The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.
The 28 papers presented in this book together with 5 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 61 submissions. The topics covered are aggregation operators, fuzzy measures and game theory; decision making; clustering and similarity; computational intelligence and optimization; and machine learning.
The 91 revised full papers presented together with five invited papers and two commemorative papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 332 submissions.
The 22 revised full papers presented together with three invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 36 submissions. Providing a forum for researchers to discuss models for decision and information fusion (aggregation operators) and their applications to AI, the papers address topics such as decision making, information fusion, social networks, data mining, and related subjects. Applications to data science and privacy technologies, as well as to real world problems are also discussed.
The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 43submissions. The volume also contains extended abstracts of the threeinvited papers. The topics covered are aggregation operators anddecision making; clustering and similarity; computational intelligence;and data privacy.
This book covers the underlying science and application issues related to aggregation operators, focusing on tools used in practical applications that involve numerical information. Starting with detailed introductions to information fusion and integration, measurement and probability theory, fuzzy sets, and functional equations, the authors then cover the following topics in detail: synthesis of judgements, fuzzy measures, weighted means and fuzzy integrals, indices and evaluation methods, model selection, and parameter extraction. The methods are illustrated with representative examples throughout, and there are extensive bibliographies and reading suggestions.
The book is intended for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners such as engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and economists who use decision models and aggregation operators. The reader is assumed to have a nonspecialized background in mathematics.
Brad Stone enjoyed unprecedented access to current and former Amazon employees and Bezos family members, and his book is the first in-depth, fly-on-the-wall account of life at Amazon. The Everything Store is the book that the business world can't stop talking about, the revealing, definitive biography of the company that placed one of the first and largest bets on the Internet and forever changed the way we shop and read.
“Artfully envisions a breathtakingly better world.” —Los Angeles Times
“Elaborate, smart and persuasive.” —The Boston Globe
“A pleasure to read.” —The Wall Street Journal
One of CBS News’s Best Fall Books of 2005 • Among St Louis Post-Dispatch’s Best Nonfiction Books of 2005 • One of Amazon.com’s Best Science Books of 2005
A radical and optimistic view of the future course of human development from the bestselling author of How to Create a Mind and The Age of Spiritual Machines who Bill Gates calls “the best person I know at predicting the future of artificial intelligence”
For over three decades, Ray Kurzweil has been one of the most respected and provocative advocates of the role of technology in our future. In his classic The Age of Spiritual Machines, he argued that computers would soon rival the full range of human intelligence at its best. Now he examines the next step in this inexorable evolutionary process: the union of human and machine, in which the knowledge and skills embedded in our brains will be combined with the vastly greater capacity, speed, and knowledge-sharing ability of our creations.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Artificial Intelligence helps choose what books you buy, what movies you see, and even who you date. It puts the "smart" in your smartphone and soon it will drive your car. It makes most of the trades on Wall Street, and controls vital energy, water, and transportation infrastructure. But Artificial Intelligence can also threaten our existence.
In as little as a decade, AI could match and then surpass human intelligence. Corporations and government agencies are pouring billions into achieving AI's Holy Grail—human-level intelligence. Once AI has attained it, scientists argue, it will have survival drives much like our own. We may be forced to compete with a rival more cunning, more powerful, and more alien than we can imagine.
Through profiles of tech visionaries, industry watchdogs, and groundbreaking AI systems, Our Final Invention explores the perils of the heedless pursuit of advanced AI. Until now, human intelligence has had no rival. Can we coexist with beings whose intelligence dwarfs our own? And will they allow us to?
Ray Kurzweil is arguably today’s most influential—and often controversial—futurist. In How to Create a Mind, Kurzweil presents a provocative exploration of the most important project in human-machine civilization—reverse engineering the brain to understand precisely how it works and using that knowledge to create even more intelligent machines.
Kurzweil discusses how the brain functions, how the mind emerges from the brain, and the implications of vastly increasing the powers of our intelligence in addressing the world’s problems. He thoughtfully examines emotional and moral intelligence and the origins of consciousness and envisions the radical possibilities of our merging with the intelligent technology we are creating.
Certain to be one of the most widely discussed and debated science books of the year, How to Create a Mind is sure to take its place alongside Kurzweil’s previous classics which include Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever and The Age of Spiritual Machines.
From the Hardcover edition.
Jeff Hawkins, the man who created the PalmPilot, Treo smart phone, and other handheld devices, has reshaped our relationship to computers. Now he stands ready to revolutionize both neuroscience and computing in one stroke, with a new understanding of intelligence itself.
Hawkins develops a powerful theory of how the human brain works, explaining why computers are not intelligent and how, based on this new theory, we can finally build intelligent machines.
The brain is not a computer, but a memory system that stores experiences in a way that reflects the true structure of the world, remembering sequences of events and their nested relationships and making predictions based on those memories. It is this memory-prediction system that forms the basis of intelligence, perception, creativity, and even consciousness.
In an engaging style that will captivate audiences from the merely curious to the professional scientist, Hawkins shows how a clear understanding of how the brain works will make it possible for us to build intelligent machines, in silicon, that will exceed our human ability in surprising ways.
Written with acclaimed science writer Sandra Blakeslee, On Intelligence promises to completely transfigure the possibilities of the technology age. It is a landmark book in its scope and clarity.
Why do some games become boring quickly, while others remain fun for years? How do games serve as fundamental and powerful learning tools? Whether you’re a game developer, dedicated gamer, or curious observer, this illustrated, fully updated edition helps you understand what drives this major cultural force, and inspires you to take it further.
You’ll discover that:Games play into our innate ability to seek patterns and solve puzzlesMost successful games are built upon the same elementsSlightly more females than males now play gamesMany games still teach primitive survival skillsFictional dressing for modern games is more developed than the conceptual elementsTruly creative designers seldom use other games for inspirationGames are beginning to evolve beyond their prehistoric origins
This innovative, comprehensive book examines the user-centered design process from the perspective of a designer. With rich imagery, Interactive Design introduces the different UX players, outlines the user-centered design process from user research to user testing, and explains through various examples how user-centered design has been successfully integrated into the design process of a variety of design studios worldwide.
The antidote to fuzzy thinking, with furry animals!
Have you read (or stumbled into) one too many irrational online debates? Ali Almossawi certainly had, so he wrote An Illustrated Book of Bad Arguments! This handy guide is here to bring the internet age a much-needed dose of old-school logic (really old-school, a la Aristotle).
Here are cogent explanations of the straw man fallacy, the slippery slope argument, the ad hominem attack, and other common attempts at reasoning that actually fall short—plus a beautifully drawn menagerie of animals who (adorably) commit every logical faux pas. Rabbit thinks a strange light in the sky must be a UFO because no one can prove otherwise (the appeal to ignorance). And Lion doesn’t believe that gas emissions harm the planet because, if that were true, he wouldn’t like the result (the argument from consequences).
Once you learn to recognize these abuses of reason, they start to crop up everywhere from congressional debate to YouTube comments—which makes this geek-chic book a must for anyone in the habit of holding opinions.
Logic For Dummies tracks an introductory logic course at the college level. Concrete, real-world examples help you understand each concept you encounter, while fully worked out proofs and fun logic problems encourage you students to apply what you’ve learned.
Logically Fallacious is one of the most comprehensive collections of logical fallacies with all original examples and easy to understand descriptions, perfect for educators, debaters, or anyone who wants to improve his or her reasoning skills.
"Expose an irrational belief, keep a person rational for a day. Expose irrational thinking, keep a person rational for a lifetime." - Bo Bennett
The available average good books on AutoCAD are horribly containing 2-3 thousands of pages for main text, with dozens of pages, only for their contents. All these mess is full of unnecessary details of even very simpler commands, which user can easily learn intuitively. Even after the bulk of pages they skip some really useful commands, which could otherwise boost the productivity of end user.
While this reference guide is intended to provide a compact guide of AutoCAD to a wide range of working CAD professionals and students, ranging from engineering streams (architectural, civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.) to non-technical streams. We are relying heavily on the AutoCAD’s user friendly interface while writing the reference guide, as after entering the command alias in AutoCAD, it, itself, tells ‘n asks for minimum ‘n necessary details through command line. So, practically, there is no need of written procedural details.
As this reference guide book is complimentary with the ‘AutoCAD-Advanced’ and ‘AutoCAD-Professional’ courses of ‘4Dimensions’, most commands given in this guide need at least one time lab training on real projects by an experienced tutor/professional. Each command, once mastered, doesn’t need the whole procedure to be remembered exactly (as different versions may have different procedures).
Content Development Team
Do you want to get started with creating your own vehicles, maps, landscapes, and tools that you can use in the game and share with the Farming Simulator community? Then this is the resource for you! With the help of Jason van Gumster, you'll get up and running on everything you need to master 3D modeling and simulation—and have fun while doing it! Inside, you'll find out how to create and edit maps, start using the material panel, customize your mods by adding texture, use the correct file-naming conventions, test your mod in single and multiplayer modes, get a grip on using Vehicle XML, and so much more.
There's no denying that Farming Simulator players love modding—and now there's a trusted, friendly resource to help you take your modding skills to the next level and get even more out of your game. Written in plain English and packed with tons of step-by-step explanations, Farming Simulator Modding For Dummies is a great way to learn the ropes of 3D modeling with the tools available to you in the game. In no time, you'll be wowing your fellow gamesters—and yourself—with custom, kick-butt mods. So what are you waiting for?Includes an easy-to-follow introduction to using the GIANTS 3D modeling tools Explains how to export models to Blender, Maya, 3DS Max, or FBX Provides tips for using the correct image format for textures Details how to use Photoshop and Audacity to create custom mods for Farming Simulator
Whether you're one of the legions of rabid fans of the popular Farming Simulator game or just someone who wants to learn the basics of 3D modeling and animation, you'll find everything you need in this handy guide.
The Art of Game Design, Second Edition gives readers useful perspectives on how to make better game designs faster. It provides practical instruction on creating world-class games that will be played again and again.
Written by the founders of Processing, this book takes you through the learning process one step at a time to help you grasp core programming concepts. You'll learn how to sketch with code -- creating a program with one a line of code, observing the result, and then adding to it. Join the thousands of hobbyists, students, and professionals who have discovered this free and educational community platform.Quickly learn programming basics, from variables to objects Understand the fundamentals of computer graphics Get acquainted with the Processing software development environment Create interactive graphics with easy-to-follow projects Use the Arduino open source prototyping platform to control your Processing graphics
Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you’ll learn how to analyze sample datasets and write simple machine learning algorithms. Machine Learning for Hackers is ideal for programmers from any background, including business, government, and academic research.Develop a naïve Bayesian classifier to determine if an email is spam, based only on its textUse linear regression to predict the number of page views for the top 1,000 websitesLearn optimization techniques by attempting to break a simple letter cipherCompare and contrast U.S. Senators statistically, based on their voting recordsBuild a “whom to follow” recommendation system from Twitter data
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 10 Minutes, Fourth Edition
New full-color code examples help you see how SQL statements are structured
Whether you're an application developer, database administrator, web application designer, mobile app developer, or Microsoft Office users, a good working knowledge of SQL is an important part of interacting with databases. And Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 10 Minutes offers the straightforward, practical answers you need to help you do your job.
Expert trainer and popular author Ben Forta teaches you just the parts of SQL you need to know–starting with simple data retrieval and quickly going on to more complex topics including the use of joins, subqueries, stored procedures, cursors, triggers, and table constraints.
You'll learn methodically, systematically, and simply–in 22 short, quick lessons that will each take only 10 minutes or less to complete.
With the Fourth Edition of this worldwide bestseller, the book has been thoroughly updated, expanded, and improved. Lessons now cover the latest versions of IBM DB2, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MariaDB, and Apache Open Office Base. And new full-color SQL code listings help the beginner clearly see the elements and structure of the language.
10 minutes is all you need to learn how to...
Use the major SQL statements Construct complex SQL statements using multiple clauses and operators Retrieve, sort, and format database contents Pinpoint the data you need using a variety of filtering techniques Use aggregate functions to summarize data Join two or more related tables Insert, update, and delete data Create and alter database tables Work with views, stored procedures, and more Table of Contents
1 Understanding SQL
2 Retrieving Data
4 Filtering Data
5 Advanced Data Filtering
6 Using Wildcard Filtering
7 Creating Calculated Fields
8 Using Data Manipulation Functions
9 Summarizing Data
10 Grouping Data
11 Working with Subqueries
12 Joining Tables
13 Creating Advanced Joins
14 Combining Queries
15 Inserting Data
16 Updating and Deleting Data
17 Creating and Manipulating Tables
18 Using Views
19 Working with Stored Procedures
20 Managing Transaction Processing
21 Using Cursors
22 Understanding Advanced SQL Features
Appendix A: Sample Table Scripts
Appendix B: Working in Popular Applications
Appendix C : SQL Statement Syntax
Appendix E: SQL Reserved Words
This highly versatile text provides mathematical background used in a wide variety of disciplines, including mathematics and mathematics education, computer science, biology, chemistry, engineering, communications, and business.
Some of the major features and strengths of this textbook
More than 1,600 exercises, ranging from elementary to challenging, are included with hints/answers to all odd-numbered exercises.
Descriptions of proof techniques are accessible and lively.
Students benefit from the historical discussions throughout the textbook.
Combining stories of great writers and philosophers with quotations and riddles, this completely original text for first courses in mathematical logic examines problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, and other topics. 2013 edition.
Contents include: Sets and Relations — Cantor's concept of a set, etc.
Natural Number Sequence — Zorn's Lemma, etc.
Extension of Natural Numbers to Real Numbers
Logic — the Statement and Predicate Calculus, etc.
Informal Axiomatic Mathematics
Boolean AlgebraInformal Axiomatic Set TheorySeveral Algebraic Theories — Rings, Integral Domains, Fields, etc.
First-Order Theories — Metamathematics, etc.
Symbolic logic does not figure significantly until the final chapter. The main theme of the book is mathematics as a system seen through the elaboration of real numbers; set theory and logic are seen s efficient tools in constructing axioms necessary to the system.
Mathematics students at the undergraduate level, and those who seek a rigorous but not unnecessarily technical introduction to mathematical concepts, will welcome the return to print of this most lucid work.
"Professor Stoll . . . has given us one of the best introductory texts we have seen." — Cosmos.
"In the reviewer's opinion, this is an excellent book, and in addition to its use as a textbook (it contains a wealth of exercises and examples) can be recommended to all who wish an introduction to mathematical logic less technical than standard treatises (to which it can also serve as preliminary reading)." — Mathematical Reviews.
* Removing blemishes and distractions
* Creating amazing, natural-looking portraits
* Changing the color of clothing and hair
* Changing the shape of bodies and objects
* Using layers, adjustment layers, and masks
* Replacing skies and backgrounds
* Straightening lines and buildings
* Compositing multiple images together
* Changing facial expressions and poses
* Creating complex selections and masks
* Creating panoramas
* Creating actions to automate tasks
* Choosing the best image formats
* Customizing and configuring Photoshop CC
Tony & Chelsea go beyond teaching you how to use Photoshop; they teach you why and when to use each feature to create stunning, natural images. When Photoshop isn’t the best tool, they suggest other alternatives.
Combining the benefits of video training and book learning, this video book gives you over 10 hours of video and dozens of images to practice with. If you learn better with video, watch the video training and refer to the book for quick reference. For best results, walk through each procedure in the book using the provided sample images. Then, watch the videos to learn more advanced and artistic techniques. If you still have questions, or want peer review, join our Photoshop group on Facebook and get feedback from other Photoshop users.
Tony and Chelsea cover every aspect of Photoshop in-depth, but structure their teaching so that both beginner and advanced photographers can learn as efficiently as possible. If you just want a quick start, you can watch the first video or read the first chapter and you'll know the basics of photo editing in less than an hour. If you want to know more about a specific feature, switch to that video or jump to that chapter in the ebook. If you want to know everything about Photoshop, watch the videos and read the book from start to finish.
Whether you’re an entrepreneur, UX/UI designer, product manager, or part of an intrapreneurial team, this book teaches simple-to-advanced strategies that you can use in your work right away. Along with business cases, historical context, and real-world examples throughout, you’ll also gain different perspectives on the subject through interviews with top strategists.Define and validate your target users through provisional personas and customer discovery techniquesConduct competitive research and analysis to explore a crowded marketplace or an opportunity to create unique valueFocus your team on the primary utility and business model of your product by running structured experiments using prototypesDevise UX funnels that increase customer engagement by mapping desired user actions to meaningful metrics
New, expanded tutorials take readers of all abilities through full character and environment modeling from beginning to end
Companion website (3d-for-games.com) offers a robust, supportive forum where readers can get commentary on new work, develop skills and portfolio art, as well as network with other game artists on a variety of projects. Also features project files for all tutorials in the book and enough support images and photos to keep the budding artist busy for months
Completely updated gallery allows the reader to build on various models
The McGraw-Hill 36-Hour Six Sigma Course provides you with the knowledge you need to understand, implement, and manage a Six Sigma program. This detailed yet accessible guide explores 10 essential Six Sigma tools for manufacturing along with other core components of a Six Sigma program.
Written with the clarity, humor, and objective scrutiny, Photoshop CS5: The Missing Manual is the friendly, thorough resource you need.
Ideal for anyone involved in the process of creating websites—not just developers—this book teaches you fundamental strategies and techniques for using HTML and CSS to design websites that not only adapt to any screen size, but also use progressive enhancement to provide a better user experience based on device capabilities such as touchscreens and retina displays.Start with content strategy before creating a visual designLearn why your default design should be for the narrowest screensExplore the HTML elements and CSS properties essential for responsive web designUse media queries to display different CSS styles based on a device’s viewport widthHandle elements such as images, typography, and navigationUse performance optimization techniques to make your site lighter and faster
The selection of topics conveys not only their role in this historical development of mathematics but also their value as bases for understanding the changing nature of mathematics. Among the topics covered in this wide-ranging text are: mathematics before Euclid, Euclid's Elements, non-Euclidean geometry, algebraic structure, formal axiomatics, the real numbers system, sets, logic and philosophy and more. The emphasis on axiomatic procedures provides important background for studying and applying more advanced topics, while the inclusion of the historical roots of both algebra and geometry provides essential information for prospective teachers of school mathematics.
The readable style and sets of challenging exercises from the popular earlier editions have been continued and extended in the present edition, making this a very welcome and useful version of a classic treatment of the foundations of mathematics. "A truly satisfying book." — Dr. Bruce E. Meserve, Professor Emeritus, University of Vermont.
The important stuff you need to know:Migrate from iPhoto. Learn how to make a quick and smooth transition.Organize your collection with ease. Master the many ways to import, group, and categorize images—and set up iCloud Family Sharing.Find your photos quickly. Employ Photos’ powerful labeling, keyword and facial recognition features to optimize searches.Sharpen your editing skills. Skillfully use Photos’ impressive image- and video-editing tools on your Mac or iOS device.Access photos anywhere. Sync your library to all of your Apple devices so your photos travel with you wherever you go.Share them online. Show your shots to everyone on your list by using shared albums, creating web galleries, posting them on Facebook, and more.Dive into creative projects. Build pro-level slideshows to share with others, and create gorgeous gift books, calendars, and cards.
Before you even begin modeling that first rectangle, you'll need to fully understand which type of model you should be building for LayOut. Don't make the mistake of creating twice the amount of work for yourself because you didn't properly organize your model ahead of time.
I'll teach you how to save time and frustration by organizing your model so YOU are in control of how your model viewports look.
The entire first half of the book is dedicated to preparing your model for LayOut. From organizational workflow, to scenes and styles. I share with you my 5 point method I use to visualize and prepare every scene I create for LayOut.
Not only will you understand exactly what those five points are, you'll learn multiple ways to control them. Using these methods, you will gain complete control over the look of your viewports in LayOut. You will master every aspect of a SketchUp scene and style, to enable you to create impressive presentations and drawings in the least amount of time possible.Is this too advanced for me?
This book is designed for construction professionals who don't have any prior experience in LayOut at all. But it's also structured in a way that lets you look up specific tasks or methods without having to read the book cover to cover. I’ll save you all the time and frustration that I went through when I first learned LayOut by quickly orienting you with the workspace, then jumping right in to creating your own titleblock, inserting SketchUp models, and adding dimensions.
You should have some basic knowledge on how to use SketchUp. But if you're just starting out, you'll have complete access to my entire library of tutorials and videos for free on my website to bring you up to speed quickly.
Every important aspect of LayOut is explained in the book, with step by step instructions for you to follow along. Learn exactly what you need to know and skip over all the little details you don’t need to worry about. The book has been updated for 2014 so you'll even learn about the new Auto-Text tag feature, saving you a ton of time on those redundant text edits.You’ll see REAL examples
The sample projects in the book are real projects, not hypothetical meaningless shapes and boxes, so you can see exactly how to apply the concepts you learn in context with the real world. Plus, the SketchUp and LayOut files are included with each book download so you’ll be able to follow along and discover for yourself how to organize a similar project of your own. The sample projects include a woodworking table project, akitchen project, and a three story house project.
At the same time, each step by step instruction can be read and followed independently from the project. So if you need to go back and reference a certain part of the book to learn how to do something specific, you'll be able to do that too.Advanced Techniques
I’ve consulted with many of the best SketchUp gurus in the world! I’ve hung out with Nick Sonder at the SketchUp basecamp conference. I’ve interviewed Aidan Chopra, SketchUp evangelist and author of “Google SketchUp for Dummies”, Eric Schimelpfenig from SketchThis.net, and Alexander Schreyer, author of “Architectural Design with SketchUp”. I’ve also consulted with Mike Brightman, author of “The SketchUp Workflow for Architecture”, Daniel Tal, author of “Rendering In SketchUp”, and many other great SketchUp experts.
vi has been the standard editor for close to 30 years. Popular on Unix and Linux, it has a growing following on Windows systems, too. Most experienced system administrators cite vi as their tool of choice. And since 1986, this book has been the guide for vi.
However, Unix systems are not what they were 30 years ago, and neither is this book. While retaining all the valuable features of previous editions, the 7th edition of Learning the vi and vim Editors has been expanded to include detailed information on vim, the leading vi clone. vim is the default version of vi on most Linux systems and on Mac OS X, and is available for many other operating systems too.
With this guide, you learn text editing basics and advanced tools for both editors, such as multi-window editing, how to write both interactive macros and scripts to extend the editor, and power tools for programmers -- all in the easy-to-follow style that has made this book a classic.
Learning the vi and vim Editors includes:
A complete introduction to text editing with vi:How to move around vi in a hurryBeyond the basics, such as using buffersvi's global search and replacementAdvanced editing, including customizing vi and executing Unix commands
How to make full use of vim:Extended text objects and more powerful regular expressionsMulti-window editing and powerful vim scriptsHow to make full use of the GUI version of vim, called gvimvim's enhancements for programmers, such as syntax highlighting, folding and extended tags
Coverage of three other popular vi clones -- nvi, elvis, and vile -- is also included. You'll find several valuable appendixes, including an alphabetical quick reference to both vi and ex mode commands for regular vi and for vim, plus an updated appendix on vi and the Internet.
Learning either vi or vim is required knowledge if you use Linux or Unix, and in either case, reading this book is essential. After reading this book, the choice of editor will be obvious for you too.
The important stuff you need to know:Dive into page design. Quickly learn the basics of working with text, images, links, and tables.Edit pages in Live view. Dynamically add elements to live pages and immediately see the results.Design once, and for all. Build fluid-grid sites that adapt themselves to desktop, tablet, and mobile devices.Troubleshoot your HTML. Use the new Element Quick View to reveal the hierarchy of page elements.Style with ease. Tap Dreamweaver’s enhanced CSS Designer to copy and paste styles.Enhance Dreamweaver. Get new program features with add-ons that integrate directly with Dreamweaver.Bring your pages to life. Use jQuery UI to add interactive page elements like tabbed content panels.Create universal pages. Avoid browser incompatibility with workarounds.
The two-part selection of puzzles and paradoxes begins with examinations of the nature of infinity and some curious systems related to Gödel's theorem. The first three chapters of Part II contain generalized Gödel theorems. Symbolic logic is deferred until the last three chapters, which give explanations and examples of first-order arithmetic, Peano arithmetic, and a complete proof of Gödel's celebrated result involving statements that cannot be proved or disproved. The book also includes a lively look at decision theory, better known as recursion theory, which plays a vital role in computer science.