In Love and Math, renowned mathematician Edward Frenkel reveals a side of math we’ve never seen, suffused with all the beauty and elegance of a work of art. In this heartfelt and passionate book, Frenkel shows that mathematics, far from occupying a specialist niche, goes to the heart of all matter, uniting us across cultures, time, and space.
Love and Math tells two intertwined stories: of the wonders of mathematics and of one young man’s journey learning and living it. Having braved a discriminatory educational system to become one of the twenty-first century’s leading mathematicians, Frenkel now works on one of the biggest ideas to come out of math in the last 50 years: the Langlands Program. Considered by many to be a Grand Unified Theory of mathematics, the Langlands Program enables researchers to translate findings from one field to another so that they can solve problems, such as Fermat’s last theorem, that had seemed intractable before.
At its core, Love and Math is a story about accessing a new way of thinking, which can enrich our lives and empower us to better understand the world and our place in it. It is an invitation to discover the magic hidden universe of mathematics.
Bellos has traveled all around the globe and has plunged into history to uncover fascinating stories of mathematical achievement, from the breakthroughs of Euclid, the greatest mathematician of all time, to the creations of the Zen master of origami, one of the hottest areas of mathematical work today. Taking us into the wilds of the Amazon, he tells the story of a tribe there who can count only to five and reports on the latest findings about the math instinct—including the revelation that ants can actually count how many steps they’ve taken. Journeying to the Bay of Bengal, he interviews a Hindu sage about the brilliant mathematical insights of the Buddha, while in Japan he visits the godfather of Sudoku and introduces the brainteasing delights of mathematical games.
Exploring the mysteries of randomness, he explains why it is impossible for our iPods to truly randomly select songs. In probing the many intrigues of that most beloved of numbers, pi, he visits with two brothers so obsessed with the elusive number that they built a supercomputer in their Manhattan apartment to study it. Throughout, the journey is enhanced with a wealth of intriguing illustrations, such as of the clever puzzles known as tangrams and the crochet creation of an American math professor who suddenly realized one day that she could knit a representation of higher dimensional space that no one had been able to visualize.
Whether writing about how algebra solved Swedish traffic problems, visiting the Mental Calculation World Cup to disclose the secrets of lightning calculation, or exploring the links between pineapples and beautiful teeth, Bellos is a wonderfully engaging guide who never fails to delight even as he edifies. Here’s Looking at Euclid is a rare gem that brings the beauty of math to life.
In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simplicity of the proofs for many theorems.
Among the topics covered in this accessible, carefully designed introduction are multiplicativity-divisibility, including the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, combinatorial and computational number theory, congruences, arithmetic functions, primitive roots and prime numbers. Later chapters offer lucid treatments of quadratic congruences, additivity (including partition theory) and geometric number theory.
Of particular importance in this text is the author's emphasis on the value of numerical examples in number theory and the role of computers in obtaining such examples. Exercises provide opportunities for constructing numerical tables with or without a computer. Students can then derive conjectures from such numerical tables, after which relevant theorems will seem natural and well-motivated..
Hidden symmetries were first discovered nearly two hundred years ago by French mathematician évariste Galois. They have been used extensively in the oldest and largest branch of mathematics--number theory--for such diverse applications as acoustics, radar, and codes and ciphers. They have also been employed in the study of Fibonacci numbers and to attack well-known problems such as Fermat's Last Theorem, Pythagorean Triples, and the ever-elusive Riemann Hypothesis. Mathematicians are still devising techniques for teasing out these mysterious patterns, and their uses are limited only by the imagination.
The first popular book to address representation theory and reciprocity laws, Fearless Symmetry focuses on how mathematicians solve equations and prove theorems. It discusses rules of math and why they are just as important as those in any games one might play. The book starts with basic properties of integers and permutations and reaches current research in number theory. Along the way, it takes delightful historical and philosophical digressions. Required reading for all math buffs, the book will appeal to anyone curious about popular mathematics and its myriad contributions to everyday life.
Key features of Number Theory: Structures, Examples, and Problems:
* A rigorous exposition starts with the natural numbers and the basics.
* Important concepts are presented with an example, which may also emphasize an application. The exposition moves systematically and intuitively to uncover deeper properties.
* Topics include divisibility, unique factorization, modular arithmetic and the Chinese Remainder Theorem, Diophantine equations, quadratic residues, binomial coefficients, Fermat and Mersenne primes and other special numbers, and special sequences. Sections on mathematical induction and the pigeonhole principle, as well as a discussion of other number systems are covered.
* Unique exercises reinforce and motivate the reader, with selected solutions to some of the problems.
* Glossary, bibliography, and comprehensive index round out the text.
Written by distinguished research mathematicians and renowned teachers, this text is a clear, accessible introduction to the subject and a source of fascinating problems and puzzles, from advanced high school students to undergraduates, their instructors, and general readers at all levels.
Ono describes his rocky path through college and graduate school, interweaving Ramanujan’s story with his own and telling how at key moments, he was inspired by Ramanujan and guided by mentors who encouraged him to pursue his interest in exploring Ramanujan’s mathematical legacy.
Picking up where others left off, beginning with the great English mathematician G.H. Hardy, who brought Ramanujan to Cambridge in 1914, Ono has devoted his mathematical career to understanding how in his short life, Ramanujan was able to discover so many deep mathematical truths, which Ramanujan believed had been sent to him as visions from a Hindu goddess. And it was Ramanujan who was ultimately the source of reconciliation between Ono and his parents.
Ono’s search for Ramanujan ranges over three continents and crosses paths with mathematicians whose lives span the globe and the entire twentieth century and beyond. Along the way, Ken made many fascinating discoveries. The most important and surprising one of all was his own humanity."
The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diophantine approximation, and more. Included are discussions of topics not always found in introductory texts: factorization and primality of large integers, p-adic numbers, algebraic number fields, Brun's theorem on twin primes, and the transcendence of e, to mention a few.
Readers will find a substantial number of well-chosen problems, along with many notes and bibliographical references selected for readability and relevance. Five helpful appendixes — containing such study aids as a factor table, computer-plotted graphs, a table of indices, the Greek alphabet, and a list of symbols — and a bibliography round out this well-written text, which is directed toward undergraduate majors and beginning graduate students in mathematics. No post-calculus prerequisite is assumed. 1977 edition.
The book begins with a systematic study of real numbers, understood to be a set of objects satisfying certain definite axioms. The concepts of a mathematical structure and an isomorphism are introduced in Chapter 2, after a brief digression on set theory, and a proof of the uniqueness of the structure of real numbers is given as an illustration. Two other structures are then introduced, namely n-dimensional space and the field of complex numbers.
After a detailed treatment of metric spaces in Chapter 3, a general theory of limits is developed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 treats some theorems on continuous numerical functions on the real line, and then considers the use of functional equations to introduce the logarithm and the trigonometric functions. Chapter 6 is on infinite series, dealing not only with numerical series but also with series whose terms are vectors and functions (including power series). Chapters 7 and 8 treat differential calculus proper, with Taylor's series leading to a natural extension of real analysis into the complex domain. Chapter 9 presents the general theory of Riemann integration, together with a number of its applications. Analytic functions are covered in Chapter 10, while Chapter 11 is devoted to improper integrals, and makes full use of the technique of analytic functions.
Each chapter includes a set of problems, with selected hints and answers at the end of the book. A wealth of examples and applications can be found throughout the text. Over 340 theorems are fully proved.
The authors, a pair of noted mathematicians, start with a discussion of divisibility and proceed to examine Gaussian primes (their determination and role in Fermat's theorem); polynomials over a field (including the Eisenstein irreducibility criterion); algebraic number fields; bases (finite extensions, conjugates and discriminants, and the cyclotomic field); and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture (concluding with discussions of Pythagorean triples, units in cyclotomic fields, and Kummer's theorem).
In addition to a helpful list of symbols and an index, a set of carefully chosen problems appears at the end of each chapter to reinforce mathematics covered. Students and teachers of undergraduate mathematics courses will find this volume a first-rate introduction to algebraic number theory.
The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamental properties of integers and congruences. Subsequent chapters present proofs of Fermat's and Wilson's theorems, introduce number theoretic functions, and explore the quadratic reciprocity theorem. Three independent sections follow, with examinations of the representation of numbers, diophantine equations, and primes. The text concludes with 260 additional problems, three helpful appendixes, and answers to selected exercises and problems.
Ash and Gross tailor their succinct and engaging investigations for math enthusiasts of all backgrounds. Employing college algebra, the first part of the book examines such questions as, can all positive numbers be written as a sum of four perfect squares? The second section of the book incorporates calculus and examines infinite series—long sums that can only be defined by the concept of limit, as in the example of 1+1/2+1/4+. . .=? With the help of some group theory and geometry, the third section ties together the first two parts of the book through a discussion of modular forms—the analytic functions on the upper half-plane of the complex numbers that have growth and transformation properties. Ash and Gross show how modular forms are indispensable in modern number theory, for example in the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem.
Appropriate for numbers novices as well as college math majors, Summing It Up delves into mathematics that will enlighten anyone fascinated by numbers.
Unlike many authors, however, Mr. Friedberg encourages students to think about the imaginative, playful qualities of numbers as they consider such subjects as primes and divisibility, quadratic forms and residue arithmetic and quadratic reciprocity and related theorems. Moreover, the author has included a number of unusual features to challenge and stimulate students: some of the original problems in Diophantus' Arithmetica, proofs of Fermat's Last Theorem for the exponents 3and 4, and two proofs of Wilson's Theorem.
Readers with a mathematical bent will enjoy and benefit from these entertaining and thought-provoking adventures in the fascinating realm of number theory. Mr. Friedberg is currently Professor of Physics at Barnard College, where he is Chairman of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.
The book begins with fundamentals, with a definition of complex numbers, their geometric representation, their algebra, powers and roots of complex numbers, set theory as applied to complex analysis, and complex functions and sequences. The notions of proper and improper complex numbers and of infinity are fully and clearly explained, as is stereographic projection. Individual chapters then cover limits and continuity, differentiation of analytic functions, polynomials and rational functions, Mobius transformations with their circle-preserving property, exponentials and logarithms, complex integrals and the Cauchy theorem , complex series and uniform convergence, power series, Laurent series and singular points, the residue theorem and its implications, harmonic functions (a subject too often slighted in first courses in complex analysis), partial fraction expansions, conformal mapping, and analytic continuation.
Elementary functions are given a more detailed treatment than is usual for a book at this level. Also, there is an extended discussion of the Schwarz-Christolfel transformation, which is particularly important for applications.
There is a great abundance of worked-out examples, and over three hundred problems (some with hints and answers), making this an excellent textbook for classroom use as well as for independent study. A noteworthy feature is the fact that the parentage of this volume makes it possible for the student to pursue various advanced topics in more detail in the three-volume original, without the problem of having to adjust to a new terminology and notation .
In this way, IntroductoryComplex Analysis serves as an introduction not only to the whole field of complex analysis, but also to the magnum opus of an important contemporary Russian mathematician.
Numbers began as simple representations of everyday things, but mathematics rapidly took on a life of its own, occupying a parallel virtual world. In Are Numbers Real?, Brian Clegg explores the way that math has become more and more detached from reality, and yet despite this is driving the development of modern physics. From devising a new counting system based on goats, through the weird and wonderful mathematics of imaginary numbers and infinity, to the debate over whether mathematics has too much influence on the direction of science, this fascinating and accessible book opens the reader’s eyes to the hidden reality of the strange yet familiar entities that are numbers.
The first four chapters present basic concepts and introductory principles in set theory, metric spaces, topological spaces, and linear spaces. The next two chapters consider linear functionals and linear operators, with detailed discussions of continuous linear functionals, the conjugate space, the weak topology and weak convergence, generalized functions, basic concepts of linear operators, inverse and adjoint operators, and completely continuous operators. The final four chapters cover measure, integration, differentiation, and more on integration. Special attention is here given to the Lebesque integral, Fubini's theorem, and the Stieltjes integral. Each individual section — there are 37 in all — is equipped with a problem set, making a total of some 350 problems, all carefully selected and matched.
With these problems and the clear exposition, this book is useful for self-study or for the classroom — it is basic one-year course in real analysis. Dr. Silverman is a former member of the Institute of Mathematical Sciences of New York University and the Lincoln Library of M.I.T. Along with his translation, he has revised the text with numerous pedagogical and mathematical improvements and restyled the language so that it is even more readable.
According to MSNBC, having a child makes you stupid. You actually lose IQ points. Good Morning America has announced that natural blondes will be extinct within two hundred years. Pundits estimated that there were more than a million demonstrators at a tea party rally in Washington, D.C., even though roughly sixty thousand were there. Numbers have peculiar powers-they can disarm skeptics, befuddle journalists, and hoodwink the public into believing almost anything.
"Proofiness," as Charles Seife explains in this eye-opening book, is the art of using pure mathematics for impure ends, and he reminds readers that bad mathematics has a dark side. It is used to bring down beloved government officials and to appoint undeserving ones (both Democratic and Republican), to convict the innocent and acquit the guilty, to ruin our economy, and to fix the outcomes of future elections. This penetrating look at the intersection of math and society will appeal to readers of Freakonomics and the books of Malcolm Gladwell.
Appropriate for anyone familiar with algebra at the high-school level, The Theory of Remainders offers a captivating introduction to both number theory and abstract algebra. Both elementary and challenging, it provides a view of mathematics as a conceptual net and illustrates the differences between conceptual and paraconceptual claims—an excellent start to expanding students' perspectives on mathematics.
Exercises throughout the book form an integral part of the text, extending students' experience with the concepts under discussion and presenting opportunities to observe patterns. In addition to the exercises, a series of optional problems allows more advanced readers to further develop the concepts.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Every number in this book is identified by its "field marks," "similar species," "personality," and "associations." For example, one field mark of the number 6 is that it is the first perfect number-- the sum of its divisors (1, 2, and 3) is equal to the number itself. Thus 28, the next perfect number, is a similar species. And the fact that 6 can easily be broken into 2 and 3 is part of its personality, a trait that is helpful when large numbers are being either multiplied or divided by 6. Associations with 6 include its relationship to the radius of a circle. In addition to such classifications, special attention is paid to dozens of other fascinating numbers, including zero, pi, 10 to the 76th power (the number of particles in the universe), transfinite and other exceptionally larger numbers, and the concept of infinity.
Ideal for beginners but organized to appeal to the mathematically literate, The Kingdom of Infinite Number will not only add to readers' enjoyment of mathematics, but to their problem-solving abilities as well.
Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves. Topics covered include the geometry and group structure of elliptic curves, the Nagell–Lutz theorem describing points of finite order, the Mordell–Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points, the Thue–Siegel theorem on the finiteness of the set of integer points, theorems on counting points with coordinates in finite fields, Lenstra's elliptic curve factorization algorithm, and a discussion of complex multiplication and the Galois representations associated to torsion points. Additional topics new to the second edition include an introduction to elliptic curve cryptography and a brief discussion of the stunning proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Wiles et al. via the use of elliptic curves.
Since all higher analysis depends on the theory of numbers, Professor Knopp (formerly Professor of Mathematics, University of Tübingen) begins with an introduction to the theory of real numbers, an indispensable foundation for what is to come. This introduction is followed by an extensive account of the theory of sequences and the actual theory of infinite series. The latter is covered in two stages: (1) the classical theory (2) later developments of the 19th century.
Carefully selected exercises have been included throughout, emphasizing applications of the theory, rather than purely theoretical considerations.
Aimed at students already acquainted with the elements of differential and integral calculus, this work grew out of the author's lectures and course work at the universities of Berlin and Königsberg. This pedagogical background helped him achieve a work of utmost clarity and precision — one that belongs in the library of every serious mathematician or student of higher analysis.
A practical introduction for students of number theory and analysis as well as a reference for researchers in the field, this book covers uniform distribution in compact spaces and in topological groups, in addition to examinations of sequences of integers and polynomials. Notes at the end of each section contain pertinent bibliographical references and a brief survey of additional results. Exercises range from simple applications of theorems to proofs of propositions that expand upon results stated in the text.
Lectures on Number Theory is the first of its kind on the subject matter. It covers most of the topics that are standard in a modern first course on number theory, but also includes Dirichlet's famous results on class numbers and primes in arithmetic progressions.
The book is suitable as a textbook, yet it also offers a fascinating historical perspective that links Gauss with modern number theory.
Written in an informal style by an award-winning teacher, Number Theory covers prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, and a host of other essential topics in number theory, while also telling the stories of the great mathematicians behind these developments, including Euclid, Carl Friedrich Gauss, and Sophie Germain. This one-of-a-kind introductory textbook features an extensive set of problems that enable students to actively reinforce and extend their understanding of the material, as well as fully worked solutions for many of these problems. It also includes helpful hints for when students are unsure of how to get started on a given problem.Uses a unique historical approach to teaching number theory Features numerous problems, helpful hints, and fully worked solutions Discusses fun topics like Pythagorean tuning in music, Sudoku puzzles, and arithmetic progressions of primes Includes an introduction to Sage, an easy-to-learn yet powerful open-source mathematics software package Ideal for undergraduate mathematics majors as well as non-math majors Digital solutions manual (available only to professors)
Advanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.
The book is divided into three parts. Part I is concerned with background material — a synopsis of elementary number theory (including quadratic congruences and the Jacobi symbol), characters of residue class groups via the structure theorem for finite abelian groups, first notions of integral domains, modules and lattices, and such basis theorems as Kronecker's Basis Theorem for Abelian Groups.
Part II discusses ideal theory in quadratic fields, with chapters on unique factorization and units, unique factorization into ideals, norms and ideal classes (in particular, Minkowski's theorem), and class structure in quadratic fields. Applications of this material are made in Part III to class number formulas and primes in arithmetic progression, quadratic reciprocity in the rational domain and the relationship between quadratic forms and ideals, including the theory of composition, orders and genera. In a final concluding survey of more recent developments, Dr. Cohn takes up Cyclotomic Fields and Gaussian Sums, Class Fields and Global and Local Viewpoints.
In addition to numerous helpful diagrams and tables throughout the text, appendices, and an annotated bibliography, Advanced Number Theory also includes over 200 problems specially designed to stimulate the spirit of experimentation which has traditionally ruled number theory.
The conjecture of Syracuse (better known as the Collatz conjecture) is one of the many mathematical conjectures still waiting for proof. In this essay this conjecture is addressed by highlighting some of its features. From one of these features takes its cue a process that leads to a theorem that proof the results in a complete and definitive way.
With few steps we exit the maze, we reach sea level from high altitudes and we tame the crazy lift of a very high skyscraper.
The solution of the conjecture of Syracuse reveals the magical harmony of odd numbers and opens new horizons to the number theory.
This II edition contains the Addition to the Theorem 2n+1 and the Charts of links 5-2999.
Answers are found to many questions that usually remain unanswered: Why is the truth table for logical implication so unintuitive? Why are there no recipes to design proofs? Where do these numerous mathematical rules come from? What issues in logic, mathematics, and computer science still remain unresolved? And the perennial question: In what ways are we going to use this material? Additionally, the selection of topics presented reflects many major accomplishments from the twentieth century and includes applications in game theory and Nash'sequilibrium, Gale and Shapley's match making algorithms, Arrow's Impossibility Theorem in voting, to name a few.
From the reviews of the first edition:
"...All the results are proved in full detail from first principles...remarkably, the arithmetic laws on the rational numbers are proved, step after step, starting from the very definitions!...This is a valuable reference text and a useful companion for anybody wondering how basic mathematical concepts can be rigorously developed within set theory."
"Rigorous and modern in its theoretical aspect, attractive as a detective novel in its applied aspects, this paper book deserves the attention of both beginners and advanced students in mathematics, logic and computer sciences as well as in social sciences."
Because of its careful treatment of fundamental concepts and theorems, this text is accessible to readers with a moderate mathematical background, i.e., three years of university-level mathematics. An extensive bibliography is provided, and each chapter includes a selection of references to relevant research papers or books. The book concludes with an appendix that offers several unsolved questions, with interesting proposals for further development.
The first half of the book focuses on number theory, beginning with the rules of arithmetic (axioms for the integers). The authors then present all the basic ideas and applications of divisibility, primes, and modular arithmetic. They also introduce the abstract notion of a group and include numerous examples. The final topics on number theory consist of rational numbers, real numbers, and ideas about infinity.
Moving on to geometry, the text covers polygons and polyhedra, including the construction of regular polygons and regular polyhedra. It studies tessellation by looking at patterns in the plane, especially those made by regular polygons or sets of regular polygons. The text also determines the symmetry groups of these figures and patterns, demonstrating how groups arise in both geometry and number theory.
The book is suitable for pre-service or in-service training for elementary school teachers, general education mathematics or math for liberal arts undergraduate-level courses, and enrichment activities for high school students or math clubs.
Particular chapters examine the rise and importance of elliptic function theory, differential equations in the complex domain, geometric function theory, and the early years of complex function theory in several variables. Unique emphasis has been devoted to the creation of a textbook tradition in complex analysis by considering some seventy textbooks in nine different languages. The book is not a mere sequence of disembodied results and theories, but offers a comprehensive picture of the broad cultural and social context in which the main actors lived and worked by paying attention to the rise of mathematical schools and of contrasting national traditions.
The book is unrivaled for its breadth and depth, both in the core theory and its implications for other fields of mathematics. It documents the motivations for the early ideas and their gradual refinement into a rigorous theory.
II. The Euclidean Algorithm and Its Consequences
IV. The Powers of an Integer Modulo m
V. Continued Fractions
VI. The Gaussian Integers
VII. Diophantine Equations
Requiring only a sound background in high-school mathematics, this work offers the student an excellent introduction to a branch of mathematics that has been a strong influence in the development of higher pure mathematics, both in stimulating the creation of powerful general methods in the course of solving special problems (such as Fermat conjecture and the prime number theorem) and as a source of ideas and inspiration comparable to geometry and the mathematics of physical phenomena.
Readership: Secondary and intermediate classroom teacher and tertiary mathematics education instructor; undergraduates whose interest is in teaching mathematics at the pre-tertiary level and the segment of the general public for whom mathematics might be a hobby.
Key Features:Differs from other books that treat numbers (formally or informally) because it contains numerous exercises and problems, detailed examples for the reader to follow, and the narrative is kept to a minimumHas broad appeal for different audiencesIs a gateway to families of positive integers which leads and encourages the reader to go beyond the book to deeper study of the topics presentedKeywords:Subsets of Positive Integers;Number Types/Families;Introductory Facts About Numbers