The first major bioterror event in the United States-the anthrax attacks in October 2001-was a clarion call for scientists who work with “hot” agents to find ways of protecting civilian populations against biological weapons. In The Demon in the Freezer, his first nonfiction book since The Hot Zone, a #1 New York Times bestseller, Richard Preston takes us into the heart of Usamriid, the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, once the headquarters of the U.S. biological weapons program and now the epicenter of national biodefense.
Peter Jahrling, the top scientist at Usamriid, a wry virologist who cut his teeth on Ebola, one of the world’s most lethal emerging viruses, has ORCON security clearance that gives him access to top secret information on bioweapons. His most urgent priority is to develop a drug that will take on smallpox-and win. Eradicated from the planet in 1979 in one of the great triumphs of modern science, the smallpox virus now resides, officially, in only two high-security freezers-at the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and in Siberia, at a Russian virology institute called Vector. But the demon in the freezer has been set loose. It is almost certain that illegal stocks are in the possession of hostile states, including Iraq and North Korea. Jahrling is haunted by the thought that biologists in secret labs are using genetic engineering to create a new superpox virus, a smallpox resistant to all vaccines.
Usamriid went into a state of Delta Alert on September 11 and activated its emergency response teams when the first anthrax letters were opened in New York and Washington, D.C. Preston reports, in unprecedented detail, on the government’ s response to the attacks and takes us into the ongoing FBI investigation. His story is based on interviews with top-level FBI agents and with Dr. Steven Hatfill.
Jahrling is leading a team of scientists doing controversial experiments with live smallpox virus at CDC. Preston takes us into the lab where Jahrling is reawakening smallpox and explains, with cool and devastating precision, what may be at stake if his last bold experiment fails.
This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including adult and embryonic stem cells and progenitor populations that may soon lead to new tissue engineering therapies for heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies is complemented by a series of new chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering. The result is a comprehensive textbook that we believe will be useful to students and experts alike.
New to this edition:
*Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves
*Expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems
The new fourth edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the many advances in science and technology, including the five accepted sequential stages of micropropagation. Ten new plants have been added. This in turn has greatly expanded the already extensive bibliography. Among the new topics that have been introduced or expanded on are embryo culture for breeding, somaclonal variation, anther culture, somatic embryogenesis, cryopreservation, and genetic engineering. More ornamental plant examples are given and many new illustrations provided, including a chronology of discoveries in micropropagation.
Every brain begins as a female brain. It only becomes male eight weeks after conception, when excess testosterone shrinks the communications center, reduces the hearing cortex, and makes the part of the brain that processes sex twice as large.
Louann Brizendine, M.D. is a pioneering neuropsychiatrist who brings together the latest findings to show how the unique structure of the female brain determines how women think, what they value, how they communicate, and whom they’ll love. Brizendine reveals the neurological explanations behind why
• A woman remembers fights that a man insists never happened
• A teen girl is so obsessed with her looks and talking on the phone
• Thoughts about sex enter a woman’s brain once every couple of days but enter a man’s brain about once every minute
• A woman knows what people are feeling, while a man can’t spot an emotion unless somebody cries or threatens bodily harm
• A woman over 50 is more likely to initiate divorce than a man
Women will come away from this book knowing that they have a lean, mean communicating machine. Men will develop a serious case of brain envy.
Nessa Carey, a leading epigenetics researcher, connects the field's arguments to such diverse phenomena as how ants and queen bees control their colonies; why tortoiseshell cats are always female; why some plants need cold weather before they can flower; and how our bodies age and develop disease. Reaching beyond biology, epigenetics now informs work on drug addiction, the long-term effects of famine, and the physical and psychological consequences of childhood trauma. Carey concludes with a discussion of the future directions for this research and its ability to improve human health and well-being.
Beginning with simple theoretical models and experimental techniques, the book develops the complete repertoire of theoretical principles and experimental techniques necessary for understanding and implementing the most sophisticated NMR experiments.
Important new techniques and applications of NMR spectroscopy have emerged since the first edition of this extremely successful book was published in 1996. This updated version includes new sections describing measurement and use of residual dipolar coupling constants for structure determination, TROSY and deuterium labeling for application to large macromolecules, and experimental techniques for characterizing conformational dynamics. In addition, the treatments of instrumentation and signal acquisition, field gradients, multidimensional spectroscopy, and structure calculation are updated and enhanced.
The book is written as a graduate-level textbook and will be of interest to biochemists, chemists, biophysicists, and structural biologists who utilize NMR spectroscopy or wish to understand the latest developments in this field.Provides an understanding of the theoretical principles important for biological NMR spectroscopyDemonstrates how to implement, optimize and troubleshoot modern multi-dimensional NMR experimentsAllows for the capability of designing effective experimental protocols for investigations of protein structures and dynamicsIncludes a comprehensive set of example NMR spectra of ubiquitin provides a reference for validation of experimental methods
Two patients—each known in medical history as the Berlin Patient—were cured of the HIV virus. The two patients’ disparate cures came twelve years apart, but Nathalia Holt, an award-winning scientist at the forefront of HIV research, connects the molecular dots of these cases for the first time.
Scientists are known to maintain a professional distance from those they study, but sometimes scientists are not just investigators, they are caregivers, too. Cured illustrates that even in the era of high-tech and big pharma, the way doctors and patients communicate remains a critical ingredient in the advance of this science. Holt offers a kind of hope that the thirty-four million people currently infected with HIV need and a story of ingenuity, dedication, and humanity that will inspire the rest of us.
Herbal remedies have been around for years and many people count on them every day. Some carry a strong belief that there is no need to rely on medications. Among the alternative medicine approaches, essential oils are used for a number of different conditions and offer a variety of benefits.
After a stress filled day, it would be nice to come home and just relax. Some have found that they can get fast relaxation by taking a warm bath using essential oils. A mix of the oils and the aromas can relax one so much that it puts the client to sleep.
Because essential oils are extracted from plant material, they often contain the nutritional essence of the plants themselves. In concentrated form, they can impart huge health benefits, when they are ingested into the body.
Essential Oils will guide you through the various uses and benefits of essential oils, highlighting how to use them to lose weight, relieve pain, maintain your skin, as well as strengthen your hair. The various uses of essential oils is nearly limitless. Come discover what many others have: that there is now a safer, more natural way to protect yourself and your family.
The vast majority of medically important pathogens infect their host across a body surface such as the skin, or across a mucosal tissue such as the respiratory tract or intestines, as these sites are the ones exposed to the external environment. By focusing on immunity at mucosal and body surfaces this book presents a fresh, new approach to the teaching of immunology.
After an introduction to the basic structure of the immune system, the book looks at two important families of signalling molecules: cytokines and chemokines, before covering the workings of the mucosal immune system. It continues by examining immunity against the four major groups of pathogens - viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, and concludes by looking at disorders of the immune system, mucosal tumour immunology and the process of vaccination.A fresh, new approach to the subject focusing on mucosal and body surfaces.Describes the mucosal immune systems of the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urogenital tracts, as well as the skin.Details the important roles of cytokines and chemokines in an immune response.Separate chapters devoted to immunity against viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.Includes chapter summaries, boxes with topics of special interest and an extensive glossary.Clearly written and well- illustrated in full colour throughout.
Students across a range of disciplines, including biology, biochemistry, biomedicine, medicine and veterinary sciences, will find this book invaluable, both as an introduction to basic immunology and as a guide to mucosal immune defence mechanisms.
Unfortunately, this has not eradicated reflux disease. It has just changed its nature. While heartburn, ulceration and strictures have become rare, reflux-induced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is becoming increasingly common. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia is now the most rapidly increasing cancer type in the Western world.
The increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has created an enormous interest and stimulus for research in this area. GERD brings together a vast amount of disparate literature and presents the entire pathogenesis of reflux disease in one place. In addition to providing a new concept of how gastroesophageal reflux causes cellular changes in the esophagus, GERD also offers a complete solution to a problem that has confused physicians for over a century. Both clinical and pathological information about reflux disease and its treatment are presented. GERD is meant to be used as a comprehensive reference for gastroenterologists, esophageal surgeons, and pathologists alike.Outlines how gastroesophageal reflux causes cellular changes in the esophagusBrings together the pathogenesis of the disease in one source and applies it toward clinical treatmentTom DeMeester is THE leading international expert on reflux disease; Parakrama Chandrasoma is one of the leading pathologists in the areaBook contains approximately 350 illustrationsAncillary web site features color illustrations: www.chandrasoma.com
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In addition to a number of informative changes to the textthroughout the book, the final four chapters have beensignificantly updated and extended to reflect the striking advancesmade in recent years in the applications of gene cloning and DNAanalysis in biotechnology.
Gene Cloning and DNA Analysis remains an essentialintroductory text to a wide range of biological sciences students;including genetics and genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry,immunology and applied biology. It is also a perfect introductorytext for any professional needing to learn the basics of thesubject. All libraries in universities where medical, life andbiological sciences are studied and taught should have copiesavailable on their shelves.
"… the book content is elegantly illustrated and wellorganized in clear-cut chapters and subsections… there is aFurther Reading section after each chapter that contains severalkey references… What is extremely useful, almost everyreference is furnished with the short but distinct author'sremark."
–Journal of Heredity, 2007 (on the previousedition)
This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, stem cell niches, and blood components from stem cells. This research has already produced applications in disease modeling, toxicity testing, drug development, and clinical therapies. This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies –such as brain-machine interfaces for controlling bionics and neuroprostheses– is complemented by a series of new and updated chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering, as well as a new section on the application of tissue-engineering techniques for food production. The result is a comprehensive textbook that will be useful to students and experts alike.Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valvesOffers expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systemsFull-color presentation throughout
"A very well-written book suitable for use as a reference ortextbook for an undergraduate subject in cell signalling. Forresearchers interested in the molecular basis of cell signallingand how aberrant regulation of cell signalling proteins causesdiseases, this is an excellent resource of biochemical andstructural information." –Australian Biochemist, August2009
"From basics to details, this is an elegantly written andcarefully edited book. The chapters on cell cycle control andoncogenesis are particularly fascinating and valuable to biomedicalresearch. This is the book to have if you are interested inmolecular mechanisms of signal transduction. It is a greatintroduction to the literature that will be welcomed by studentsand experts alike." –Doody's, January 2009
This text is a concise and accessible introduction to thedynamic but complex field of signal transduction. Rather thansimply cataloguing all signalling molecules and delineating everyknown pathway, this book aims to break signalling down into commonelements and activities – the ‘nuts and bolts’ ofcellular information exchange.
With an emphasis on clarity of presentation throughout, the bookteaches the basic principles focusing on a mature core ofknowledge, providing students with a foundation of learning in thiscomplex and potentially confusing subject. It also addresses theissue of variation in the numbering of key amino acids as well asfeaturing interaction with RasMol software, and exercises to aidunderstanding.An accessible introduction to the complex field of cellsignallingInteracts with RasMol software – freely downloadable forviewing structures in 3DIncludes exercises and clear instructions in the use ofRasMolWell illustrated in full colour throughout
Structure and Function in Cell Signalling is aninvaluable resource to students across a range of life sciencedegree programmes including biochemistry, cell and molecularbiology, physiology, biomedicine and oncology. This book provides aclear, accessible introduction to this rapidly expanding field.
Up-to-date therapeutic implications of nitric oxide researchAuthored by world experts on nitric oxide Detailed research of the biochemistry and synthesis of nitric oxide
Oncologists, cancer researchers, and nutritionists are separated by divergent skills and professional disciplines that need to be bridged in order to advance preventative as well as treatment strategies. While oncologists and cancer researchers may study the underlying pathogenesis of cancer, they are less likely to be conversant in the science of nutrition and dietetics. On the other hand, nutritionists and dietitians are less conversant with the detailed clinical background and science of oncology. This book addresses this gap and brings each of these disciplines to bear on the processes inherent in the oxidative stress of cancer.Nutritionists can apply information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease to diet-related strategies in another unrelated disease Dietitians can prescribe new foods or diets containing anti-oxidants for conditions resistant to conventional pharmacological treatments Dietitians, after learning about the basic biology of oxidative stress, will be able to suggest new treatments to their multidisciplinary teamsNutritionists and dietitians will gain an understanding of cell signaling, and be able to suggest new preventative or therapeutic strategies with anti-oxidant rich foods
It is not yet possible to give a complete account of the relations between the organelles of two compartments and of the mechanisms by which some degree of order is maintained in the cell as a whole. However, a new breed of scientists, known as molecular cell biologists, have already contributed in some measure to our understanding of several biological phenomena notably interorganelle communication. Take, for example, intracellular membrane transport: it can now be expressed in terms of the sorting, targeting, and transport of protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to another compartment.
This volume contains the first ten chapters on the subject of organelles. The remaining four are in Volume 3, to which sections on organelle disorders and the extracellular matrix have been added.
Developed at MIT in collaboration with award-winning high school teachers, BioBuilder teaches the foundational ideas of the emerging synthetic biology field, as well as key aspects of biological engineering that researchers are exploring in labs throughout the world. These lessons will empower teachers and students to explore and be part of solving persistent real-world challenges.Learn the fundamentals of biodesign and DNA engineeringExplore important ethical issues raised by examples of synthetic biologyInvestigate the BioBuilder labs that probe the design-build-test cycleTest synthetic living systems designed and built by engineersMeasure several variants of an enzyme-generating genetic circuitModel "bacterial photography" that changes a strain’s light sensitivityBuild living systems to produce purple or green pigmentOptimize baker’s yeast to produce ?-carotene
* Thoroughly revised and expanded by over 30% with 3400 new entries
* Expanded coverage of areas greatly impacted by genomics
* Includes new terms that relate to the recent elucidation of underlying mechanisms of cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, relationship between mitochondria and disease, metabolic control, and stem cell biology
* Consistently provides the most complete short definitions of technical terminology for anyone working in life sciences today
* Extensively cross-referenced
* Provides multiple definitions, notes on word origins, and other useful features
The latest developments in the field are included and key concepts introduced in a user-friendly way to ensure that students are able to grasp the essentials before moving on to more advanced study and analysis of proteins.
An invaluable resource for students of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Medicine and Chemistry providing a modern approach to the subject of Proteins.
The easy way to take the confusion out of organic chemistry
Organic chemistry has a long-standing reputation as a difficult course. Organic Chemistry I For Dummies takes a simple approach to the topic, allowing you to grasp concepts at your own pace.
This fun, easy-to-understand guide explains the basic principles of organic chemistry in simple terms, providing insight into the language of organic chemists, the major classes of compounds, and top trouble spots. You'll also get the nuts and bolts of tackling organic chemistry problems, from knowing where to start to spotting sneaky tricks that professors like to incorporate.Refreshed example equationsNew explanations and practical examples that reflect today's teaching methodsFully worked-out organic chemistry problems
Baffled by benzines? Confused by carboxylic acids? Here's the help you need—in plain English!
The book is professionally illustrated in four color throughout with beautiful artwork which by itself distinguish the title from any comparable title.
All of the core bioscience laboratory techniques are coveredincluding: basic calculations and the preparation of solutions;aseptic techniques; microscopy techniques; cell fractionation ;spectrophotometry; chromatography of small and large molecules:electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids and data analysis. Inaddition the book includes clear, relevant diagrams and workedexamples of calculations.
In short, this is a 'must-have' for all first year biosciencestudents struggling to get to grips with this vitally importantelement of their course.
This book provides a comprehensive guide to the methodology involved in the development of cell lines and the cell engineering approach that can be employed to enhance productivity, improve cell function, glycosylation and secretion and control apoptosis. It presents an overall picture of the current topics central to expression engineering including such topics as epigenetics and the use of technologies to overcome positional dependent inactivation, the use of promoter and enhancer sequences for expression of various transgenes, site directed engineering of defined chromosomal sites, and examination of the role of eukaryotic nucleus as the controller of expression of genes that are introduced for production of a desired product. It includes a review of selection methods for high producers and an application developed by a major biopharmaceutical industry to expedite the cell line development process. The potential of cell engineering approch to enhance cell lines through the manipulation of single genes that play important roles in key metabolic and regulatory pathways is also explored throughout.
Contributions come from leading voices in the field, including: - Shinya Yamanaka, Recipient of the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, Recipient of the 2012 Millennium Technology Prize, Professor and Director of the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University, Senior Investigator at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, L.K. Whittier Foundation Investigator in Stem Cell Biology and Professor at the University of California, San Francisco - George Q. Daley, Samuel E. Lux IV Professor of Hematology/Oncology at Harvard Medical School and Director for the Stem Cell Transplantation Program at Boston Children’s Hospital - Irving Weissman, Member of National Academy of Sciences, Virgina & D.K Ludwig Professor for Clinical Investigation in Cancer Research, and Director for Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at Stanford University of Medicine
Cell Press Reviews: Stem Cells to Model and Treat Disease is part of the Cell Press Reviews series, which features reviews published in Cell Press primary research and Trends reviews journals.Provides timely overviews on a wide range of stem cell applicationsOffers insight from experts on the key opportunities and challenges facing the fieldFeatures reviews on genetic, cellular, and molecular aspects of stem-cell-based applicationsIncludes articles originally published in Cell, Cell Stem Cell, Neuron, Trends in Molecular Medicine, and Trends in Biotechnology
This could be a description of a human army. It happens, however, to be a description of an army of cancer cells. Most of us shrink from describing bacteria and other microorganisms as intelligent. Neurosurgeon Frank Vertosick does not. And perhaps, when you finish reading MIND: A UNIFIED THEORY OF LIFE AND INTELLIGENCE, you will not either.
What is intelligence? We define it in human terms, but are humans the only measure? We ascribe it to higher mammals and to social insects like bees and ants, but when we cross the threshold into cellular life, definitions blur. This revolutionary–but accessible and highly entertaining–exploration of intelligence is guaranteed to alter your appreciation of life on its most fundamental level.
Frank T. Vertosick, J.R., M.D. is the author of WHEN AIR HITS YOUR BRAIN and WHY WE HURT: THE NATURAL HISTORY OF PAIN
(Originally published as THE GENIUS WITHIN)
Why do you fall in love with one person rather than another? In this fascinating and informative book, Helen Fisher, one of the world's leading experts on romantic love, unlocks the hidden code of desire and attachment. Each of us, it turns out, primarily expresses one of four broad personality types—Explorer, Builder, Director, or Negotiator—and each of these types is governed by different chemical systems in the brain. Driven by this biology, we are attracted to partners who both mirror and complement our own personality type.
Until now the search for love has been blind, but Fisher pulls back the curtain and reveals how we unconsciously go about finding the right match. Drawing on her unique study of 40,000 men and women, she explores each personality type in detail and shows you how to identify your own type. Then she explains why some types match up well, whereas others are problematic. (Note to Explorers: be prepared for a wild ride when you hitch your star to a fellow Explorer!) Ultimately, Fisher's investigation into the complex nature of romance and attachment leads to astonishing new insights into the essence of dating, love, and marriage.
Based on entirely new research—including a detailed questionnaire completed by seven million people in thirty-three countries—Why Him? Why Her? will change your understanding of why you love him (or her) and help you use nature's chemistry to find and keep your life partner.
With its clear, concise and reader-friendly format this book has all the potential to become the Bible of skin aging. Every specialist interested in dermatology, aesthetic medicine, cosmetic science, cutaneous biology and aging research will find indispensable information of great value for his or her daily work.
The highly-anticipated paperback edition of The Elements is finally available.
An eye-opening, original collection of gorgeous, never-before-seen photographic representations of the 118 elements in the periodic table.
The elements are what we, and everything around us, are made of. But how many elements has anyone actually seen in pure, uncombined form? The Elements provides this rare opportunity. Based on seven years of research and photography, the pictures in this book make up the most complete, and visually arresting, representation available to the naked eye of every atom in the universe. Organized in order of appearance on the periodic table, each element is represented by a spread that includes a stunning, full-page, full-color photograph that most closely represents it in its purest form. For example, at -183°C, oxygen turns from a colorless gas to a beautiful pale blue liquid.
Also included are fascinating facts, figures, and stories of the elements as well as data on the properties of each, including atomic weight, density, melting and boiling point, valence, electronegativity, and the year and location in which it was discovered. Several additional photographs show each element in slightly altered forms or as used in various practical ways. The element's position on the periodic table is pinpointed on a mini rendering of the table and an illustrated scale of the element's boiling and/or melting points appears on each page along with a density scale that runs along the bottom.
Packed with interesting information, this combination of solid science and stunning artistic photographs is the perfect gift book for every sentient creature in the universe.
Includes a tear-out poster of Theodore Gray's iconic Photographic Periodic Table!
This book is richly illustrated with both descriptive schematic diagrams and laboratory findings obtained in clinical studies. Each of the thirteen in-depth chapters starts with an 'Overview' of the topic and ends with a 'Suggested Reading' list.
* Single authorship provides continuity and consistency between chapters
* Richly illustrated with over 200 illustrations
* IThirteen in-depth chapters incorporating the latest insights gleaned from rapidly expanding genetic studies of humans and rodents
* Author has taught subject for over 40 years
De-extinction – the ability to bring extinct species back to life – is fast becoming reality. Around the globe, scientists are trying to de-extinct all manner of animals, including the woolly mammoth, the passenger pigeon and a bizarre species of flatulent frog. But de-extinction is more than just bringing back the dead. It's a science that can be used to save species, shape evolution and sculpt the future of life on our planet.
In Bring Back the King, scientist and comedy writer Helen Pilcher goes on a quest to identify the perfect de-extinction candidate. Along the way, she asks if Elvis could be recreated from the DNA inside a pickled wart, investigates whether it's possible to raise a pet dodo, and considers the odds of a 21st century Neanderthal turning heads on public transport.
Pondering the practicalities and the point of de-extinction, Bring Back the King is a witty and wry exploration of what is bound to become one of the hottest topics in conservation – if not in science as a whole – in the years to come. READ THIS BOOK – the King commands it.
In biomedical research, because of a dramatic increase in productivity, immunocytochemistry has emerged as a major technique. The proposed book will provide the first practical guide to planning, performing, and evaluating immunocytochemical experiments.
In today’s graduate education the emphasis is on doing research and not on formal class work. Graduate students therefore lack the background in many essential techniques necessary to perform research in fields in which they were not trained. As director of a university core microscopy facility which sees students and faculty from dozens of laboratories each year, Dr. Burry has surmised the vast majority of these novice microscope users need considerable help. In an attempt to educate users, Dr. Burry has initiated immunocytochemistry seminars and workshops which serve to train people in this powerful research tool. The proposed book is an outgrowth of these presentations and conversations with, by now, hundreds of people who have asked for help.
The philosophy which separates this book from other books in this field is that it is practical, rather than academic. In looking at other important immunocytochemistry titles, the predominant orientation is academic, with the author attempting to comprehensively discuss the topic. For example, one book with sample preparation lists ten fixatives which can be used; however, only two such fixatives are commonly used today. In this particular title, the detailed discussion of old methods might be seen as important in establishing the author as an expert. By contrast, the approach for Burry’s book would be to discuss methods based on what works in animal research laboratories today, and focus only on the most productive methods.
An additional distinction with this proposed book is the focus on animal research and not human pathology. There is a certification program for pathology technicians which requires them to learn a set body of material based on processing human tissue for examination by a pathologist. Many of the books on immunocytochemistry aim at this large pathology user base. Due to historical reasons, pathology laboratories process human tissues in a specific way and embed the tissue in paraffin, as has been done for over a century. In the last ten years, the power of immunocytochemistry in clinical diagnosis has become clear and has accordingly been adapted to pathology. However, the extensive processing needed for paraffin sections is not needed if the tissues are from research animals. Processing for animal-based tissues takes about a third of the time and results in higher quality images. The focus of this book is on processing these animal research tissues for immunocytochemistry. Today, there are no technique books which are aimed at this user base.
As a subject matter expert in the area of the proposed book, Dr. Burry will make recommendations and offer opinions. Because this field is new and is emerging, there are numerous advantages of specific methods over other, more generalized methods. The purpose of this book is to show a novice how to do immunocytochemistry without engaging in a discussion of possible advanced methods. For the advanced user, there are several good books which discuss the unusual methods, yet for the novice there are currently none.
Main Author :
Richard W. Burry, The Ohio State University (United States).
The Outline of the Book :
Each chapter supplies a set of important principals and steps necessary for good immunocytochemistry. The information is distilled down to include only the most important points and does not attempt to cover infrequently used procedures or reagents. At the end of most chapters is a section on trouble-shooting many of the common problems using the Sherlock Holmes method. Each chapter also includes specific protocols which can be used. The goal of each chapter is to present the reader with enough information to successfully design experiments and solve many of the problems one may encounter. Using immunocytochemical protocols without the understanding of their workings is not advised, as the user will need to evaluate his or her results to determine whether the results are reliable. Such evaluation is extremely important for users who need reliable images which will clearly answer important scientific questions.
Definitions (immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry)
Scope: animal research and not human pathology, paraffin sections, epitope retrieval, or immunohistochemistry
Focus: fluorescence and enzyme detection
Why do immunocytochemistry?
Immunocytochemistry "individual study" rather than "population study"
Example of a two-label experiment
What is included in these chapters?
Overview of the theory
Background with enough information to help solve common problems.
Advantages and disadvantages of different options
Opinions and suggestions
2. Fixation and Sectioning
Chemistry of fixation
Denaturing vs cross-linking fixatives
Application of fixative
Perfusion, drop-in, cultures, fresh-frozen
Selection of sample section type
Rapid freezing, cryostat, freezing microtome, vibratome
Storage of tissue
Isoforms, structure, reactivity
Polyclonal vs monoclonal
Antibodies as reagents
Antibody specificity and sources
Storage and handling
4. Labels for antibodies
Fluorescence, enzymes and particulates
Fluorescent labels - four generations
Selecting enzymes vs. fluorescence
Selecting a label- advantages and disadvantages
5. Methods of applying antibodies
Antibody amplification methods
6. Blocking and Permeability
Theory of blocking
Theory of detergents
7. Procedure- Single primary antibody
Sample, fixation, sectioning
8. Multiple primary antibodies - primary antibodies of different species
9. Multiple primary antibodies-primary antibodies of same species
Wide-field fluorescence microscope
Bright field—enzyme chromogen
Size, intensity, and pixels
Manipulation—what is ethical?
11. Planning and Troubleshooting
Scheme for discussion-making in planning experiments
Case studies with Sherlock Holmes detective work
12. So you want to do electron microscopic ICC?
Criteria in decision-making
Summary of the two techniques