While Malaysia successfully transformed its economy from agriculture and mining towards manufacturing and more recently services, it is currently facing an economic slowdown and new competition. Mobilising new sources of growth will allow Malaysia to respond to these challenges and re-energise its economy through innovation-driven productivity gains.
Kazakhstan has set itself the goal of becoming one of the 30 most developed countries in the world by 2050. To sustain rapid, inclusive and sustainable growth and social progress, Kazakhstan will need to overcome a number of significant challenges. Natural-resource dependency, the concentration of economic clout and a fragile and underdeveloped financial sector limit diversification and economic dynamism. Widespread corruption still affects multiple state functions, undermines the business environment, meritocracy and entrepreneurial spirit. More generally, the state has limited capacity to fulfil some of its functions, which affects the delivery of public services like health and education, as well as the protection of the environment and the generation of skills.
This report considers the growing trend in information requirements for seafood products in general, and in particular to the distinct sustainability features of wild capture fisheries and aquaculture. This work refers primarily to privately-driven certification schemes which have become an established feature of the market for eco-labels in fisheries and aquaculture. The report focuses on private eco-labelling and analyzes the economics of certification schemes, discusses key issues at the interface between public authorities, private labelling schemes, business operators and consumers. Finally, main findings and messages to policy makers are addressed.
The report has been developed as part of a water policy dialogue conducted by the OECD jointly with the Global Water Partnership-Mediterranean (GWP-Med) in the context of the project labelled by the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) “Governance and Financing for the Mediterranean Water Sector”, with the support of the FEMIP Trust Fund of the European Investment Bank.
This book examines the environmental impacts of international maritime transport, and looks more in detail at the impacts stemming from near-port shipping activities, the handling of the goods in the ports and from the distribution of the goods to the surrounding regions. It focuses on five ports: Los Angeles and Long Beach, California, the United States; Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Port Metro Vancouver, Canada; and Busan, Korea.
The book provides examples of the environmental problems related to port activities (such as air pollution and emissions of greenhouse gases, water pollution, noise, spread of invasive species, etc.) and highlights a number of different policy instruments that can be used to limit the negative impacts. It is a valuable resource for policy makers and researchers alike.
This third edition of How’s Life? develops our understanding of well-being in new ways. There is a special focus on child well-being, which finds that not all children are getting a good start in life, and those living in less affluent families face more risks to their well-being. The report introduces new measures to capture some of the natural, human, social and economic resources that play a role in supporting well-being over time. A chapter on volunteering suggests that volunteer work can create a virtuous circle: doing good makes people feel good, and brings a variety of other well-being benefits to both volunteers and to society at large. Finally, the report looks at inequalities in well-being across different regions within countries, demonstrating that where people live can shape their opportunities for living well.
How’s Life? is part of the OECD Better Life Initiative, which features a series of publications on measuring well-being, as well as the Better Life Index, an interactive website that aims to involve citizens in the debate about what a better life means to them.
The report has two audiences: It aims to support the Mexican government and key actors in the education system to develop long-term vision and policy in the areas of school management, school leadership, social participation, selection and recruitment of teachers, teacher education, professional development, and evaluation policies in Mexico. At the same time, it provides valuable knowledge in education policy development and implementation useful for other OECD member and partner countries that are in the process of reforming their education systems.
The OECD workshop examined the various strategies used by farm households, in particular those attracting renewed interest such as diversification of income sources, vertical co-ordination, hedging on futures markets, insurance coverage and public safety-nets. It allowed participants from Member countries’ governments and private industries to share their experience. One of the main conclusions was that farmers, as managers, have the primary responsibility for risk management and that the optimal mix of tools and instruments depends on specific conditions. Government intervention in risk management, coming as a response to an identified market failure, should be in line with general reform principles shared by OECD Ministers for Agriculture, which include increasing the market orientation of agriculture and addressing legitimate domestic interests in ways that do not distort production and trade.
OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations provides guidance on the application of the "arm's length principle" for valuation for tax purposes of cross-border transactions between associated enterprises. In a global economy where multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a prominent role, governments need to ensure that the taxable profits of MNEs are not artificially shifted out of their jurisdiction and that the tax base reported by MNEs in their country reflects the economic activity undertaken therein. For taxpayers, it is essential to limit the risks of economic double taxation that may result from a dispute between two countries on the determination of the arm’s length remuneration for their cross-border transactions with associated enterprises.
The OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines clarifies these issues and were originally approved by the OECD Council in 1995. In this 2009 edition, some amendments have been made to Chapter IV, primarily to reflect the adoption, in the 2008 update of the Model Tax Convention, of a new paragraph 5 of Article 25 dealing with arbitration, and of changes to the Commentary on Article 25 on mutual agreement procedures to resolve cross-border tax disputes. References to good practices identified in the online Manual for Effective Mutual Agreement Procedures (www.oecd.org/ctp/memap) have also been included and the foreword and preface have been updated.
This review of China's regulatory system focuses on the overall economic context for regulatory reform, the government’s capacity to manage regulatory reform, competition policy and enforcement, and market openness. The review also examines the regulatory framework in the electricity, water and health care sectors. As for OECD countries, the review follows a multidisciplinary and highly interactive approach. A number of OECD instruments and policies are used in this assessment, although the review also takes into account the specific challenges faced by the Chinese authorities. The review includes a comprehensive set of policy recommendations.
The 2016 review of evaluation systems in development co-operation looks at the changes and trends in evaluation systems over the last five years. The report describes the role and management of evaluation in development agencies, ministries and multilateral banks. It provides information about the specific institutional settings, resources, policies and practices of DAC Evaluation Network members, and includes specific profiles on each member’s evaluation system. The study identifies major trends and current challenges in development evaluation. It covers issues such as human and financial resources, institutional setups and policies, independence of the evaluation function, reporting and use of evaluation findings, joint evaluation, and the involvement of partner countries in evaluation work.
This report is part of the DAC Network on Development Evaluation’s ongoing efforts to increase the effectiveness of development co-operation policies and programmes by promoting high-quality, independent evaluation.
This review analyses the challenges of strengthening regulatory governance in Brazil to improve economic growth, with appropriate regulatory frameworks for core infrastructure sectors. Improved institutional capacities would also enhance support for regulatory policy across various government areas. Setting up an appropriate architecture for sectoral regulatory agencies and balancing autonomy with accountability will contribute to improved governance. Challenges include consolidating the autonomy and status of Brazilian regulatory authorities, reinforcing the strategic organisation for planning and decision making, increasing social accountability mechanisms, and improving co-ordination with competition authorities. Regulatory reform will help Brazil boost growth opportunities, and improve the quality and value of core services provided to its citizens.
Brazil requested this broad review by the OECD of its regulatory practices and reforms. The review presents a general picture of the overall frameworks to assure high quality regulation with a special focus on four core infrastructure sectors: power, private health insurance, land transport and telecommunications.
The review finds that since the last review, Japan has made steady progress in addressing a range of environmental issues, notably air and water pollution, and the management of chemicals and waste. The energy intensity of the economy has continued to decrease, particularly in the industrial sector, and is among the lowest in OECD countries. Material intensity has also decreased.
At the same time, several more complex, long-term challenges have come to the fore: climate change, sound waste, materials management, and biodiversity conservation. Much of the last decade was characterised by sluggish economic growth, and environment and green innovation are targeted as key drivers of future growth and job creation in Japan's New Growth Strategy.
This publication provides a unique set of statistics that reflect the level and structure of the financial assets and liabilities of institutional investors in the OECD countries (with the exception of Australia and Slovak Republic), and in Latvia and the Russian Federation. Concepts and definitions are predominantly based on the System of National Accounts. Data are derived from national sources.
Data include outstanding amounts of financial assets and liabilities such as currency and deposits, securities, loans, and shares. When relevant, they are further broken down according to maturity and residency. The publication covers investment funds, of which open-end companies and closed-end companies, as well as insurance corporations and autonomous pension funds. Indicators are presented as percentages of GDP allowing for international comparisons, and at country level, both in national currency and as percentages of total financial assets of the investor. Time series display available data for the last eight years.
The analysis of the different national experiences leads to a number of general observations and specific policy recommendations. In so doing, the study provides a new perspective on the role of voluntary, collective action in finding local solutions to local environmental issues.
German employers can recruit from abroad for any job requiring university-level qualifications. Yet even employers declaring shortages have not done so, in part, due to their insistence on German-language skills and specific qualifications, and in part to a perception that international recruitment is complex and unreliable. While the process could be made more transparent, its negative reputation is unjustified. International students appear well positioned to meet employer concerns, but Germany could do more to promote this channel for labour migration. A large part of the demand is also expected in skilled occupations requiring non-tertiary vocational training, but here, channels remain more restrictive. To address anticipated shortages in these occupations, more should be done to recruit into the dual system, and Germany’s new recognition framework could contribute to open new channels.
The series identifies some of the fundamental elements of national tax system administration and uses data, analyses and country examples to identify key trends, comparative levels of performance, recent and planned developments, and good practices.
This edition updates performance-related and descriptive material contained in prior editions with new data up to end-fiscal year 2013, and supplements this information on some new topics (e.g. aspects of compliance management and strategic priorities for increased use of on-line services). It also includes coverage of four additional countries (i.e. Costa Rica, Croatia, Morocco, and Thailand).
This report develops a framework that classifies investments according to different types of financing instruments and investment funds, and highlights the risk mitigants and transaction enablers that intermediaries (such as public green investment banks and other public financial institutions) can use to mobilise institutionally held capital. This framework can also be used to identify where investments are or are not flowing, and focus attention on how governments can support the development of potentially promising investment channels and consider policy interventions that can make institutional investment in sustainable energy infrastructure more likely.
Many governments of OECD Member countries are developing new public sector leadership models. This is the first report to examine key leadership issues across OECD Member countries, including the strategies and practices governments are adopting, and the lessons from country experiences so far.
In addition to outlining the general approaches used by OECD countries in this area, the authors have drawn upon their extensive practical experience in designing a tax system for the insurance industry in their home country. Based on this experience, they have addressed the major policy questions faced by tax policy-makers in this area and included a critical analysis of the various technical issues which arise in turning theory into practice.
To identify “weak links” in the public procurement process where the risk of corruption is high, to explore the best ways of improving transparency and accountability and to identify effective actions to prevent, detect and sanction corruption in this field, the OECD organised a Global Forum on Governance event on “Fighting Corruption and Promoting Integrity in Public Procurement”, hosted by the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry in Paris in November 2004.
This publication captures the main points of the Global Forum discussions and presents expert analysis of the main issues and case studies from the varied experiences of countries and specialised bodies, mainly in Europe, Asia and Latin America, that contributed to the event.
Paradoxically, it also figures among the sectors which are the least developed in terms of robust, internationally comparable statistics and data. This book attempts to rectify that situation by assembling information from a wide range of official and non-official sources. Together these paint a richly detailed picture of the space industry, its downstream services activities, and its wider economic and social impacts. Who are the main space-faring nations? How large are revenues and how much employment is there in the sector? How much R&D goes on, and where? What is the value of spin-offs from space spending? Answers to these and other questions are provided in this first-ever OECD statistical overview of the emerging space economy.
A dynamic link (StatLink) is provided for graphs, which directs the user to a web page where the corresponding data are available in Excel® format.
The book sets out to answer the following questions: Can the claim that today’s students are "new millenium learners" or "digital natives be sustained empirically? Is there consistent research evidence demonstrating the effects of technology on cognitive development, social values, and learning expectations? What are the implications for educational policy and practice?
This report has been prepared by the Forum on Tax Administration’s Advanced Analytics Programme. The work was initiated by the FTA Bureau following the biennial conference on Advanced Analytics hosted by the Irish Revenue Commissioners in March 2015. That workshop identified member country interest in undertaking work to identify member experience in analytics delivery and share information on both the technologies and tools they were using.
Data are provided for all OECD member countries (including area totals), and for Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa. For each indicator, there is a two-page spread: a text page includes a short introduction followed by a detailed definition of the indicator, comments on comparability of the data, an assessment of long-term trends related to the indicator and a list of references for further information on the indicator; the second page contains a table and a graph providing, at a glance, the key message conveyed by the data. Each indicator includes "StatLinks" which allow readers to download the corresponding data.
OECD Countries covered include Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile,Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Non-OECD countries covered include Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, and South Africa.
Topics covered include population and migration; production and productivity; household income, wealth and debt; globalisation, trade and foreign direct investment (FDI); prices, interest rates and exchange rates; energy and transportation; labour, employment and unemployment; science and technology including research and development (R&D) and the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector; environment including natural resoures, water,and air and climate; education resources and outcomes; government expenditures, debt, revenues, taxes, agricultural support and foreign aid; and health status, risk and resources.
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