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The first chapter consists of a rather explicit description of a canonical basis for the Abelian differentials on a marked Riemann surface, and of the description of the canonical meromorphic differentials and the prime function of a marked Riemann surface. Chapter 2 treats Jacobi varieties of compact Riemann surfaces and various subvarieties that arise in determining the dimensions of spaces of holomorphic cross-sections of complex line bundles. In Chapter 3, the author discusses the relations between Jacobi varieties and symmetric products of Riemann surfaces relevant to the determination of dimensions of spaces of holomorphic cross-sections of complex line bundles. The final chapter derives Torelli's theorem following A. Weil, but in an analytical context.

Originally published in 1973.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Originally published in 1971.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Originally published in 1978.

The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

The Essentials For Dummies Series

Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.

Slay the calculus monster with this user-friendly guide

Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition makes calculus manageable—even if you're one of the many students who sweat at the thought of it. By breaking down differentiation and integration into digestible concepts, this guide helps you build a stronger foundation with a solid understanding of the big ideas at work. This user-friendly math book leads you step-by-step through each concept, operation, and solution, explaining the "how" and "why" in plain English instead of math-speak. Through relevant instruction and practical examples, you'll soon learn that real-life calculus isn't nearly the monster it's made out to be.

Calculus is a required course for many college majors, and for students without a strong math foundation, it can be a real barrier to graduation. Breaking that barrier down means recognizing calculus for what it is—simply a tool for studying the ways in which variables interact. It's the logical extension of the algebra, geometry, and trigonometry you've already taken, and Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition proves that if you can master those classes, you can tackle calculus and win.

Includes foundations in algebra, trigonometry, and pre-calculus concepts Explores sequences, series, and graphing common functions Instructs you how to approximate area with integration Features things to remember, things to forget, and things you can't get away withStop fearing calculus, and learn to embrace the challenge. With this comprehensive study guide, you'll gain the skills and confidence that make all the difference. Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition provides a roadmap for success, and the backup you need to get there.

A unique feature of the book is its emphasis on applications. These include mechanical vibrations, lasers, biological rhythms, superconducting circuits, insect outbreaks, chemical oscillators, genetic control systems, chaotic waterwheels, and even a technique for using chaos to send secret messages. In each case, the scientific background is explained at an elementary level and closely integrated with mathematical theory.

In the twenty years since the first edition of this book appeared, the ideas and techniques of nonlinear dynamics and chaos have found application to such exciting new fields as systems biology, evolutionary game theory, and sociophysics. This second edition includes new exercises on these cutting-edge developments, on topics as varied as the curiosities of visual perception and the tumultuous love dynamics in Gone With the Wind.

Fortunately for you, there's Schaum's.

More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills.

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1,370 fully solved problems Complete review of all course fundamentals Clear, concise explanations of all Advanced Calculus conceptsFully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time--and get your best test scores!

Topics include: Numbers; Sequences; Functions, Limits, and Continuity; Derivatives; Integrals; Partial Derivatives; Vectors; Applications of Partial Derivatives; Multiple Integrals; Line Integrals, Surface Integrals, and Integral Theorems; Infinite Series; Improper Integrals; Fourier Series; Fourier Integrals; Gamma and Beta Functions; and Functions of a Complex Variable

Schaum's Outlines--Problem Solved.

1001 Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Calculus For Dummies, giving you 1001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in your calculus course. Plus, an online component provides you with a collection of calculus problems presented in multiple-choice format to further help you test your skills as you go.

Gives you a chance to practice and reinforce the skills you learn in your calculus course Helps you refine your understanding of calculus Practice problems with answer explanations that detail every step of every problemThe practice problems in 1001 Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies range in areas of difficulty and style, providing you with the practice help you need to score high at exam time.

The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several variables: the space of several variables and continuous functions, differentiation, multiple integrals, and line and surface integrals, concluding with a selection of related topics. Complete solutions to the problems appear at the end of the text.

"The main object of this book is to dispel the fear of mathematics," declares author W. W. Sawyer, adding that "Many people regard mathematicians as a race apart, possessed of almost supernatural powers. While this is very flattering for successful mathematicians, it is very bad for those who, for one reason or another, are attempting to learn the subject." Now retired, Sawyer won international renown for his innovative teaching methods, which he used at colleges in England and Scotland as well as Africa, New Zealand, and North America. His insights into the pleasures and practicalities of mathematics will appeal to readers of all backgrounds.

Want to "know it ALL" when it comes to calculus? This book gives you the expert, one-on-one instruction you need, whether you're new to calculus or you're looking to ramp up your skills. Providing easy-to-understand concepts and thoroughly explained exercises, math whiz Stan Gibilisco serves as your own private tutor--without the expense! His clear, friendly guidance helps you tackle the concepts and problems that confuse you the most and work through them at your own pace.

Train your brain with ease! Calculus Know-It-ALL features:

Checkpoints to help you track your knowledge and skill level Problem/solution pairs and chapter-ending quizzes to reinforce learning Fully explained answers to all practice exercises A multiple-choice exam to prepare you for standardized tests "Extra Credit" and "Challenge" problems to stretch your mindStan's expert guidance gives you the know-how to:

Understand mappings, relations, and functions Calculate limits and determine continuity Differentiate and integrate functions Analyze graphs using first and second derivatives Define and evaluate inverse functions Use specialized integration techniques Determine arc lengths, surface areas, and solid volumes Work with multivariable functions Take college entrance examinations with confidence And much more!But while the importance of the calculus and mathematical analysis ― the core of modern mathematics ― cannot be overemphasized, the value of this first comprehensive critical history of the calculus goes far beyond the subject matter. This book will fully counteract the impression of laymen, and of many mathematicians, that the great achievements of mathematics were formulated from the beginning in final form. It will give readers a sense of mathematics not as a technique, but as a habit of mind, and serve to bridge the gap between the sciences and the humanities. It will also make abundantly clear the modern understanding of mathematics by showing in detail how the concepts of the calculus gradually changed from the Greek view of the reality and immanence of mathematics to the revised concept of mathematical rigor developed by the great 19th century mathematicians, which held that any premises were valid so long as they were consistent with one another. It will make clear the ideas contributed by Zeno, Plato, Pythagoras, Eudoxus, the Arabic and Scholastic mathematicians, Newton, Leibnitz, Taylor, Descartes, Euler, Lagrange, Cantor, Weierstrass, and many others in the long passage from the Greek "method of exhaustion" and Zeno's paradoxes to the modern concept of the limit independent of sense experience; and illuminate not only the methods of mathematical discovery, but the foundations of mathematical thought as well.

In addition to all the great material in our classic Cracking the AP Calculus AB Exam guide—which includes thorough content reviews, targeted test strategies, and access to AP Connect extras via our online portal—this edition includes extra exams, for a total of 6 full-length practice tests with complete answer explanations!

This book is an excellent value, providing more practice tests than any other major offering currently on the market.

Everything You Need to Know to Help Achieve a High Score.

• Up-to-date information on the new 2017 AP Calculus AB Exam

• Comprehensive content review for all test topics

• Engaging activities to help you critically assess your progress

• Access to AP Connect, our online portal for late-breaking news, exam updates, and more

Premium Practice to Help Achieve Excellence.

• 5 full-length practice tests in the book with detailed answer explanations

• 1 additional full-length practice test online with detailed answer explanations

• End-of-chapter and comprehensive unit drills

• Handy reference guide of key calculus formulas

Techniques That Actually Work.

• Tried-and-true strategies to help you avoid traps and beat the test

• Tips for pacing yourself and guessing logically

• Essential tactics to help you work smarter, not harder

This eBook edition has been optimized for on-screen viewing with cross-linked questions, answers, and explanations.

The author first applies the necessary mathematical background, including sets, inequalities, absolute value, mathematical induction, and other "precalculus" material. Chapter Two begins the actual study of differential calculus with a discussion of the key concept of function, and a thorough treatment of derivatives and limits. In Chapter Three differentiation is used as a tool; among the topics covered here are velocity, continuous and differentiable functions, the indefinite integral, local extrema, and concrete optimization problems. Chapter Four treats integral calculus, employing the standard definition of the Riemann integral, and deals with the mean value theorem for integrals, the main techniques of integration, and improper integrals. Chapter Five offers a brief introduction to differential equations and their applications, including problems of growth, decay, and motion. The final chapter is devoted to the differential calculus of functions of several variables.

Numerous problems and answers, and a newly added section of "Supplementary Hints and Answers," enable the student to test his grasp of the material before going on. Concise and well written, this text is ideal as a primary text or as a refresher for anyone wishing to review the fundamentals of this crucial discipline.

The second edition preserves the book’s clear and concise style, illuminating discussions, and simple, well-motivated proofs. New topics include material on the irrationality of pi, the Baire category theorem, Newton's method and the secant method, and continuous nowhere-differentiable functions.

Review from the first edition:

"This book is intended for the student who has a good, but naïve, understanding of elementary calculus and now wishes to gain a thorough understanding of a few basic concepts in analysis.... The author has tried to write in an informal but precise style, stressing motivation and methods of proof, and ... has succeeded admirably."

—MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS

Equip yourself to ace the NEW AP Calculus BC Exam with The Princeton Review's comprehensive study guide—including thorough content reviews, targeted strategies for every question type, access to our AP Connect portal online, and 3 full-length practice tests with complete answer explanations.

The AP Calculus BC course and exam have changed! Created to align with the new exam content, and written by the experts at The Princeton Review, Cracking the AP Calculus BC Exam arms you to take on the test with:

Techniques That Actually Work.

• Tried-and-true strategies to avoid traps and beat the test

• Tips for pacing yourself and guessing logically

• Essential tactics to help you work smarter, not harder

Everything You Need to Know for a High Score.

• Up-to-date information on the revised 2017 AP Calculus BC Exam

• Comprehensive content review for all test topics

• Engaging activities to help you critically assess your progress

• Access to AP Connect, our online portal for late-breaking news, exam updates, and more

Practice Your Way to Excellence.

• 3 full-length practice tests with detailed answer explanations

• Practice drills throughout each content review chapter

• Step-by-step walk-throughs of key calculus formulas and sample questions

This eBook edition has been specially formatted for on-screen viewing with cross-linked questions, answers, and explanations.

Tensor Calculus contains eight chapters. The first four deal with the basic concepts of tensors, Riemannian spaces, Riemannian curvature, and spaces of constant curvature. The next three chapters are concerned with applications to classical dynamics, hydrodynamics, elasticity, electromagnetic radiation, and the theorems of Stokes and Green. In the final chapter, an introduction is given to non-Riemannian spaces including such subjects as affine, Weyl, and projective spaces. There are two appendixes which discuss the reduction of a quadratic form and multiple integration. At the conclusion of each chapter a summary of the most important formulas and a set of exercises are given. More exercises are scattered throughout the text. The special and general theory of relativity is briefly discussed where applicable.

The first part of this book covers simple differential calculus, with constants, variables, functions, increments, derivatives, differentiation, logarithms, curvature of curves, and similar topics. The second part covers fundamental ideas of integration (inspection, substitution, transformation, reduction) areas and volumes, mean value, successive and partial integration, double and triple integration. In all cases the author stresses practical aspects rather than theoretical, and builds upon such situations as might occur.

A 50-page section illustrates the application of calculus to specific problems of civil and nautical engineering, electricity, stress and strain, elasticity, industrial engineering, and similar fields. 756 questions answered. 566 problems to measure your knowledge and improvement; answers. 36 pages of useful constants, formulae for ready reference. Index.

Math textbooks can be as baffling as the subject they're teaching. Not anymore. The best-selling author of The Complete Idiot's Guide® to Calculus has taken what appears to be a typical calculus workbook, chock full of solved calculus problems, and made legible notes in the margins, adding missing steps and simplifying solutions. Finally, everything is made perfectly clear. Students will be prepared to solve those obscure problems that were never discussed in class but always seem to find their way onto exams.

--Includes 1,000 problems with comprehensive solutions

--Annotated notes throughout the text clarify what's being asked in each problem and fill in missing steps

--Kelley is a former award-winning calculus teacher

The principal aim of analysis of tensors is to investigate those relations which remain valid when we change from one coordinate system to another. This book on Tensors requires only a knowledge of elementary calculus, differential equations and classical mechanics as pre-requisites. It provides the readers with all the information about the tensors along with the derivation of all the tensorial relations/equations in a simple manner. The book also deals in detail with topics of importance to the study of special and general relativity and the geometry of differentiable manifolds with a crystal clear exposition. The concepts dealt within the book are well supported by a number of solved examples. A carefully selected set of unsolved problems is also given at the end of each chapter, and the answers and hints for the solution of these problems are given at the end of the book. The applications of tensors to the fields of differential geometry, relativity, cosmology and electromagnetism is another attraction of the present book.

This book is intended to serve as text for postgraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is ideally suited for both students and teachers who are engaged in research in General Theory of Relativity and Differential Geometry.

Fortunately for you, there's Schaum's Outlines. More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills.

This Schaum's Outline gives you:

Practice problems with full explanations that reinforce knowledge Coverage of the most up-to-date developments in your course field In-depth review of practices and applicationsFully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time-and get your best test scores!

Schaum's Outlines-Problem Solved.

- Teaches general principles that can be applied to a wide variety of problems.

- Avoids the mindless and excessive routine computations that characterize conventional textbooks.

- Treats algebra as a logically coherent discipline, not as a disjointed collection of techniques.

- Restores proofs to their proper place to remove doubt, convey insight, and encourage precise logical thinking.

- Omits digressions, excessive formalities, and repetitive exercises.

- Covers all the algebra needed to take a calculus course.

- Includes solutions to all problems.

Contents

1. A Few Basics

2. Exponents

3. Polynomials

4. Factoring

5. Linear & Quadratic Equations

6. Inequalities & Absolute Values

7. Coordinates in a Plane

8. Functions & Graphs

9. Straight Lines

10. Circles

11. Parabolas

12. Types of Functions

13. Logarithms

14. Dividing Polynomials

15. Systems of Linear Equations

16. Geometric Progressions & Series

17. Arithmetic Progressions

18. Permutation & Combinations

19. The Binomial Theorem

20. Mathematical Induction

21. Solutions

The first five chapters consist of a systematic development of many of the important properties of the real number system, plus detailed treatment of such concepts as mappings, sequences, limits, and continuity. The sixth and final chapter discusses metric spaces and generalizes many of the earlier concepts and results involving arbitrary metric spaces.

An index of axioms and key theorems appears at the end of the book, and more than 300 problems amplify and supplement the material within the text. Geared toward students who have taken several semesters of basic calculus, this volume is an ideal prerequisite for mathematics majors preparing for a two-semester course in advanced calculus.

"This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here."

(David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society)

"The book...is presented in a lively style without unnecessary detail. It is very stimulating and will be appreciated not only by students. Much attention is paid to problems and to the development of mathematics before the end of the nineteenth century... This book brings to the non-specialist interested in mathematics many interesting results. It can be recommended for seminars and will be enjoyed by the broad mathematical community."

(European Mathematical Society)

"Since Stillwell treats many topics, most mathematicians will learn a lot from this book as well as they will find pleasant and rather clear expositions of custom materials. The book is accessible to students that have already experienced calculus, algebra and geometry and will give them a good account of how the different branches of mathematics interact."

(Denis Bonheure, Bulletin of the Belgian Society)

This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and combinatorics, and new sections on several topics, including the Poincare conjecture. The book has also been enriched by added exercises.

- Real analysis, Complex analysis, Functional analysis, Lebesgue integration theory, Fourier analysis, Laplace analysis, Wavelet analysis, Differential equations, and Tensor analysis.

This book is essentially self-contained, and assumes only standard undergraduate preparation such as elementary calculus and linear algebra. It is thus well suited for graduate students in physics and engineering who are interested in theoretical backgrounds of their own fields. Further, it will also be useful for mathematics students who want to understand how certain abstract concepts in mathematics are applied in a practical situation. The readers will not only acquire basic knowledge toward higher-level mathematics, but also imbibe mathematical skills necessary for contemporary studies of their own fields.

-Review of limits, continuity, differentiability.

Mean Value Theorem, Taylor Theorem, Maxima and Minima.

Riemann integrals, Fundamental theorem of Calculus, Improper integrals, application to area,

volume.

Convergence of sequences and series, power series.

Partial Derivatives, gradient and directional derivatives, chain rule, maxima and minima,

Lagrange multipliers.

Double and triple integration, Jacobians and change of variables formula.

Parametrization of curves and surfaces, vector _elds, line and surface integrals. Divergence and

curl, theorems of Green, Gauss, Stokes.

Richard Courant's classic text Differential and Integral Calculus is an essential text for those preparing for a career in physics or applied math. Volume 1 introduces the foundational concepts of "function" and "limit", and offers detailed explanations that illustrate the "why" as well as the "how". Comprehensive coverage of the basics of integrals and differentials includes their applications as well as clearly-defined techniques and essential theorems. Multiple appendices provide supplementary explanation and author notes, as well as solutions and hints for all in-text problems.

"In the world of mathematics, the 1980's might well be described as the "decade of the fractal". Starting with Benoit Mandelbrot's remarkable text The Fractal Geometry of Nature, there has been a deluge of books, articles and television programmes about the beautiful mathematical objects, drawn by computers using recursive or iterative algorithms, which Mandelbrot christened fractals. Gerald Edgar's book is a significant addition to this deluge. Based on a course given to talented high- school students at Ohio University in 1988, it is, in fact, an advanced undergraduate textbook about the mathematics of fractal geometry, treating such topics as metric spaces, measure theory, dimension theory, and even some algebraic topology...the book also contains many good illustrations of fractals (including 16 color plates)."

Mathematics Teaching

"The book can be recommended to students who seriously want to know about the mathematical foundation of fractals, and to lecturers who want to illustrate a standard course in metric topology by interesting examples."

Christoph Bandt, Mathematical Reviews

"...not only intended to fit mathematics students who wish to learn fractal geometry from its beginning but also students in computer science who are interested in the subject. Especially, for the last students the author gives the required topics from metric topology and measure theory on an elementary level. The book is written in a very clear style and contains a lot of exercises which should be worked out."

H.Haase, Zentralblatt

About the second edition: Changes throughout the text, taking into account developments in the subject matter since 1990; Major changes in chapter 6. Since 1990 it has become clear that there are two notions of dimension that play complementary roles, so the emphasis on Hausdorff dimension will be replaced by the two: Hausdorff dimension and packing dimension. 6.1 will remain, but a new section on packing dimension will follow it, then the old sections 6.2--6.4 will be re-written to show both types of dimension; Substantial change in chapter 7: new examples along with recent developments; Sections rewritten to be made clearer and more focused.

Learn and review on the go!

Use Quick Review Calculus Notes to help you learn or brush up on the

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The normal physical laws like, transport theory, electrodynamics, equation of motions, elasticity, viscosity, and several others of are based on ‘ordinary’ calculus. In this book these physical laws are generalized in fractional calculus contexts; taking, heterogeneity effect in transport background, the space having traps or islands, irregular distribution of charges, non-ideal spring with mass connected to a pointless-mass ball, material behaving with viscous as well as elastic properties, system relaxation with and without memory, physics of random delay in computer network; and several others; mapping the reality of nature closely. The concept of fractional and complex order differentiation and integration are elaborated mathematically, physically and geometrically with examples. The practical utility of local fractional differentiation for enhancing the character of singularity at phase transition or characterizing the irregularity measure of response function is deliberated. Practical results of viscoelastic experiments, fractional order controls experiments, design of fractional controller and practical circuit synthesis for fractional order elements are elaborated in this book. The book also maps theory of classical integer order differential equations to fractional calculus contexts, and deals in details with conflicting and demanding initialization issues, required in classical techniques. The book presents a modern approach to solve the ‘solvable’ system of fractional and other differential equations, linear, non-linear; without perturbation or transformations, but by applying physical principle of action-and-opposite-reaction, giving ‘approximately exact’ series solutions.

Historically, Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wihelm Leibniz independently discovered calculus in the middle of the 17th century. In recognition to this remarkable discovery, J.von Neumann remarked, “...the calculus was the first achievement of modern mathematics and it is difficult to overestimate its importance. I think it defines more equivocally than anything else the inception of modern mathematical analysis which is logical development, still constitute the greatest technical advance in exact thinking.”

This XXI century has thus started to ‘think-exactly’ for advancement in science & technology by growing application of fractional calculus, and this century has started speaking the language which nature understands the best.

This volume constitutes a useful tool for professional engineers and experimental physicists. Students of mathematics, physics, and engineering will particularly benefit from the book's expanded solutions.

This book is suitable for researchers and graduate students working in complex approximation and its applications, mathematical analysis and numerical analysis.

The contributors are Jean Bourgain, Luis Caffarelli, Michael Christ, Guy David, Charles Fefferman, Alexandru D. Ionescu, David Jerison, Carlos Kenig, Sergiu Klainerman, Loredana Lanzani, Sanghyuk Lee, Lionel Levine, Akos Magyar, Detlef Müller, Camil Muscalu, Alexander Nagel, D. H. Phong, Malabika Pramanik, Andrew S. Raich, Fulvio Ricci, Keith M. Rogers, Andreas Seeger, Scott Sheffield, Luis Silvestre, Christopher D. Sogge, Jacob Sturm, Terence Tao, Christoph Thiele, Stephen Wainger, and Steven Zelditch.

Like a great museum, The Calculus Gallery is filled with masterpieces, among which are Bernoulli's early attack upon the harmonic series (1689), Euler's brilliant approximation of pi (1779), Cauchy's classic proof of the fundamental theorem of calculus (1823), Weierstrass's mind-boggling counterexample (1872), and Baire's original "category theorem" (1899). Collectively, these selections document the evolution of calculus from a powerful but logically chaotic subject into one whose foundations are thorough, rigorous, and unflinching--a story of genius triumphing over some of the toughest, most subtle problems imaginable.

Anyone who has studied and enjoyed calculus will discover in these pages the sheer excitement each mathematician must have felt when pushing into the unknown. In touring The Calculus Gallery, we can see how it all came to be.