What if you had to take an art class in which you were only taught how to paint a fence? What if you were never shown the paintings of van Gogh and Picasso, weren't even told they existed? Alas, this is how math is taught, and so for most of us it becomes the intellectual equivalent of watching paint dry.
In Love and Math, renowned mathematician Edward Frenkel reveals a side of math we've never seen, suffused with all the beauty and elegance of a work of art. In this heartfelt and passionate book, Frenkel shows that mathematics, far from occupying a specialist niche, goes to the heart of all matter, uniting us across cultures, time, and space.
Love and Math tells two intertwined stories: of the wonders of mathematics and of one young man's journey learning and living it. Having braved a discriminatory educational system to become one of the twenty-first century's leading mathematicians, Frenkel now works on one of the biggest ideas to come out of math in the last 50 years: the Langlands Program. Considered by many to be a Grand Unified Theory of mathematics, the Langlands Program enables researchers to translate findings from one field to another so that they can solve problems, such as Fermat's last theorem, that had seemed intractable before.
At its core, Love and Math is a story about accessing a new way of thinking, which can enrich our lives and empower us to better understand the world and our place in it. It is an invitation to discover the magic hidden universe of mathematics.
In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simplicity of the proofs for many theorems.
Among the topics covered in this accessible, carefully designed introduction are multiplicativity-divisibility, including the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, combinatorial and computational number theory, congruences, arithmetic functions, primitive roots and prime numbers. Later chapters offer lucid treatments of quadratic congruences, additivity (including partition theory) and geometric number theory.
Of particular importance in this text is the author's emphasis on the value of numerical examples in number theory and the role of computers in obtaining such examples. Exercises provide opportunities for constructing numerical tables with or without a computer. Students can then derive conjectures from such numerical tables, after which relevant theorems will seem natural and well-motivated..
Bellos has traveled all around the globe and has plunged into history to uncover fascinating stories of mathematical achievement, from the breakthroughs of Euclid, the greatest mathematician of all time, to the creations of the Zen master of origami, one of the hottest areas of mathematical work today. Taking us into the wilds of the Amazon, he tells the story of a tribe there who can count only to five and reports on the latest findings about the math instinct—including the revelation that ants can actually count how many steps they’ve taken. Journeying to the Bay of Bengal, he interviews a Hindu sage about the brilliant mathematical insights of the Buddha, while in Japan he visits the godfather of Sudoku and introduces the brainteasing delights of mathematical games.
Exploring the mysteries of randomness, he explains why it is impossible for our iPods to truly randomly select songs. In probing the many intrigues of that most beloved of numbers, pi, he visits with two brothers so obsessed with the elusive number that they built a supercomputer in their Manhattan apartment to study it. Throughout, the journey is enhanced with a wealth of intriguing illustrations, such as of the clever puzzles known as tangrams and the crochet creation of an American math professor who suddenly realized one day that she could knit a representation of higher dimensional space that no one had been able to visualize.
Whether writing about how algebra solved Swedish traffic problems, visiting the Mental Calculation World Cup to disclose the secrets of lightning calculation, or exploring the links between pineapples and beautiful teeth, Bellos is a wonderfully engaging guide who never fails to delight even as he edifies. Here’s Looking at Euclid is a rare gem that brings the beauty of math to life.
Key features of Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems:
* A rigorous exposition starts with the natural numbers and the basics.
* Important concepts are presented with an example, which may also emphasize an application. The exposition moves systematically and intuitively to uncover deeper properties.
* Topics include divisibility, unique factorization, modular arithmetic and the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Diophantine equations, quadratic residues, binomial coefficients, Fermat and Mersenne primes and other special numbers, and special sequences. Sections on mathematical induction and the pigeonhole principle, as well as a discussion of other number systems are covered.
* Unique exercises reinforce and motivate the reader, with selected solutions to some of the problems.
* Glossary, bibliography, and comprehensive index round out the text.
Written by distinguished research mathematicians and renowned teachers, this text is a clear, accessible introduction to the subject and a source of fascinating problems and puzzles, from advanced high school students to undergraduates, their instructors, and general readers at all levels.
Hidden symmetries were first discovered nearly two hundred years ago by French mathematician évariste Galois. They have been used extensively in the oldest and largest branch of mathematics--number theory--for such diverse applications as acoustics, radar, and codes and ciphers. They have also been employed in the study of Fibonacci numbers and to attack well-known problems such as Fermat's Last Theorem, Pythagorean Triples, and the ever-elusive Riemann Hypothesis. Mathematicians are still devising techniques for teasing out these mysterious patterns, and their uses are limited only by the imagination.
The first popular book to address representation theory and reciprocity laws, Fearless Symmetry focuses on how mathematicians solve equations and prove theorems. It discusses rules of math and why they are just as important as those in any games one might play. The book starts with basic properties of integers and permutations and reaches current research in number theory. Along the way, it takes delightful historical and philosophical digressions. Required reading for all math buffs, the book will appeal to anyone curious about popular mathematics and its myriad contributions to everyday life.
Ono describes his rocky path through college and graduate school, interweaving Ramanujan’s story with his own and telling how at key moments, he was inspired by Ramanujan and guided by mentors who encouraged him to pursue his interest in exploring Ramanujan’s mathematical legacy.
Picking up where others left off, beginning with the great English mathematician G.H. Hardy, who brought Ramanujan to Cambridge in 1914, Ono has devoted his mathematical career to understanding how in his short life, Ramanujan was able to discover so many deep mathematical truths, which Ramanujan believed had been sent to him as visions from a Hindu goddess. And it was Ramanujan who was ultimately the source of reconciliation between Ono and his parents.
Ono’s search for Ramanujan ranges over three continents and crosses paths with mathematicians whose lives span the globe and the entire twentieth century and beyond. Along the way, Ken made many fascinating discoveries. The most important and surprising one of all was his own humanity."
The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diophantine approximation, and more. Included are discussions of topics not always found in introductory texts: factorization and primality of large integers, p-adic numbers, algebraic number fields, Brun's theorem on twin primes, and the transcendence of e, to mention a few.
Readers will find a substantial number of well-chosen problems, along with many notes and bibliographical references selected for readability and relevance. Five helpful appendixes — containing such study aids as a factor table, computer-plotted graphs, a table of indices, the Greek alphabet, and a list of symbols — and a bibliography round out this well-written text, which is directed toward undergraduate majors and beginning graduate students in mathematics. No post-calculus prerequisite is assumed. 1977 edition.
The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamental properties of integers and congruences. Subsequent chapters present proofs of Fermat's and Wilson's theorems, introduce number theoretic functions, and explore the quadratic reciprocity theorem. Three independent sections follow, with examinations of the representation of numbers, diophantine equations, and primes. The text concludes with 260 additional problems, three helpful appendixes, and answers to selected exercises and problems.
According to MSNBC, having a child makes you stupid. You actually lose IQ points. Good Morning America has announced that natural blondes will be extinct within two hundred years. Pundits estimated that there were more than a million demonstrators at a tea party rally in Washington, D.C., even though roughly sixty thousand were there. Numbers have peculiar powers-they can disarm skeptics, befuddle journalists, and hoodwink the public into believing almost anything.
"Proofiness," as Charles Seife explains in this eye-opening book, is the art of using pure mathematics for impure ends, and he reminds readers that bad mathematics has a dark side. It is used to bring down beloved government officials and to appoint undeserving ones (both Democratic and Republican), to convict the innocent and acquit the guilty, to ruin our economy, and to fix the outcomes of future elections. This penetrating look at the intersection of math and society will appeal to readers of Freakonomics and the books of Malcolm Gladwell.
Numbers began as simple representations of everyday things, but mathematics rapidly took on a life of its own, occupying a parallel virtual world. In Are Numbers Real?, Brian Clegg explores the way that math has become more and more detached from reality, and yet despite this is driving the development of modern physics. From devising a new counting system based on goats, through the weird and wonderful mathematics of imaginary numbers and infinity, to the debate over whether mathematics has too much influence on the direction of science, this fascinating and accessible book opens the reader’s eyes to the hidden reality of the strange yet familiar entities that are numbers.
Unlike many authors, however, Mr. Friedberg encourages students to think about the imaginative, playful qualities of numbers as they consider such subjects as primes and divisibility, quadratic forms and residue arithmetic and quadratic reciprocity and related theorems. Moreover, the author has included a number of unusual features to challenge and stimulate students: some of the original problems in Diophantus' Arithmetica, proofs of Fermat's Last Theorem for the exponents 3and 4, and two proofs of Wilson's Theorem.
Readers with a mathematical bent will enjoy and benefit from these entertaining and thought-provoking adventures in the fascinating realm of number theory. Mr. Friedberg is currently Professor of Physics at Barnard College, where he is Chairman of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.
The book begins with a systematic study of real numbers, understood to be a set of objects satisfying certain definite axioms. The concepts of a mathematical structure and an isomorphism are introduced in Chapter 2, after a brief digression on set theory, and a proof of the uniqueness of the structure of real numbers is given as an illustration. Two other structures are then introduced, namely n-dimensional space and the field of complex numbers.
After a detailed treatment of metric spaces in Chapter 3, a general theory of limits is developed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats some theorems on continuous numerical functions on the real line, and then considers the use of functional equations to introduce the logarithm and the trigonometric functions. Chapter 6 is on infinite series, dealing not only with numerical series but also with series whose terms are vectors and functions (including power series). Chapters 7 and 8 treat differential calculus proper, with Taylor's series leading to a natural extension of real analysis into the complex domain. Chapter 9 presents the general theory of Riemann integration, together with a number of its applications. Analytic functions are covered in Chapter 10, while Chapter 11 is devoted to improper integrals, and makes full use of the technique of analytic functions.
Each chapter includes a set of problems, with selected hints and answers at the end of the book. A wealth of examples and applications can be found throughout the text. Over 340 theorems are fully proved.
The authors, a pair of noted mathematicians, start with a discussion of divisibility and proceed to examine Gaussian primes (their determination and role in Fermat's theorem); polynomials over a field (including the Eisenstein irreducibility criterion); algebraic number fields; bases (finite extensions, conjugates and discriminants, and the cyclotomic field); and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture (concluding with discussions of Pythagorean triples, units in cyclotomic fields, and Kummer's theorem).
In addition to a helpful list of symbols and an index, a set of carefully chosen problems appears at the end of each chapter to reinforce mathematics covered. Students and teachers of undergraduate mathematics courses will find this volume a first-rate introduction to algebraic number theory.
II. The Euclidean Algorithm and Its Consequences
IV. The Powers of an Integer Modulo m
V. Continued Fractions
VI. The Gaussian Integers
VII. Diophantine Equations
Requiring only a sound background in high-school mathematics, this work offers the student an excellent introduction to a branch of mathematics that has been a strong influence in the development of higher pure mathematics, both in stimulating the creation of powerful general methods in the course of solving special problems (such as Fermat conjecture and the prime number theorem) and as a source of ideas and inspiration comparable to geometry and the mathematics of physical phenomena.
Appropriate for anyone familiar with algebra at the high-school level, The Theory of Remainders offers a captivating introduction to both number theory and abstract algebra. Both elementary and challenging, it provides a view of mathematics as a conceptual net and illustrates the differences between conceptual and paraconceptual claims—an excellent start to expanding students' perspectives on mathematics.
Exercises throughout the book form an integral part of the text, extending students' experience with the concepts under discussion and presenting opportunities to observe patterns. In addition to the exercises, a series of optional problems allows more advanced readers to further develop the concepts.
The first four chapters present basic concepts and introductory principles in set theory, metric spaces, topological spaces, and linear spaces. The next two chapters consider linear functionals and linear operators, with detailed discussions of continuous linear functionals, the conjugate space, the weak topology and weak convergence, generalized functions, basic concepts of linear operators, inverse and adjoint operators, and completely continuous operators. The final four chapters cover measure, integration, differentiation, and more on integration. Special attention is here given to the Lebesque integral, Fubini's theorem, and the Stieltjes integral. Each individual section — there are 37 in all — is equipped with a problem set, making a total of some 350 problems, all carefully selected and matched.
With these problems and the clear exposition, this book is useful for self-study or for the classroom — it is basic one-year course in real analysis. Dr. Silverman is a former member of the Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University and the Lincoln Library of M.I.T. Along with his translation, he has revised the text with numerous pedagogical and mathematical improvements and restyled the language so that it is even more readable.
Ash and Gross tailor their succinct and engaging investigations for math enthusiasts of all backgrounds. Employing college algebra, the first part of the book examines such questions as, can all positive numbers be written as a sum of four perfect squares? The second section of the book incorporates calculus and examines infinite series—long sums that can only be defined by the concept of limit, as in the example of 1+1/2+1/4+. . .=? With the help of some group theory and geometry, the third section ties together the first two parts of the book through a discussion of modular forms—the analytic functions on the upper half-plane of the complex numbers that have growth and transformation properties. Ash and Gross show how modular forms are indispensable in modern number theory, for example in the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.
Appropriate for numbers novices as well as college math majors, Summing It Up delves into mathematics that will enlighten anyone fascinated by numbers.
Every number in this book is identified by its "field marks," "similar species," "personality," and "associations." For example, one field mark of the number 6 is that it is the first perfect number-- the sum of its divisors (1, 2, and 3) is equal to the number itself. Thus 28, the next perfect number, is a similar species. And the fact that 6 can easily be broken into 2 and 3 is part of its personality, a trait that is helpful when large numbers are being either multiplied or divided by 6. Associations with 6 include its relationship to the radius of a circle. In addition to such classifications, special attention is paid to dozens of other fascinating numbers, including zero, pi, 10 to the 76th power (the number of particles in the universe), transfinite and other exceptionally larger numbers, and the concept of infinity.
Ideal for beginners but organized to appeal to the mathematically literate, The Kingdom of Infinite Number will not only add to readers' enjoyment of mathematics, but to their problem-solving abilities as well.
Advanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.
The book is divided into three parts. Part I is concerned with background material — a synopsis of elementary number theory (including quadratic congruences and the Jacobi symbol), characters of residue class groups via the structure theorem for finite abelian groups, first notions of integral domains, modules and lattices, and such basis theorems as Kronecker's Basis Theorem for Abelian Groups.
Part II discusses ideal theory in quadratic fields, with chapters on unique factorization and units, unique factorization into ideals, norms and ideal classes (in particular, Minkowski's theorem), and class structure in quadratic fields. Applications of this material are made in Part III to class number formulas and primes in arithmetic progression, quadratic reciprocity in the rational domain and the relationship between quadratic forms and ideals, including the theory of composition, orders and genera. In a final concluding survey of more recent developments, Dr. Cohn takes up Cyclotomic Fields and Gaussian Sums, Class Fields and Global and Local Viewpoints.
In addition to numerous helpful diagrams and tables throughout the text, appendices, and an annotated bibliography, Advanced Number Theory also includes over 200 problems specially designed to stimulate the spirit of experimentation which has traditionally ruled number theory.
Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves. Topics covered include the geometry and group structure of elliptic curves, the Nagell–Lutz theorem describing points of finite order, the Mordell–Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points, the Thue–Siegel theorem on the finiteness of the set of integer points, theorems on counting points with coordinates in finite fields, Lenstra's elliptic curve factorization algorithm, and a discussion of complex multiplication and the Galois representations associated to torsion points. Additional topics new to the second edition include an introduction to elliptic curve cryptography and a brief discussion of the stunning proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Wiles et al. via the use of elliptic curves.
Husserl's work here provides an alternative model of what "conceptual analysis" should be - minus the "linguistic turn", but inclusive of language and linguistic meaning. In the process, he provides case after case of "Phenomenological Analysis" - fortunately unencumbered by that title - of the convincing type that made Husserl's life and thought a fountainhead of much of the most important philosophical work of the twentieth Century in Europe. Many Husserlian themes to be developed at length in later writings first emerge here: Abstraction, internal time consciousness, polythetic acts, acts of higher order ('founded' acts), Gestalt qualities and their role in knowledge, formalization (as opposed to generalization), essence analysis, and so forth.
This volume is a window on a period of rich and illuminating philosophical activity that has been rendered generally inaccessible by the supposed "revolution" attributed to "Analytic Philosophy" so-called. Careful exposition and critique is given to every serious alternative account of number and number relations available at the time. Husserl's extensive and trenchant criticisms of Gottlob Frege's theory of number and arithmetic reach far beyond those most commonly referred to in the literature on their views.
Since all higher analysis depends on the theory of numbers, Professor Knopp (formerly Professor of Mathematics, University of Tübingen) begins with an introduction to the theory of real numbers, an indispensable foundation for what is to come. This introduction is followed by an extensive account of the theory of sequences and the actual theory of infinite series. The latter is covered in two stages: (1) the classical theory (2) later developments of the 19th century.
Carefully selected exercises have been included throughout, emphasizing applications of the theory, rather than purely theoretical considerations.
Aimed at students already acquainted with the elements of differential and integral calculus, this work grew out of the author's lectures and course work at the universities of Berlin and Königsberg. This pedagogical background helped him achieve a work of utmost clarity and precision — one that belongs in the library of every serious mathematician or student of higher analysis.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Elementary Number Theory with Applications 2e is ideally suited for undergraduate students and is especially appropriate for prospective and in-service math teachers at the high school and middle school levels.
* Loaded with pedagogical features including fully worked examples, graded exercises, chapter summaries, and computer exercises
* Covers crucial applications of theory like computer security, ISBNs, ZIP codes, and UPC bar codes
* Biographical sketches lay out the history of mathematics, emphasizing its roots in India and the Middle East
The conjecture of Syracuse (better known as the Collatz conjecture) is one of the many mathematical conjectures still waiting for proof. In this essay this conjecture is addressed by highlighting some of its features. From one of these features takes its cue a process that leads to a theorem that proof the results in a complete and definitive way.
With few steps we exit the maze, we reach sea level from high altitudes and we tame the crazy lift of a very high skyscraper.
The solution of the conjecture of Syracuse reveals the magical harmony of odd numbers and opens new horizons to the number theory.
This II edition contains the Addition to the Theorem 2n+1 and the Charts of links 5-2999.
Written in an informal style by an award-winning teacher, Number Theory covers prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, and a host of other essential topics in number theory, while also telling the stories of the great mathematicians behind these developments, including Euclid, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Sophie Germain. This one-of-a-kind introductory textbook features an extensive set of problems that enable students to actively reinforce and extend their understanding of the material, as well as fully worked solutions for many of these problems. It also includes helpful hints for when students are unsure of how to get started on a given problem.Uses a unique historical approach to teaching number theory Features numerous problems, helpful hints, and fully worked solutions Discusses fun topics like Pythagorean tuning in music, Sudoku puzzles, and arithmetic progressions of primes Includes an introduction to Sage, an easy-to-learn yet powerful open-source mathematics software package Ideal for undergraduate mathematics majors as well as non-math majors Digital solutions manual (available only to professors)
Starting with a survey of questions on weight, the text discusses the primes, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, rationals and irrationals, tiling, tiling and electricity, probability, infinite sets, and many other topics. Each subject illustrates a significant idea and lends itself easily to experiments and problems. Useful appendices offer an overview of the basic ideas of arithmetic, the rudiments of algebra, suggestions on teaching mathematics, and much more, including answers and comments for selected exercises.
Ethan D. Bolker teaches mathematics and computer science at the University of Massachusetts, Boston.
In the first four chapters the authors cover material for competitions at high school level. The level advances with the chapters. The topics explored include polynomials, functional equations, sequences and an elementary treatment of complex numbers. The final chapters provide a comprehensive list of problems posed at national and international contests in recent years, and solutions to all exercises and problems presented in the book.
It helps students in preparing for national and international mathematical contests form high school level to more advanced competitions and will also be useful for their first year of mathematical studies at the university. It will be of interest to teachers in college and university level, and trainers of the mathematical Olympiads.
“. . . the author’s style is totally lucid and very easy to read . . .the result is indeed a wonderful story.” —Mathematical Reviews
Written in a unique and accessible style for readers of varied mathematical backgrounds, the Second Edition of Primes of the Form p = x2+ ny2 details the history behind how Pierre de Fermat’s work ultimately gave birth to quadratic reciprocity and the genus theory of quadratic forms. The book also illustrates how results of Euler and Gauss can be fully understood only in the context of class field theory, and in addition, explores a selection of the magnificent formulas of complex multiplication.
Primes of the Form p = x2 + ny2, Second Edition focuses on addressing the question of when a prime p is of the form x2 + ny2, which serves as the basis for further discussion of various mathematical topics. This updated edition has several new notable features, including:
• A well-motivated introduction to the classical formulation of class field theory
• Illustrations of explicit numerical examples to demonstrate the power of basic theorems in various situations
• An elementary treatment of quadratic forms and genus theory
• Simultaneous treatment of elementary and advanced aspects of number theory
• New coverage of the Shimura reciprocity law and a selection of recent work in an updated bibliography
Primes of the Form p = x2 + ny2, Second Edition is both a useful reference for number theory theorists and an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in number and Galois theory.
This volume's great merit lies in its wealth of explanatory material, designed to promote an informal and intuitive understanding of the rigorous logical approach to the number system. The first part explains and comments on axioms and definitions, making their subsequent treatment more coherent. The second part presents a detailed, systematic construction of the number systems of rational, real, and complex numbers. It covers whole numbers, hemigroups and groups, integers, ordered fields, the order relation for rationals, exponentiation, and real and complex numbers. Every step is justified by a reference to the appropriate theorem or lemma. Exercises following each chapter in Part II help readers test their progress and provide practice in using the relevant concepts.
Featured topics include polygonal, pyramidal, and figurate numbers; linear diophantine equations and congruences; partitions; rational right triangles; triangles, quadrilaterals, and tetrahedra; the sums of two, three, four, and n squares; the number of solutions of quadratic congruences in n unknowns; Liouville's series of eighteen articles; the Pell equation; squares in arithmetical or geometrical progression; equations of degrees three, four, and n; sets of integers with equal sums of like powers; Waring's problem and related results; Fermat's last theorem; and many other related subjects. Indexes of authors cited and subjects appear at the end of the book.
Answers are found to many questions that usually remain unanswered: Why is the truth table for logical implication so unintuitive? Why are there no recipes to design proofs? Where do these numerous mathematical rules come from? What issues in logic, mathematics, and computer science still remain unresolved? And the perennial question: In what ways are we going to use this material? Additionally, the selection of topics presented reflects many major accomplishments from the twentieth century and includes applications in game theory and Nash'sequilibrium, Gale and Shapley's match making algorithms, Arrow's Impossibility Theorem in voting, to name a few.
From the reviews of the first edition:
"...All the results are proved in full detail from first principles...remarkably, the arithmetic laws on the rational numbers are proved, step after step, starting from the very definitions!...This is a valuable reference text and a useful companion for anybody wondering how basic mathematical concepts can be rigorously developed within set theory."
"Rigorous and modern in its theoretical aspect, attractive as a detective novel in its applied aspects, this paper book deserves the attention of both beginners and advanced students in mathematics, logic and computer sciences as well as in social sciences."