How will Artificial Intelligence affect crime, war, justice, jobs, society and our very sense of being human? The rise of AI has the potential to transform our future more than any other technology—and there’s nobody better qualified or situated to explore that future than Max Tegmark, an MIT professor who’s helped mainstream research on how to keep AI beneficial.
How can we grow our prosperity through automation without leaving people lacking income or purpose? What career advice should we give today’s kids? How can we make future AI systems more robust, so that they do what we want without crashing, malfunctioning or getting hacked? Should we fear an arms race in lethal autonomous weapons? Will machines eventually outsmart us at all tasks, replacing humans on the job market and perhaps altogether? Will AI help life flourish like never before or give us more power than we can handle?
What sort of future do you want? This book empowers you to join what may be the most important conversation of our time. It doesn’t shy away from the full range of viewpoints or from the most controversial issues—from superintelligence to meaning, consciousness and the ultimate physical limits on life in the cosmos.
“Artfully envisions a breathtakingly better world.” —Los Angeles Times
“Elaborate, smart and persuasive.” —The Boston Globe
“A pleasure to read.” —The Wall Street Journal
One of CBS News’s Best Fall Books of 2005 • Among St Louis Post-Dispatch’s Best Nonfiction Books of 2005 • One of Amazon.com’s Best Science Books of 2005
A radical and optimistic view of the future course of human development from the bestselling author of How to Create a Mind and The Age of Spiritual Machines who Bill Gates calls “the best person I know at predicting the future of artificial intelligence”
For over three decades, Ray Kurzweil has been one of the most respected and provocative advocates of the role of technology in our future. In his classic The Age of Spiritual Machines, he argued that computers would soon rival the full range of human intelligence at its best. Now he examines the next step in this inexorable evolutionary process: the union of human and machine, in which the knowledge and skills embedded in our brains will be combined with the vastly greater capacity, speed, and knowledge-sharing ability of our creations.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Newly enlarged, updated second edition of a valuable, widely used text presents algorithms for shortest paths, maximum flows, dynamic programming and backtracking. Also discussed are binary trees, heuristic and near optimums, matrix multiplication, and NP-complete problems. New to this edition: Chapter 9 shows how to mix known algorithms and create new ones, while Chapter 10 presents the "Chop-Sticks" algorithm, used to obtain all minimum cuts in an undirected network without applying traditional maximum flow techniques. This algorithm has led to the new mathematical specialty of network algebra. The text assumes no background in linear programming or advanced data structure, and most of the material is suitable for undergraduates. 153 black-and-white illus. 23 tables. Exercises, with answers at the ends of chapters.
Written by well-known scholars in the field, CombinatorialReasoning: An Introduction to the Art ofCounting introduces combinatorics alongside moderntechniques, showcases the interdisciplinary aspects of the topic,and illustrates how to problem solve with a multitude of exercisesthroughout. The authors' approach is very reader-friendly andavoids the "scholarly tone" found in many books on this topic.
The authors introduce the core principles of modern cryptography, with an emphasis on formal definitions, clear assumptions, and rigorous proofs of security. The book begins by focusing on private-key cryptography, including an extensive treatment of private-key encryption, message authentication codes, and hash functions. The authors also present design principles for widely used stream ciphers and block ciphers including RC4, DES, and AES, plus provide provable constructions of stream ciphers and block ciphers from lower-level primitives. The second half of the book covers public-key cryptography, beginning with a self-contained introduction to the number theory needed to understand the RSA, Diffie-Hellman, and El Gamal cryptosystems (and others), followed by a thorough treatment of several standardized public-key encryption and digital signature schemes.
Integrating a more practical perspective without sacrificing rigor, this widely anticipated Second Edition offers improved treatment of:Stream ciphers and block ciphers, including modes of operation and design principles Authenticated encryption and secure communication sessions Hash functions, including hash-function applications and design principles Attacks on poorly implemented cryptography, including attacks on chained-CBC encryption, padding-oracle attacks, and timing attacks The random-oracle model and its application to several standardized, widely used public-key encryption and signature schemes Elliptic-curve cryptography and associated standards such as DSA/ECDSA and DHIES/ECIES
Containing updated exercises and worked examples, Introduction to Modern Cryptography, Second Edition can serve as a textbook for undergraduate- or graduate-level courses in cryptography, a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners, or a general introduction suitable for self-study.
One of Science News’ Favorite Books of the Year
“Required reading for every concerned citizen.” — New York Review of Books
“The future is in our hands as never before, and this book explains the stakes like no other.” — George Lucas
Not since the atomic bomb has a technology so alarmed its inventors that they warned the world about its use. That is, until 2015, when biologist Jennifer Doudna called for a worldwide moratorium on the use of the gene-editing tool CRISPR—a revolutionary new technology that she helped create—to make heritable changes in human embryos. The cheapest, simplest, most effective way of manipulating DNA ever known, CRISPR may well give us the cure to HIV, genetic diseases, and some cancers. Yet even the tiniest changes to DNA could have myriad, unforeseeable consequences—to say nothing of the ethical and societal repercussions of intentionally mutating embryos to create “better” humans.
Writing with fellow researcher Sam Sternberg, Doudna shares the thrilling story of her discovery and describes the enormous responsibility that comes with the power to rewrite the code of life.
“An essential start to educating the public . . . reveal[s] the complex, interlocking, and thoroughly international nature of today’s bioscience.” —Los Angeles Review of Books
“An invaluable account . . . We owe Doudna several times over.” — Guardian
Transcend gives you the practical tools you need to live long enough (and remain healthy long enough) to take full advantage of the biotech and nanotech advances that have already begun and will continue to occur at an accelerating pace during the years ahead. To help you remember the nine key components of the program, Ray and Terry have arranged them into a mnemonic: Talk with your doctor, Relaxation, Assessment, Nutrition, Supplements, Calorie reduction, Exercise, New technologies, Detoxification.
This easy-to-follow program will help you transcend the boundaries of your genetic legacy and live long enough to live forever.
This book will be useful to everyone who has struggled with displaying data in an informative and attractive way. Some basic knowledge of R is necessary (e.g., importing data into R). ggplot2 is a mini-language specifically tailored for producing graphics, and you'll learn everything you need in the book. After reading this book you'll be able to produce graphics customized precisely for your problems, and you'll find it easy to get graphics out of your head and on to the screen or page.
A long life in a healthy, vigorous, youthful body has always been one of humanity's greatest dreams. Recent progress in genetic manipulations and calorie-restricted diets in laboratory animals hold forth the promise that someday science will enable us to exert total control over our own biological aging.
Nearly all scientists who study the biology of aging agree that we will someday be able to substantially slow down the aging process, extending our productive, youthful lives. Dr. Aubrey de Grey is perhaps the most bullish of all such researchers. As has been reported in media outlets ranging from 60 Minutes to The New York Times, Dr. de Grey believes that the key biomedical technology required to eliminate aging-derived debilitation and death entirely—technology that would not only slow but periodically reverse age-related physiological decay, leaving us biologically young into an indefinite future—is now within reach.
In Ending Aging, Dr. de Grey and his research assistant Michael Rae describe the details of this biotechnology. They explain that the aging of the human body, just like the aging of man-made machines, results from an accumulation of various types of damage. As with man-made machines, this damage can periodically be repaired, leading to indefinite extension of the machine's fully functional lifetime, just as is routinely done with classic cars. We already know what types of damage accumulate in the human body, and we are moving rapidly toward the comprehensive development of technologies to remove that damage. By demystifying aging and its postponement for the nonspecialist reader, de Grey and Rae systematically dismantle the fatalist presumption that aging will forever defeat the efforts of medical science.
Imhausen shows that from the earliest beginnings, pharaonic civilization used numerical techniques to efficiently control and use their material resources and labor. Even during the Old Kingdom, a variety of metrological systems had already been devised. By the Middle Kingdom, procedures had been established to teach mathematical techniques to scribes in order to make them proficient administrators for their king. Imhausen looks at counterparts to the notation of zero, suggests an explanation for the evolution of unit fractions, and analyzes concepts of arithmetic techniques. She draws connections and comparisons to Mesopotamian mathematics, examines which individuals in Egyptian society held mathematical knowledge, and considers which scribes were trained in mathematical ideas and why.
Of interest to historians of mathematics, mathematicians, Egyptologists, and all those curious about Egyptian culture, Mathematics in Ancient Egypt sheds new light on a civilization's unique mathematical evolution.
Balancing abstract ideas with specific topical coverage, thebook utilizes real world examples with problems ranging from basiccalculations that are designed to develop fundamental concepts tomore challenging exercises that allow for a deeper exploration ofcomplex combinatorial situations. Simple cases are treated firstbefore moving on to general and more advanced cases. Additionalfeatures of the book include:
• Approximately 700 carefully structured problems designedfor readers at multiple levels, many with hints and/or shortanswers
• Numerous examples that illustrate problem solving usingboth combinatorial reasoning and sophisticated algorithmicmethods
• A novel approach to the study of recurrence sequences,which simplifies many proofs and calculations
• Concrete examples and diagrams interspersed throughout tofurther aid comprehension of abstract concepts
• A chapter-by-chapter review to clarify the most crucialconcepts covered
Combinatorial Reasoning: An Introduction to the Art ofCounting is an excellent textbook for upper-undergraduate andbeginning graduate-level courses on introductory combinatorics anddiscrete mathematics.
Facilitating effective and active learning, each chapter contains a mixture of discovery activities, expository text, in-class exercises, and homework problems.
Elementary exercises at the end of each expository section prompt students to review the material Try This! sections encourage students to construct fundamental components of the concepts, theorems, and proofs discussed. Sets of discovery problems and illustrative examples reinforce learning. Bonus sections can be used for take-home exams, projects, or further study Instructor Notes sections offer suggestions on how to use the material in each chapter
Discrete Mathematics with Ducks offers students a diverse introduction to the field and a solid foundation for further study in discrete mathematics and complies with SIGCSE guidelines. The book shows how combinatorics and graph theory are used in both computer science and mathematics.
Concepts are presented in a readable and accessible manner, and applications are stressed throughout so the reader never loses sight of the powerful tools graph theory provides to solve real-world problems. Such diverse areas as job assignment, delivery truck routing, location of emergency or service facilities, network reliability, zoo design, exam scheduling, error-correcting codes, facility layout, and the critical path method are covered.
The first part of the book presents the syntax and semantics of access control logic, basic access control concepts, and an introduction to confidentiality and integrity policies. The second section covers access control in networks, delegation, protocols, and the use of cryptography. In the third section, the authors focus on hardware and virtual machines. The final part discusses confidentiality, integrity, and role-based access control.
Taking a logical, rigorous approach to access control, this book shows how logic is a useful tool for analyzing security designs and spelling out the conditions upon which access control decisions depend. It is designed for computer engineers and computer scientists who are responsible for designing, implementing, and verifying secure computer and information systems.
The four-part treatment begins with a section on counting and listing that covers basic counting, functions, decision trees, and sieving methods. The following section addresses fundamental concepts in graph theory and a sampler of graph topics. The third part examines a variety of applications relevant to computer science and mathematics, including induction and recursion, sorting theory, and rooted plane trees. The final section, on generating functions, offers students a powerful tool for studying counting problems. Numerous exercises appear throughout the text, along with notes and references. The text concludes with solutions to odd-numbered exercises and to all appendix exercises.
Just as with the first three editions, the new edition walks the reader through the classic parts of combinatorial enumeration and graph theory, while also discussing some recent progress in the area: on the one hand, providing material that will help students learn the basic techniques, and on the other hand, showing that some questions at the forefront of research are comprehensible and accessible to the talented and hardworking undergraduate. The basic topics discussed are: the twelvefold way, cycles in permutations, the formula of inclusion and exclusion, the notion of graphs and trees, matchings, Eulerian and Hamiltonian cycles, and planar graphs.
New to this edition are the Quick Check exercises at the end of each section. In all, the new edition contains about 240 new exercises. Extra examples were added to some sections where readers asked for them.
The selected advanced topics are: Ramsey theory, pattern avoidance, the probabilistic method, partially ordered sets, the theory of designs, enumeration under group action, generating functions of labeled and unlabeled structures and algorithms and complexity.
The book encourages students to learn more combinatorics, provides them with a not only useful but also enjoyable and engaging reading.
The Solution Manual is available upon request for all instructors who adopt this book as a course text. Please send your request to firstname.lastname@example.org.
The previous edition of this textbook has been adopted at various schools including UCLA, MIT, University of Michigan, and Swarthmore College. It was also translated into Korean.
New to the Fifth Edition
New or expanded coverage of graph minors, perfect graphs, chromatic polynomials, nowhere-zero flows, flows in networks, degree sequences, toughness, list colorings, and list edge colorings New examples, figures, and applications to illustrate concepts and theorems Expanded historical discussions of well-known mathematicians and problems More than 300 new exercises, along with hints and solutions to odd-numbered exercises at the back of the book Reorganization of sections into subsections to make the material easier to read Bolded definitions of terms, making them easier to locate
Despite a field that has evolved over the years, this student-friendly, classroom-tested text remains the consummate introduction to graph theory. It explores the subject’s fascinating history and presents a host of interesting problems and diverse applications.
The book's three sections look at foundations, multiagent networks, and networks as systems. The authors give an overview of important ideas from graph theory, followed by a detailed account of the agreement protocol and its various extensions, including the behavior of the protocol over undirected, directed, switching, and random networks. They cover topics such as formation control, coverage, distributed estimation, social networks, and games over networks. And they explore intriguing aspects of viewing networks as systems, by making these networks amenable to control-theoretic analysis and automatic synthesis, by monitoring their dynamic evolution, and by examining higher-order interaction models in terms of simplicial complexes and their applications.
The book will interest graduate students working in systems and control, as well as in computer science and robotics. It will be a standard reference for researchers seeking a self-contained account of system-theoretic aspects of multiagent networks and their wide-ranging applications.
This book has been adopted as a textbook at the following universities:
University of Stuttgart, Germany
Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Johannes Kepler University, Austria
Georgia Tech, USA
University of Washington, USA
Ohio University, USA
A manual of selected solutions is available for sale to students; see sidebar. A complete solution manual is available free to instructors who have adopted the book as a required text.
Chapter 3 contains an extended treatment of the principle of inclusion and exclusion which is indispensable to the enumeration of permutations with restricted position given in Chapters 7 and 8. Chapter 4 examines the enumeration of permutations in cyclic representation and Chapter 5 surveys the theory of distributions. Chapter 6 considers partitions, compositions, and the enumeration of trees and linear graphs.
Each chapter includes a lengthy problem section, intended to develop the text and to aid the reader. These problems assume a certain amount of mathematical maturity. Equations, theorems, sections, examples, and problems are numbered consecutively in each chapter and are referred to by these numbers in other chapters.
Key features of Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems:
* A rigorous exposition starts with the natural numbers and the basics.
* Important concepts are presented with an example, which may also emphasize an application. The exposition moves systematically and intuitively to uncover deeper properties.
* Topics include divisibility, unique factorization, modular arithmetic and the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Diophantine equations, quadratic residues, binomial coefficients, Fermat and Mersenne primes and other special numbers, and special sequences. Sections on mathematical induction and the pigeonhole principle, as well as a discussion of other number systems are covered.
* Unique exercises reinforce and motivate the reader, with selected solutions to some of the problems.
* Glossary, bibliography, and comprehensive index round out the text.
Written by distinguished research mathematicians and renowned teachers, this text is a clear, accessible introduction to the subject and a source of fascinating problems and puzzles, from advanced high school students to undergraduates, their instructors, and general readers at all levels.
Startling discoveries in the areas of genomics, biotechnology, and nanotechnology are occurring every day. The rewards of this research, some of it as spectacular as what was once thought of as science fiction, are practically in our grasp. Already it is possible to analyze our individual genetic makeups and evaluate our predisposition for breast cancer or other deadly diseases on a case-by-case basis. And once we've isolated these genes, the ability to repress or enhance them through biotechnology is just around the corner. Soon, for example, it will be feasible for 10% of our red blood cells to be replaced by artificial cells, radically extending our life expectancy and enhancing our physical and even mental abilities beyond what is humanly possible today. In Fantastic Voyage, Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman will show us how amazingly advanced we are in our medical technology, and how incredibly far each of us can go toward living as long as we dare imagine.
With today's mind-bending array of scientific knowledge, it is possible to prevent nearly 90% of the maladies that kill us, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, and liver disease. Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman start the reader on a fantastic journey to undreamed-of vitality with a comprehensive investigation into the cutting-edge science on diet, metabolism, genetics, toxins and detoxification, the hormones involved with aging and youth, exercise, stress reduction, and more. By following their program, which includes such simple recommendations as drinking alkaline water and taking specific nutritional supplements to enhance your immune system and slow the aging process on a cellular level, anyone will be able to immediately add years of healthy, active living to his life.
Following on from the Industrial or machine age, the space age and the digital age, the Augmented Age will be based on four key disruptive themes—Artificial Intelligence, Experience Design, Smart Infrastructure, and HealthTech. Historically the previous ‘ages’ bought significant disruption and changes, but on a net basis jobs were created, wealth was enhanced, and the health and security of society improved. What will the Augmented Age bring? Will robots take our jobs, and AI’s subsume us as inferior intelligences, or will this usher in a new age of abundance?
Augmented is a book on future history, but more than that, it is a story about how you will live your life in a world that will change more in the next 20 years than it has in the last 250 years. Are you ready to adapt? Because if history proves anything, you don't have much of a choice.
The text is geared towards advanced undergraduate and graduate students and is particularly useful for those trying to decide what type of problem to tackle for their dissertation. This book can also serve as a reference for anyone interested in exploring how they can apply graph theory to other parts of mathematics.
The book offers the most important results and methods in discrete and computational geometry to those who use them in their work, both in the academic world—as researchers in mathematics and computer science—and in the professional world—as practitioners in fields as diverse as operations research, molecular biology, and robotics.
Discrete geometry has contributed significantly to the growth of discrete mathematics in recent years. This has been fueled partly by the advent of powerful computers and by the recent explosion of activity in the relatively young field of computational geometry. This synthesis between discrete and computational geometry lies at the heart of this Handbook.
A growing list of application fields includes combinatorial optimization, computer-aided design, computer graphics, crystallography, data analysis, error-correcting codes, geographic information systems, motion planning, operations research, pattern recognition, robotics, solid modeling, and tomography.
The author is one of the coaches of China's IMO National Team, whose students have won many gold medals many times in IMO.
This book is part of the Mathematical Olympiad Series which discusses several aspects related to maths contests, such as algebra, number theory, combinatorics, graph theory and geometry. The book elaborates on methods of discrete extremization, such as inequality control, repeated extremum, partial adjustment, exploiting symmetry, polishing transform, space estimates, etc.
The treatment of information theory, while theoretical and abstract, is quite elementary, making this text less daunting than many others. After presenting the fundamental definitions and results of the theory, the authors then apply the theory to memoryless, discrete channels with zeroth-order, one-state sources.
The chapters on data compression acquaint students with a myriad of lossless compression methods and then introduce two lossy compression methods. Students emerge from this study competent in a wide range of techniques. The authors' presentation is highly practical but includes some important proofs, either in the text or in the exercises, so instructors can, if they choose, place more emphasis on the mathematics.
Introduction to Information Theory and Data Compression, Second Edition is ideally suited for an upper-level or graduate course for students in mathematics, engineering, and computer science.
Expanded discussion of the historical and theoretical basis of information theory that builds a firm, intuitive grasp of the subject
Reorganization of theoretical results along with new exercises, ranging from the routine to the more difficult, that reinforce students' ability to apply the definitions and results in specific situations.
Simplified treatment of the algorithm(s) of Gallager and Knuth
Discussion of the information rate of a code and the trade-off between error correction and information rate
Treatment of probabilistic finite state source automata, including basic results, examples, references, and exercises
Octave and MATLAB image compression codes included in an appendix for use with the exercises and projects involving transform methods
Supplementary materials, including software, available for download from the authors' Web site at www.dms.auburn.edu/compression
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Graphs (1,406 KB)
Chapter 5: Planar Graphs (1,069 KB)
Chapter 8: Networks (1,001 KB)
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Divided into 11 cohesive sections, the handbook’s 44 chapters focus on graph theory, combinatorial optimization, and algorithmic issues. The book provides readers with the algorithmic and theoretical foundations to:
Understand phenomena as shaped by their graph structures Develop needed algorithmic and optimization tools for the study of graph structures Design and plan graph structures that lead to certain desirable behavior
With contributions from more than 40 worldwide experts, this handbook equips readers with the necessary techniques and tools to solve problems in a variety of applications. Readers gain exposure to the theoretical and algorithmic foundations of a wide range of topics in graph theory and combinatorial optimization, enabling them to identify (and hence solve) problems encountered in diverse disciplines, such as electrical, communication, computer, social, transportation, biological, and other networks.
Discrete mathematics has the answer to these—and many other—questions of picking, choosing, and shuffling. T. S. Michael's gem of a book brings this vital but tough-to-teach subject to life using examples from real life and popular culture. Each chapter uses one problem—such as slicing a pizza—to detail key concepts about counting numbers and arranging finite sets. Michael takes a different perspective in tackling each of eight problems and explains them in differing degrees of generality, showing in the process how the same mathematical concepts appear in varied guises and contexts. In doing so, he imparts a broader understanding of the ideas underlying discrete mathematics and helps readers appreciate and understand mathematical thinking and discovery.
This book explains the basic concepts of discrete mathematics and demonstrates how to apply them in largely nontechnical language. The explanations and formulas can be grasped with a basic understanding of linear equations.
From the Trade Paperback edition.