kind of physics.
In Life’s Ratchet, physicist Peter M. Hoffmann locates the answer to this age-old question at the nanoscale. The complex molecules of our cells can rightfully be called “molecular machines,” or “nanobots”; these machines, unlike any other, work autonomously to create order out of chaos. Tiny electrical motors turn electrical voltage into motion, tiny factories custom-build other molecular machines, and mechanical machines twist, untwist, separate and package strands of DNA. The cell is like a city—an unfathomable, complex collection of molecular worker bees working together to create something greater than themselves.
Life, Hoffman argues, emerges from the random motions of atoms filtered through the sophisticated structures of our evolved machinery. We are essentially giant assemblies of interacting nanoscale machines; machines more amazing than can be found in any science fiction novel. Incredibly, the molecular machines in our cells function without a mysterious “life force,” nor do they violate any natural laws. Scientists can now prove that life is not supernatural, and that it can be fully understood in the context of science.
Part history, part cutting-edge science, part philosophy, Life’s Ratchet takes us from ancient Greece to the laboratories of modern nanotechnology to tell the story of our quest for the machinery of life.
“A modern voyage of discovery.” —Frank Wilczek, Nobel Laureate, author of The Lightness of Being
The Higgs boson is one of our era’s most fascinating scientific frontiers and the key to understanding why mass exists. The most recent book on the subject, The God Particle, was a bestseller. Now, Caltech physicist Sean Carroll documents the doorway that is opening—after billions of dollars and the efforts of thousands of researchers at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland—into the mind-boggling world of dark matter. The Particle at the End of the Universe has it all: money and politics, jealousy and self-sacrifice, history and cutting-edge physics—all grippingly told by a rising star of science writing.
You will follow your oxygen atoms through fire and water and from forests to your fingernails. Hydrogen atoms will wriggle into your hair and betray where you live and what you have been drinking. The carbon in your breath will become tree trunks, and the sodium in your tears will link you to long-dead oceans. The nitrogen in your muscles will help to turn the sky blue, the phosphorus in your bones will help to turn the coastal waters of North Carolina green, the calcium in your teeth will crush your food between atoms that were mined by mushrooms, and the iron in your blood will kill microbes as it once killed a star.
You will also discover that much of what death must inevitably do to your body is already happening among many of your atoms at this very moment and that, nonetheless, you and everyone else you know will always exist somewhere in the fabric of the universe.
You are not only made of atoms; you are atoms, and this book, in essence, is an atomic field guide to yourself.
Since the first edition only five years ago, the simulation world has changed significantly -- current techniques have matured and new ones have appeared. This new edition deals with these new developments; in particular, there are sections on:Transition path sampling and diffusive barrier crossing to simulaterare eventsDissipative particle dynamic as a course-grained simulation techniqueNovel schemes to compute the long-ranged forcesHamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian dynamics in the context constant-temperature and constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulationsMultiple-time step algorithms as an alternative for constraintsDefects in solidsThe pruned-enriched Rosenbluth sampling, recoil-growth, and concerted rotations for complex moleculesParallel tempering for glassy Hamiltonians
Examples are included that highlight current applications and the codes of case studies are available on the World Wide Web. Several new examples have been added since the first edition to illustrate recent applications. Questions are included in this new edition. No prior knowledge of computer simulation is assumed.
As computer chips continue to shrink in size, scientists anticipate the end of the road: A computer in which each switch is comprised of a single atom. Such a device would operate under a different set of physical laws: The laws of quantum mechanics. Johnson gently leads the curious outsider through the surprisingly simple ideas needed to understand this dream, discussing the current state of the revolution, and ultimately assessing the awesome power these machines could have to change our world.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions as well as further supplementary material available free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website.
Part one provides an introduction to quantum information processing using diamond, as well as its principles and fabrication techniques. Part two outlines experimental demonstrations of quantum information processing using diamond, and the emerging applications of diamond for quantum information science. It contains chapters on quantum key distribution, quantum microscopy, the hybridization of quantum systems, and building quantum optical devices. Part three outlines promising directions and future trends in diamond technologies for quantum information processing and sensing.
Quantum Information Processing with Diamond is a key reference for R&D managers in industrial sectors such as conventional electronics, communication engineering, computer science, biotechnology, quantum optics, quantum mechanics, quantum computing, quantum cryptology, and nanotechnology, as well as academics in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering.Brings together the topics of diamond and quantum information processingLooks at applications such as quantum computing, neural circuits, and in vivo monitoring of processes at the molecular scale
The text presents meaningful problems by topic — supplemented by ample illustrations, applications, and exercises — that address the most intriguing questions of modern physics. Answers to selected problems appear in the appendix. Geared toward science and engineering majors, this volume is also appropriate for independent study by those who have completed a general physics course.
This book will be mandatory reading for anyone working on the foundations of modern devices such as free electron lasers, plasma accelerators, synchroton sources and other modern sources of bright, coherent radiation with high spectral density.
Divided into five parts, the book begins with discussions on group and field theories. The second part summarizes the standard model of particle physics and includes some extensions to the model, such as neutrino masses and CP violation. The next section focuses on grand unified theories and supersymmetry. The book then discusses the general theory of relativity, higher dimensional theories of gravity, and superstring theory. It also introduces various novel ideas and models with extra dimensions and low-scale gravity. The last part of the book deals with astroparticle physics. After an introduction to cosmology, it covers several specialized topics, including baryogenesis, dark matter, dark energy, and brane cosmology.
With numerous equations and detailed references, this lucid book explores the new physics beyond the standard model, showing that particle and astroparticle physics will together reveal unique insights in the next era of physics.
This book presents an overview of the technological advances that have occurred since the publication of the Editors earlier book High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: The Physical Basis. In this latest book, contributions from internationally recognized professionals and researchers in the field provide expanded treatment of the practical aspects of the subject. High Voltage Vacuum Insulation: Basic Concepts and Technological Practice provides a modern working manual for this specialized technology that is generic to a wide range of applications. The format makes the text suitable for use as a basis for special topic lecture courses at either the undergraduate or graduate level.Provides the fundamental physical concepts of the subjectFocuses on practical applicationsGives a historical survey of the fieldIncludes a detailed account of system design criteriaReviews theoretical models developed to explain the pinhole phenomenaPresents results of a series of experimental investigations on the subject
In order to be able to reflect the development of today's science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, starting with Volume 20, has moved beyond the basic physics of thin films. It now addresses the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Therefore, in order to reflect the modern technology-oriented problems, the title has been slightly modified from Physics of Thin Films to Thin Films.
This volume, part of the Thin Films Series, has been wholly written by two authors instead of showcasing several edited manuscripts.
This book is composed of seven chapters, and begins with an introduction to the general concepts of time dependent flow, including induced current, the techniques of linearization, calculating variational transit time, and obtaining equivalent circuits. The following chapters present the classical linear analysis, which includes the space-charge effects, with several applications. These chapters also explore the existence of a maximum stable current in a space-charge limited diode. The discussion then shifts to the basics of high velocity, klystron, gap with nonuniform field distributions, and the application of the multicavity klystron. This text further covers the analysis and examples of crossed-field gaps. The final chapters deal with the fundamentals of velocity and current distributions obtained from common electron emitters, with some attempt to show how the multivelocity streams evolve into single-velocity equivalents needed for the methods of earlier chapters. Results of applying the Lagrangian starting analysis to semiconductor diode regions, necessarily from a new equation of motion, are also provided.
This book is intended for graduate courses, seminars, and research studies.
John Dalton gave us the first picture of the atom in the early 1800s. Almost 100 years later the young misfit New Zealander, Ernest Rutherford, showed the atom consisted mostly of space, and in doing so overturned centuries of classical science. It was a brilliant Dane, Neils Bohr, who made the next great leap - into the incredible world of quantum theory. Yet, he and a handful of other revolutionary young scientists weren't prepared for the shocks Nature had up her sleeve.
This ‘insightful, compelling’ book (New Scientist) reveals the mind-bending discoveries that were destined to upset everything we thought we knew about reality and unleash a dangerous new force upon the world. Even today, as we peer deeper and deeper into the atom, it throws back as many questions at us as answers.
The truth is that Janssen never saw any sign of a new element during his observations in India. His reports and letters do not mention any such claim.
Other sources would have you believe that helium was jointly discovered by Janssen and Norman Lockyer, a British scientist, and that their discovery letters reached Paris the same day, one sent from India, and the other from England.
Again, the truth is completely different. Two letters from Lockyer and Janssen did reach Paris the same day in 1868, but their letters did not mention any new element. What they had discovered was a new way of observing the Sun without a solar eclipse. This would ultimately lead to the discovery of helium, in which Lockyer would play a prominent role, but not Janssen.
At the same time, Norman Robert Pogson, a disgruntled British astronomer stationed in India did notice something peculiar during the eclipse. He was the first one to notice something odd about the spectrum of the Sun that day, and his observations would prove crucial to Lockyer’s own investigations of helium. But Pogson’s report was never published in any peer reviewed journal and it languished on the desk of a local British officer in colonial India.
This book tells the real story behind the discovery of helium, along with biographical sketches of the scientists and descriptions of the milieu in which they worked. It will convey the excitement, confusion, and passion of nineteenth century scientists, using their own words, from their letters and reports.
“The Story of Helium and the Birth of Astrophysics” chronicles one of the most exciting discoveries ever made and explains why it also marked the birth of a new branch of science called ‘astrophysics.’
• It took more than an iceberg to sink the Titanic.
• The Challenger disaster was predicted.
• Unbreakable glass dinnerware had its origin in railroad lanterns.
• A football team cannot lose momentum.
• Mercury thermometers are prohibited on airplanes for a crucial reason.
• Kryptonite bicycle locks are easily broken.
“Things fall apart” is more than a poetic insight—it is a fundamental property of the physical world. Why Things Break explores the fascinating question of what holds things together (for a while), what breaks them apart, and why the answers have a direct bearing on our everyday lives.
When Mark Eberhart was growing up in the 1960s, he learned that splitting an atom leads to a terrible explosion—which prompted him to worry that when he cut into a stick of butter, he would inadvertently unleash a nuclear cataclysm. Years later, as a chemistry professor, he remembered this childhood fear when he began to ponder the fact that we know more about how to split an atom than we do about how a pane of glass breaks.
In Why Things Break, Eberhart leads us on a remarkable and entertaining exploration of all the cracks, clefts, fissures, and faults examined in the field of materials science and the many astonishing discoveries that have been made about everything from the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger to the crashing of your hard drive. Understanding why things break is crucial to modern life on every level, from personal safety to macroeconomics, but as Eberhart reveals here, it is also an area of cutting-edge science that is as provocative as it is illuminating.
From the Hardcover edition.
The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
The overall layout of the book is similar to that of the previous two editions however, there are considerable changes in emphasis and several key additions including:
•up-to-date presentation of modern theories of liquid-vapour coexistence and criticality
•areas of considerable present and future interest such as super-cooled liquids and the glass transition
•the area of liquid metals, which has grown into a mature subject area, now presented as part of the chapter ionic liquids
•Provides cutting-edge research in the principles of liquid-state theory
•Includes frequent comparisons of theoretical predictions with experimental and simulation data
•Suitable for researchers and post-graduates in the field of condensed matter science (Physics, Chemistry, Material Science), biophysics as well as those in the oil industry
The selection and organization of the material is in a form to prepare the reader to reason independently and to deal just as independently with available theoretical results and experimental data. The subjects dealt with include:
- electronic transport theory based on the test-particle and correlation-function concepts;
- scattering by phonons, impurities, surfaces, magnons, dislocations, electron-electron scattering and electron temperature;
- two-phonon scattering, spin-flip scattering, scattering in degenerate and many-band models.
This book also:
Offers an in-depth look, from introductory basics to experimental simulation, of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement, an emerging method for generating fusion power
Discusses how the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement method can be applied to other applications besides fusion through theoretical experiments in the text
Details the study of the physics of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement in small-volume plasmas and suggests that their rapid reproduction could lead to the creation of a large-scale power-producing device
Perfect for researchers and students working with nuclear fusion, Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion: Fundamentals and Applications also offers the current experimental status of IEC research, details supporting theories in the field and introduces other potential applications that stem from IEC.
CMOS Processors and Memories is divided into two parts: processors and memories. In the first part we start with high performance, low power processor design, followed by a chapter on multi-core processing. They both represent state-of-the-art concepts in current computing industry. The third chapter deals with asynchronous design that still carries lots of promise for future computing needs. At the end we present a “hardware design space exploration” methodology for implementing and analyzing the hardware for the Bayesian inference framework. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational cost and exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology CMOL. The first part concludes with hybrid CMOS-Nano architectures.
The second, memory part covers state-of-the-art SRAM, DRAM, and flash memories as well as emerging device concepts. Semiconductor memory is a good example of the full custom design that applies various analog and logic circuits to utilize the memory cell’s device physics. Critical physical effects that include tunneling, hot electron injection, charge trapping (Flash memory) are discussed in detail. Emerging memories like FRAM, PRAM and ReRAM that depend on magnetization, electron spin alignment, ferroelectric effect, built-in potential well, quantum effects, and thermal melting are also described.
CMOS Processors and Memories is a must for anyone serious about circuit design for future computing technologies. The book is written by top notch international experts in industry and academia. It can be used in graduate course curriculum.
Intended for science and engineering students with one year of introductory physics background, this textbook presents the medical applications of fundamental principles of physics to students who are considering careers in medical physics, biophysics, medicine, or nuclear engineering. It also serves as an excellent reference for advanced students, as well as medical and health researchers, practitioners, and technicians who are interested in developing the background required to understand the changing landscape of medical science. Practice exercises are included and solutions are available separately in an instructor's manual.
Complete discussion of the fundamental physical principles underlying modern medicineAccessible exploration of the physics encountered in a typical visit to a doctorPractice exercises are included and solutions are provided in a separate instructor’s manual (available to professors)A companion website (modernphysicsinmedicine.com) presents supplementary materials