The new edition of this successful book is now fully up to date with the new standards, latest technological developments and includes a new chapter on specifying optical components.
Whether you are looking for a complete self-study course in fiber optics, a concise reference text to dip into, or a readable introduction to this fast moving technology, this book has the solution.
* A practical, no-nonsense guide to fiber optics
* Up-to-date coverage that minimises mathematics
* New material on specifying optical components
This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications. The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced in the second edition, including:Analysis of the Vander Pol oscillator model of laser light Coverage on coherence tomography and coherence multiplexing of fiber sensors An expansion of the chapter on imaging with partially coherent light, including several new examples An expanded section on speckle and its properties New sections on the cross-spectrum and bispectrum techniques for obtaining images free from atmospheric distortions A new section on imaging through atmospheric turbulence using coherent light The addition of the effects of “read noise” to the discussions of limitations encountered in detecting very weak optical signals A number of new problems and many new references have been added Statistical Optics, Second Edition is written for researchers and engineering students interested in optics, physicists and chemists, as well as graduate level courses in a University Engineering or Physics Department.
Amateur astronomers are always contemplating the "next telescope up" and this will point the way to the most suitable instrument to which they should aspire. Similarly, those who are buying their first telescope – and these days not necessarily a low-cost one – will be able to compare and contrast different types and makes.
Jim Mullaney is an astronomy writer, lecturer and consultant who has published more than 500 articles and five books: he has also been an editor for Sky & Telescope, Astronomy, and Star & Sky magazines. One of the contributors to Carl Sagan’s award-winning Cosmos PBS-Television series, his work has received recognition from such notables as Sir Arthur Clarke, Johnny Carson, Ray Bradbury, Dr. Wernher von Braun, and one of his former students – NASA scientist/astronaut Dr. Jay Apt. He is probably the ideal person to write this book, containing as it does a directory of instruments offered by all the major manufacturers.
This exciting, upbeat new guide provides an extensive overview of binoculars and telescopes. It includes detailed up-to-date information on sources, selection and use of virtually every major type, brand and model of such instruments on today’s market – truly an invaluable treasure-trove of information and helpful advice for all amateur astronomers. Also includes details on the the latest released telescope lines, e.g., the 10-, 12-, 14- and 16-inch aperture models of the Meade LX-R series.
This book is the first to introduce a range of currently used, or under development, laser- and light-based technologies that will provide greater cosmetic benefits to the consumer. It explains the basic physics of light-based technologies, the bio-physical principles behind their mechanism of action, and their applications in many cosmetic procedures. The fundamentals of skin and hair physiology (relevant to the understanding of actions of various cosmetics) are also explained, as are: cosmeceuticals; topical drugs for cosmetic benefits; non-invasive and invasive options available for beauty treatments, and how all this fits in with the emerging light-based technologies.
Individual chapters are devoted to the various skin and hair conditions where light-based systems are currently used. Treatments discussed include the rejuvenation and toning of damaged skin; skin resurfacing and microdermabrasion; hair removal and growth reduction; wrinkle reduction; acne treatment and cellulite. Finally, the book examines the synergy of cosmeceuticals and topical bioactive agents with light-based technologies, safety issues, a regulatory perspective for OTC marketing, and concludes with a discussion of the business aspects related to home-use of light-based devices.The first book to introduce this emerging technology to the personal care industryExplains their applications in many cosmetic proceduresDevotes individual chapters to common skin and hair conditions
Optical engineering is the branch of physics that covers study of the science of light and deals with the applications of optics. Optical engineers focuses on the optical instruments such as various types of lenses, spherical mirrors, convex mirror, concave mirror, microscopes, telescopes, and other components which uses the properties of light. Some technical instruments are optical design systems, lasers lights, optical fiber and etc.
Topics covers in this book are Principles of Optical Engineering, Mirrors and Prisms, Formation of Image, Concept of Eye, Aberrations, Apertures and Stops, Photometry and Radiometry, Basic Optical Devices, Optical Materials, and Design of Optical Systems.
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The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter on supercontinuum generation in optical fibers.Continues to be industry bestseller providing unique source of comprehensive coverage on the subject of nonlinear fiber optics Updated coverage of intrapulse Raman scattering, four-wave mixing, and Harmonic GenerationIncludes a new chapter excusively devoted to supercontinuum generation in optical fibers
Nonlinear optics is essentially the study of the interaction of strong laser light with matter. It lies at the basis of the field of photonics, the use of light fields to control other light fields and to perform logical operations. Some of the topics of this book include the fundamentals and applications of optical systems based on the nonlinear interaction of light with matter. Topics to be treated include: mechanisms of optical nonlinearity, second-harmonic and sum- and difference-frequency generation, photonics and optical logic, optical self-action effects including self-focusing and optical soliton formation, optical phase conjugation, stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering, and selection criteria of nonlinear optical materials.
· Covers all the latest topics and technology in this ever-evolving area of study that forms the backbone of the major applications of optical technology
· Offers first-rate instructive style making it ideal for self-study
· Emphasizes the fundamentals of non-linear optics rather than focus on particular applications that are constantly changing
Features include:Comprehensive and authoritative treatments of the latest research in this area of nanophotonics, written by the leading researchersAccounts of numerous microfluidics, nanofabrication, quantum informatics and optical manipulation applicationsCoverage that fully spans the subject area, from fundamental theory and simulations to experimental methods and results
Graduate students and established researchers in academia, national laboratories and industry will find this book an invaluable guide to the latest technologies in this rapidly developing field.Comprehensive and definitive source of the latest research in nanotechnology written by the leading people in the fieldFrom theory to applications - all is presented in detailEditor is Chair of the SPIE Nanotechnology Technical Group and is leading the way in generation and manipulation of complex beams
This edition contains new material on transceiver form factors (QSFP, SFP +, XFP, X2), manufacturing standards, including JEDEC and RoHS, as well as the latest revisions to industry standards including 8G and 10G Fiber Channel, FICON, SONET GFP/LCAS, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The book also contains new chapters on emerging technologies and leading edge applications such as silicon photonics, nanophotonics, parallel optical interconnects, specialty fiber cable types, and optical backplanes.
Features include:New Case Studies on Voice/Data Convergence, Redesigning Mainframe I/O, National LambdaRail, and optical peer-to-peer networksIncludes an expanded listing of references on the World Wide Web, plus hard-to-find references for international, homologation, and type approval requirementsQuick reference tables of all the key optical network parameters and a glossary that defines hundreds of technical terms and acronymsWritten for engineers by engineers, this Handbook will be an indispensable, hands-on reference for optical networks and equipment developers, designers, and installers, as well as for students studying optical fiber communications wanting an understanding of, and insight into, professional practice.New Case Studies on Voice/Data Convergence, Redesigning Mainframe I/O, National LambdaRail, and optical peer-to-peer networksIncludes an expanded listing of references on the World Wide Web, plus hard-to-find references for international, homologation, and type approval requirementsQuick reference tables of all the key optical network parameters and a glossary that defines hundreds of technical terms and acronyms
Submarine optic-fibre cables carry over 97% of intercontinental data traffic more efficiently than before. In fact, it’s the only technology that can transmit large amounts of information worldwide, cost effectively with minimum delays, and addresses Global Bandwidth growth.
‘Fibre optics spark Technology’ is the book for readers who are interested in assimilating the essence of Fibre optic technology from different sources. It can be treated as a reference, even while the chapters comprising of various important aspects of such a rapidly advanced technology, are explained in simple and easy manner.
Long-established as the definitive optics text and reference, Modern Optical Engineering has been completely revised and updated to equip you with all the latest optical and lens advances. The Fourth Edition now contains cutting-edge information on optical engineering theory, design, and practice, including new chapters on ray tracing, optical system design, and third-order aberration theory.
Written by the renowned optical scientist Warren J. Smith, this state-of-the-art guide provides unsurpassed coverage of image formation, basic optical devices, image evaluation, fabrication and testing methods, and more. Comprehensive and up-to-date, Modern Optical Engineering features:The latest information on optical engineering theory, design, and practice Over 150 detailed illustrations New to this edition: new coverage of ray tracing, optical system design, and third-order aberration theory; new lens designs; new optical design software; and new problems and exercises
Inside This Updated Optical Engineering Classic• Image formation • Aberrations • Prisms and mirrors • The eye • Stops and apertures • Optical materials • Interference coatings • Radiometry and photometry • Basic optical devices • Optical systems • Ray tracing • Third-order aberration theory • Image evaluation • Design of optical systems • 44 lens designs • Optics fabrication and testing
Fiber Optic Essentials provides professionals and students new to the field of fiber optics with a high-level knowledge of principles, theories and applications. This primer can also be used as a succinct overview of optics for those with some engineering and physics background. Individuals involved with optics in non-traditional capacities such as in marketing and legal departments will find this volume introduces basic concepts completely in an easy to read format.
Casimer and Carolyn DeCusatis have provided a concise resource with compact chapters and minimal equations conveying this complex topic in a straightforward and clear-cut style. Included in this book are chapters on fibers, cables, connectors, transmitters, modulators, noise, and optical link design. Concluding this reference are three indispensable appendices covering extensive definitions, acronyms (including initials and commonly used slang), measurement conversions and physical constants. This author team has produced a book that has truly shed light on this difficult subject.Comprehensively covers basic fiber optic 'facts'Explains how optics relate to everyday lifeDetails fiber optic communication standardsChapter included on medical applicationsTimeline traces the history of optics with major milestones
Since the publication of the well-received first edition of this book, planar lightwave circuits and photonic crystal fibers have fully matured. With this second edition the advances of these fibers along with other improvements on existing optical technologies are completely detailed. This comprehensive volume enables readers to fully analyze, design and simulate optical atmospheres.Exceptional new chapter on Arrayed-Waveguide Grating (AWG)In-depth discussion of Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) Thorough explanation of Multimode Interference Devices (MMI)Full coverage of polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
The first five chapters present a clear tutorial review of fundamentals. Chapters six and seven discuss the types of lasers and photodetectors used in interferometry. The next eight chapters describe key applications of interferometry: measurements of length, optical testing, studies of refractive index fields, interference microscopy, holographic and speckle interferometry, interferometric sensors, interference spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The final chapter offers suggestions on choosing and setting up an interferometer.
The book provides a basis for the understanding of modern semiconductor devices that havedimensions in the nanometer range, i.e. comparable to the electron de Broglie wavelength. Classical and semi-classical physics no longer gives a full description of a number of physicalprocesses. The inclusion of quantum mechanical principles becomes mandatory and provides a useful description of many physical processes in electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic heterostructure devices.
The first part of the book (Chapters 1 – 11) teaches quantum-mechanical principles, including the postulates of quantum mechanics, operators, the uncertainty principle, the Schrödinger equation, non-periodic and periodic potentials, quantum wells, and perturbation theory. The second part of the book (Chapters 12 – 20) applies these principles to semiconductor devices and discusses the density of states, semiconductor statistics, carrier concentrations, doping, tunneling, and some aspects of heterostructure devices.
The book may be of particular interest to individuals working in the fields of microelectronics, optoelectronics, and photonics with an educational background in Electrical Engineering, Applied Physics, or Materials Science.
The communications industry is at the onset of new expansion of WDM technology necessary to meet the new demand for bandwidth. This is the second of a four reference books that will cover this technology comprehensively with all of the major topics covered by a separate volumes - i.e. active components, passive components, systems and networks.
This book is the first which covers all key passive optical components required for current and next generation optical communication systems. World-renowned authors, who are pioneers in their research area, have written the chapters in their area of expertise. The book highlights not only the principle of operation and characteristics of the passive optical components, but also provides an in-depth account of the state-of-the-art system applications.
- Helps the reader to choose the right device for a given system application.
- Provides the reader with insight and understanding for key passive optical components frequently being / to be used in the optical communication systems, essential building blocks of today's/next generation fiber optic networks.
- Allows engineers working in different optical communication areas(i.e. from system to component), to understand the principle and mechanics of each key component they deal with for optical system design.
- Covers Planar lightwave circuit (PLC) based router, different optical switches technologies (based on MEMS, thermo-optic, and electro-optic) and different optical amplifier technologies (based on semiconductor optical amplifier, EDFA ,and raman amplifier).
- Highlights the operating principle of each component, system applications, and also future opportunities.
Part one provides an authoritative introduction to the fundamentals of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications. The generation, detection and emission of waves are discussed alongside fundamental aspects of surface plasmon polaritons, terahertz near-field imaging and sensing, room temperature terahertz detectors and terahertz wireless communications. Part two goes on to discuss recent progress and such novel techniques in terahertz technology as terahertz bio-sensing, array imagers, and resonant field enhancement of terahertz waves. Fiber-coupled time-domain spectroscopy systems (THz-TDS), terahertz photomixer systems, terahertz nanotechnology, frequency metrology and semiconductor material development for terahertz applications are all reviewed. Finally, applications of terahertz technology are explored in part three, including applications in tomographic imaging and material spectroscopy, art conservation, and the aerospace, wood products, semiconductor and pharmaceutical industries.
With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, the Handbook of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications is an authoritative guide to the field for laser engineers, manufacturers of sensing devices and imaging equipment, security companies, the military, professionals working in process monitoring, and academics interested in this field.Examines techniques for the generation and detection of terahertz wavesDiscusses material development for terahertz applicationsExplores applications in tomographic imaging, art conservation and the pharmaceutical and aerospace industries
role of the late Sir Charles Oatley in the development of the scanning electron microscopeings
* It contains historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory* Emphasizes broad and in depth article collaborations between world-renowned scientists in the field of image and electron physics
Although the scanning electron microscope had a prehistory in Germany and the USA, its real champion was Charles Oatley, who launched his project
in the Cambridge University Engineering Department shortly after the end of World War II. A first microscope was built successfully by D. McMullan, one
of the Guest Editors of this volume and a succession of progressively improved instruments followed. One in particular, built by K.C.A. Smith was commissioned specially for the Canadian Pulp and Paper Research Institute for use in their Montreal laboratories. All these efforts culminated in the commercial model built by the Cambridge Instrument Company and marketed in 1965 under the trade name, Stereoscan.
Although this story has been told on several occasions, in particular in these Advances, it seemed appropriate, in the centenary year of the birth of Sir Charles Oatley, that more details should be published to celebrate these achievements. This volume is the result.
This volume is a tribute to a bold pioneering scientist and a vivid record of the creation of the first commercial scanning electron microscopes and of subsequent developments.* A special volume devoted principally to the
role of the late Sir Charles Oatley in the development of the scanning electron microscopeings
* It contains historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory
* Emphasizes broad and in depth article collaborations between world-renowned scientists in the field of image and electron physics
The book offers useful information for both readers unfamiliar with semiconductor lasers, through the introductory parts of each chapter, as well as a state-of-the-art discussion of some of the most advanced semiconductor laser structures, intended for readers engaged in research in this field. This book may also serve as an introduction for the companion volume, Semiconductor Lasers II: Materials and Structures, which presents further details on the different material systems and laser structures used for achieving specific diode laser performance features.Introduces the reader to the basics of semiconductor lasersCovers the fundamentals of lasing in semiconductors, including quantum confined and microcavity structuresBeneficial to readers interested in the more general aspects of semiconductor physics and optoelectronic devices, such as quantum confined heterostructures and integrated opticsEach chapter contains a thorough introduction to the topic geared toward the non-expert, followed by an in-depth discussion of current technology and future trendsUseful for professionals engaged in research and developmentContains numerous schematic and data-containing illustrations
This book will be of interest to users and developers of commercial industrial inspection systems as well as researchers in the fields of machine vision, artificial intelligence and advanced manufacturing engineering.
A valuable "must-have" tool for electronic and optical engineers, this Handbook is the only single-volume, tell-it-all guide to the use of optical devices and light in electronics systems. Developed by a towering figure in the field, this manual familiarizes you with UV, VUV and X-Ray lasers; visible, solid-state, semiconductor and infrared gas lasers; FEL and ultrashort laser pulses; visible and infrared optical materials; infrared and imaging detectors; optical fibers and fiber optic sensors; holography; laser spectroscopy and photochemistry; high resolution lithography for optoelectronics; and much more.
In this up-to-the-minute edition you'll find new chapters on optical communications, electro-optic devices, and high intensity optical fields, in addition to extensively updated material throughout, and abundant charts, diagrams and data tables.
* Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications
* Coverage of biomedical applications
* Problems provided at the end of each chapter
The development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.
The book presents sound coverage of the fundamentals of lightwave technology, along with material on pulse compression techniques and rare-earth-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers. The extensively revised chapters include information on fiber-optic communication systems and the ultrafast signal processing techniques that make use of nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers.
New material focuses on the applications of highly nonlinear fibers in areas ranging from wavelength laser tuning and nonlinear spectroscopy to biomedical imaging and frequency metrology. Technologies such as quantum cryptography, quantum computing, and quantum communications are also covered in a new chapter.
This book will be an ideal reference for: R&D engineers working on developing next generation optical components; scientists involved with research on fiber amplifiers and lasers; graduate students and researchers working in the fields of optical communications and quantum information.
* The only book on how to develop nonlinear fiber optic applications
* Two new chapters on the latest developments; Highly Nonlinear Fibers and Quantum Applications
* Coverage of biomedical applications
Thoroughly updated with cutting-edge technologies, this detailed resource offers proven methods for effectively evaluating, selecting, and implementing sensors and controls to ensure error-free manufacturing environments. Sensors and Control Systems in Manufacturing, Second Edition offers step-by-step guidance on applying sensors to measure product parameters, control manufacturing, develop precision manufacturing systems, and generate and control motion. Real-world examples are included throughout to demonstrate successful industrial applications.
Coverage includes:The latest sensor technologies, such as MEMS, photo-, bio-, nano-, and LED sensors Sensor classification and types, including photoelectric, inductive and capacitive proximity, confocal microscropy, and laser sensors Fiber optics in sensors and control systems Networking of sensors and control systems in manufacturing Sensors and control technology in computer-integrated manufacturing Advanced sensor technology in precision manufacturing applications Industrial sensors and control Sensors in flexible manufacturing systems Communications--indexing, transmission, and signal processing SpectRx(tm) sensing technology Manufacturing operation and control through financial planning
New to this Edition:The chapter framework of the first edition will be retained, with each chapter being substantially rewritten and some material would be relocated. Some chapters will be rewritten in a clearer fashion, e.g. There have been no significant advances in the understanding of rainbows recently, but the text could be clarified and improved. Colour has been an important attribute of many nano-particle containing systems, such as quantum dots. This aspect will be included, e.g. the colour of gold ruby glass, described in Chapter 5 as part of scattering phenomena now is better treated in terms of gold nanoparticles and surface plasmons. This would probably be transferred to Chapter 10 and considered in tandem with the colour of metals such as copper, silver and gold. A similar state of affairs applies to silver nanoparticles and polychromic glass. Some chapters will include extensive new material, e.g. Chapter 8, colours due to molecular processes [organic LEDs etc], and Chapter 12, Displays, [touch screen technologies]. For all chapters it would be intended to take into account the current scientific literature up to the time of submission – say up to the end of 2009. The end of chapter Further Reading sections would reflect this up-to-date overview. The end of chapter problems will be strengthened and expanded.
Carefully balancing descriptions of principle, operations and optoelectronic circuit implementation, this indispensable resource will enable the engineer to:Understand the implications of various measurement results and system performance qualificationsCharacterize modern optical systems and devicesSelect optical devices and subsystems in optical network design and implementationDesign innovative instrumentations for fiber optic systems
This book brings together in one volume the fundamental principles with the latest techniques, making it a complete resource for the optical and communications engineer developing future optical devices and fiber optic systems.
"Optical fiber communication systems and networks constitute the core of the telecom infrastructure of the information society worldwide. Accurate knowledge of the properties of the contituent components, and of the performance of the subsystems and systems must be obtained in order to ensure reliable transmission, distribution, and delivery of information. This book is an authoritative and comprehensive treatment of fiber-optic measurement techniques, including not only fundamental principles and methodologies but also various instrumentations and practical implementations. It is an excellent up-to-date resource and reference for the academic and industrial researcher as well as the field engineer in manufacturing and network operations." –Dr. Tingye Li, AT&T Labs (retired) Rongqing Hui received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Politecnico di Torino, Italy in 1993. He is currently a tenured professor in the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Kansas. He has published more than 90 refereed technical papers in the area of fiber-optic communications and holds 13 patents. Dr. Hui currently serves as an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Communications. Maurice O'Sullivan has worked for Nortel for a score of years, at first in the optical cable business, developing factory-tailored metrology for optical fiber, but, in the main, in the optical transmission business developing, modeling and verifying physical layer designs & performance of Nortel's line and highest rate transmission product including OC-192, MOR, MOR+, LH1600G, eDCO and eDC40G. He holds a Ph.D. in physics (high resolution spectroscopy) from the University of Toronto, is a Nortel Fellow and has been granted more than 30 patents.The only book to combine explanations of the basic principles with latest techniques to enable the engineer to develop photonic systems of the futureCareful and systematic presentation of measurement methods to help engineers to choose the most appropriate for their applicationThe latest methods covered, such as real-time optical monitoring and phase coded systems and subsystems, making this the most up-to-date guide to fiber optic measurement on the market
All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web.Key Features
* Explains the theory of noise in optically amplified systems in an intuitive way
* The book contains a discussion of components used in amplifier fabrication and of the attendant technologies used in real systems
* The book provides basic tools for amplifier design as well as systems engineering, including the latest developments in WDM and soliton systems
* The book discusses the fundamentals of rare earth ions for the reader desiring more depth in the topic
* The book is for either the novice of experienced reader
* The chapter have links between them to allow the reader to understand the relationship between the amplifier characteristics, noise, and systems applications
* The book contains extensive references
This book provides a detailed overview of the evolution of undersea communications systems, with emphasis on the most recent breakthroughs of optical submarine cable technologies based upon Wavelength Division Multiplexing, optical amplification, new-generation optical fibers, and high-speed digital electronics. The role played by submarine-communication systems in the development of high-speed networks and associated market demands for multiplying Internet and broadband services is also covered.
Importance of This Topic
This book will fill the gap between highly specialized papers from large international conferences and broad-audience technology review updates. The book provides a full overview of the evolution in the field and conveys the dimension of the large undersea projects. In addition, the book uncovers the myths surrounding marine operations and installations in that domain, which have remained known so far to only very few specialists.
Volume Ais devoted to components and subsystems, including photonic integrated circuits, multicore and few-mode fibers, photonic crystals, silicon photonics, signal processing, and optical interconnections.
Volume Bis devoted to systems and networks, including advanced modulation formats, coherent detection, Tb/s channels, space-division multiplexing, reconfigurable networks, broadband access, undersea cable, satellite communications, and microwave photonics.All the latest technologies and techniques for developing future components and systemsEdited by two winners of the highly prestigious OSA/IEEE John Tyndal award and a President of IEEE's Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (7,000 members)Written by leading experts in the field, it is the most authoritative and comprehensive reference on optical engineering on the market
Most topics are discussed first at a level accessible to anyone with a basic knowledge of physical optics, then a more detailed treatment of the topic is undertaken, and finally each topic is supplemented by a reference list of more than 1000 selected original publications in total.Historical development of interferometryThe laser as a light sourceTwo-beam interferenceTechniques for frequency stabilizationCoherenceElectronic phase measurementsMultiple-beam interferenceQuantum effects in optical interferenceExtensive coverage of the applications of interferometry, such as measurements of length, optical testing, interference microscopy, interference spectroscopy, Fourier-transform spectroscopy, interferometric sensors, nonlinear interferometers, stellar interferometry, and studies of space-time and gravitation
* Ideal for those with some background in communications but without previous knowledge of fiber optics
* Provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of fiber optic systems and their individual components
* Places emphasis on practical techniques of component installation and system design
Volume A is devoted to components and subsystems, including photonic integrated circuits, multicore and few-mode fibers, photonic crystals, silicon photonics, signal processing, and optical interconnections.All the latest technologies and techniques for developing future components and systemsEdited by two winners of the highly prestigious OSA/IEEE John Tyndal award and a President of IEEE's Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (7,000 members)Written by leading experts in the field, it is the most authoritative and comprehensive reference on optical engineering the market
Are you in the dark when it comes to understanding the science of optics? Now there's a glimmer in the gloom! Optics Demystified brings this challenging topic into focus.
Written in an easy-to-follow format, this practical guide begins by covering the nature of light, the electromagnetic spectrum, reflection, refraction, and color dispersion. You'll move on to common optical devices and effects, lasers, and optical data transmission technology. Industrial, medical, and military applications are discussed, as are exotic optics such as holography. Detailed examples and concise explanations make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help reinforce learning.
It's a no-brainer! You'll get:Explanations of the particle and wave theories Analysis of optical microscopes and telescopes Functional details of fiber optics A sampling of optical illusions A time-saving approach to performing better on an exam or at work
Simple enough for a beginner but challenging enough for an advanced student, Optics Demystified illuminates this vital physics topic.
From sun tracing software perspective, the sonnet Tracing The Sun has a literal meaning. Within the context of sun track and trace, this book explains that the sun's daily path across the sky is directed by relatively simple principles, and if grasped/understood, then it is relatively easy to trace the sun with sun following software. Sun position computer software for tracing the sun are available as open source code, sources that is listed in this book. The book also describes the use of satellite tracking software and mechanisms in solar tracking applications. Ironically there was even a system called sun chaser, said to have been a solar positioner system known for chasing the sun throughout the day.
Using solar equations in an electronic circuit for automatic solar tracking is quite simple, even if you are a novice, but mathematical solar equations are over complicated by academic experts and professors in text-books, journal articles and internet websites. In terms of solar hobbies, scholars, students and Hobbyist's looking at solar tracking electronics or PC programs for solar tracking are usually overcome by the sheer volume of scientific material and internet resources, which leaves many developers in frustration when search for simple experimental solar tracking source-code for their on-axis sun-tracking systems. This booklet will simplify the search for the mystical sun tracking formulas for your sun tracker innovation and help you develop your own autonomous solar tracking controller.
By directing the solar collector directly into the sun, a solar harvesting means or device can harness sunlight or thermal heat. This is achieved with the help of sun angle formulas, solar angle formulas or solar tracking procedures for the calculation of sun's position in the sky. Automatic sun tracking system software includes algorithms for solar altitude azimuth angle calculations required in following the sun across the sky. In using the longitude, latitude GPS coordinates of the solar tracker location, these sun tracking software tools supports precision solar tracking by determining the solar altitude-azimuth coordinates for the sun trajectory in altitude-azimuth tracking at the tracker location, using certain sun angle formulas in sun vector calculations. Instead of follow the sun software, a sun tracking sensor such as a sun sensor or webcam or video camera with vision based sun following image processing software can also be used to determine the position of the sun optically. Such optical feedback devices are often used in solar panel tracking systems and dish tracking systems.
Dynamic sun tracing is also used in solar surveying, DNI analyser and sun surveying systems that build solar infographics maps with solar radiance, irradiance and DNI models for GIS (geographical information system). In this way geospatial methods on solar/environment interaction makes use use of geospatial technologies (GIS, Remote Sensing, and Cartography). Climatic data and weather station or weather center data, as well as queries from sky servers and solar resource database systems (i.e. on DB2, Sybase, Oracle, SQL, MySQL) may also be associated with solar GIS maps. In such solar resource modelling systems, a pyranometer or solarimeter is normally used in addition to measure direct and indirect, scattered, dispersed, reflective radiation for a particular geographical location. Sunlight analysis is important in flash photography where photographic lighting are important for photographers. GIS systems are used by architects who add sun shadow applets to study architectural shading or sun shadow analysis, solar flux calculations, optical modelling or to perform weather modelling. Such systems often employ a computer operated telescope type mechanism with ray tracing program software as a solar navigator or sun tracer that determines the solar position and intensity.
The purpose of this booklet is to assist developers to track and trace suitable source-code and solar tracking algorithms for their application, whether a hobbyist, scientist, technician or engineer. Many open-source sun following and tracking algorithms and source-code for solar tracking programs and modules are freely available to download on the internet today. Certain proprietary solar tracker kits and solar tracking controllers include a software development kit SDK for its application programming interface API attributes (Pebble). Widget libraries, widget toolkits, GUI toolkit and UX libraries with graphical control elements are also available to construct the graphical user interface (GUI) for your solar tracking or solar power monitoring program.
The solar library used by solar position calculators, solar simulation software and solar contour calculators include machine program code for the solar hardware controller which are software programmed into Micro-controllers, Programmable Logic Controllers PLC, programmable gate arrays, Arduino processor or PIC processor. PC based solar tracking is also high in demand using C++, Visual Basic VB, as well as MS Windows, Linux and Apple Mac based operating systems for sun path tables on Matlab, Excel. Some books and internet webpages use other terms, such as: sun angle calculator, sun position calculator or solar angle calculator. As said, such software code calculate the solar azimuth angle, solar altitude angle, solar elevation angle or the solar Zenith angle (Zenith solar angle is simply referenced from vertical plane, the mirror of the elevation angle measured from the horizontal or ground plane level). Similar software code is also used in solar calculator apps or the solar power calculator apps for IOS and Android smartphone devices. Most of these smartphone solar mobile apps show the sun path and sun-angles for any location and date over a 24 hour period. Some smartphones include augmented reality features in which you can physically see and look at the solar path through your cell phone camera or mobile phone camera at your phone's specific GPS location.
In the computer programming and digital signal processing (DSP) environment, (free/open source) program code are available for VB, .Net, Delphi, Python, C, C+, C++, PHP, Swift, ADM, F, Flash, Basic, QBasic, GBasic, KBasic, SIMPL language, Squirrel, Solaris, Assembly language on operating systems such as MS Windows, Apple Mac, DOS or Linux OS. Software algorithms predicting position of the sun in the sky are commonly available as graphical programming platforms such as Matlab (Mathworks), Simulink models, Java applets, TRNSYS simulations, Scada system apps, Labview module, Beckhoff TwinCAT (Visual Studio), Siemens SPA, mobile and iphone apps, Android or iOS tablet apps, and so forth. At the same time, PLC software code for a range of sun tracking automation technology can follow the profile of sun in sky for Siemens, HP, Panasonic, ABB, Allan Bradley, OMRON, SEW, Festo, Beckhoff, Rockwell, Schneider, Endress Hauser, Fudji electric. Honeywell, Fuchs, Yokonawa, or Muthibishi platforms. Sun path projection software are also available for a range of modular IPC embedded PC motherboards, Industrial PC, PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and PAC (Programmable Automation Controller) such as the Siemens S7-1200 or Siemens Logo, Beckhoff IPC or CX series, OMRON PLC, Ercam PLC, AC500plc ABB, National Instruments NI PXI or NI cRIO, PIC processor, Intel 8051/8085, IBM (Cell, Power, Brain or Truenorth series), FPGA (Xilinx Altera Nios), Intel, Xeon, Atmel megaAVR, MPU, Maple, Teensy, MSP, XMOS, Xbee, ARM, Raspberry Pi, Eagle, Arduino or Arduino AtMega microcontroller, with servo motor, stepper motor, direct current DC pulse width modulation PWM (current driver) or alternating current AC SPS or IPC variable frequency drives VFD motor drives (also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) for electrical, mechatronic, pneumatic, or hydraulic solar tracking actuators.
The above motion control and robot control systems include analogue or digital interfacing ports on the processors to allow for tracker angle orientation feedback control through one or a combination of angle sensor or angle encoder, shaft encoder, precision encoder, optical encoder, magnetic encoder, direction encoder, rotational encoder, chip encoder, tilt sensor, inclination sensor, or pitch sensor. Note that the tracker's elevation or zenith axis angle may measured using an altitude angle-, declination angle-, inclination angle-, pitch angle-, or vertical angle-, zenith angle- sensor or inclinometer. Similarly the tracker's azimuth axis angle be measured with a azimuth angle-, horizontal angle-, or roll angle- sensor. Chip integrated accelerometer magnetometer gyroscope type angle sensors can also be used to calculate displacement. Other options include the use of thermal imaging systems such as a Fluke thermal imager, or robotic or vision based solar tracker systems that employ face tracking, head tracking, hand tracking, eye tracking and car tracking principles in solar tracking.
With unattended decentralised rural, island, isolated, or autonomous off-grid power installations, remote control, monitoring, data acquisition, digital datalogging and online measurement and verification equipment becomes crucial. It assists the operator with supervisory control to monitor the efficiency of remote renewable energy resources and systems and provide valuable web-based feedback in terms of CO2 and clean development mechanism (CDM) reporting. A power quality analyser for diagnostics through internet, WiFi and cellular mobile links is most valuable in frontline troubleshooting and predictive maintenance, where quick diagnostic analysis is required to detect and prevent power quality issues.
Solar tracker applications cover a wide spectrum of solar applications and solar assisted application, including concentrated solar power generation, solar desalination, solar water purification, solar steam generation, solar electricity generation, solar industrial process heat, solar thermal heat storage, solar food dryers, solar water pumping, hydrogen production from methane or producing hydrogen and oxygen from water (HHO) through electrolysis. Many patented or non-patented solar apparatus include tracking in solar apparatus for solar electric generator, solar desalinator, solar steam engine, solar ice maker, solar water purifier, solar cooling, solar refrigeration, USB solar charger, solar phone charging, portable solar charging tracker, solar coffee brewing, solar cooking or solar dying means. Your project may be the next breakthrough or patent, but your invention is held back by frustration in search for the sun tracker you require for your solar powered appliance, solar generator, solar tracker robot, solar freezer, solar cooker, solar drier, solar pump, solar freezer, or solar dryer project. Whether your solar electronic circuit diagram include a simplified solar controller design in a solar electricity project, solar power kit, solar hobby kit, solar steam generator, solar hot water system, solar ice maker, solar desalinator, hobbyist solar panels, hobby robot, or if you are developing professional or hobby electronics for a solar utility or micro scale solar powerplant for your own solar farm or solar farming, this publication may help accelerate the development of your solar tracking innovation.
Lately, solar polygeneration, solar trigeneration (solar triple generation), and solar quad generation (adding delivery of steam, liquid/gaseous fuel, or capture food-grade CO$_2$) systems have need for automatic solar tracking. These systems are known for significant efficiency increases in energy yield as a result of the integration and re-use of waste or residual heat and are suitable for compact packaged micro solar powerplants that could be manufactured and transported in kit-form and operate on a plug-and play basis. Typical hybrid solar power systems include compact or packaged solar micro combined heat and power (CHP or mCHP) or solar micro combined, cooling, heating and power (CCHP, CHPC, mCCHP, or mCHPC) systems used in distributed power generation. These systems are often combined in concentrated solar CSP and CPV smart microgrid configurations for off-grid rural, island or isolated microgrid, minigrid and distributed power renewable energy systems. Solar tracking algorithms are also used in modelling of trigeneration systems using Matlab Simulink (Modelica or TRNSYS) platform as well as in automation and control of renewable energy systems through intelligent parsing, multi-objective, adaptive learning control and control optimization strategies.
Solar tracking algorithms also find application in developing solar models for country or location specific solar studies, for example in terms of measuring or analysis of the fluctuations of the solar radiation (i.e. direct and diffuse radiation) in a particular area. Solar DNI, solar irradiance and atmospheric information and models can thus be integrated into a solar map, solar atlas or geographical information systems (GIS). Such models allows for defining local parameters for specific regions that may be valuable in terms of the evaluation of different solar in photovoltaic of CSP systems on simulation and synthesis platforms such as Matlab and Simulink or in linear or multi-objective optimization algorithm platforms such as COMPOSE, EnergyPLAN or DER-CAM.
A dual-axis solar tracker and single-axis solar tracker may use a sun tracker program or sun tracker algorithm to position a solar dish, solar panel array, heliostat array, PV panel, solar antenna or infrared solar nantenna. A self-tracking solar concentrator performs automatic solar tracking by computing the solar vector. Solar position algorithms (TwinCAT, SPA, or PSA Algorithms) use an astronomical algorithm to calculate the position of the sun. It uses astronomical software algorithms and equations for solar tracking in the calculation of sun's position in the sky for each location on the earth at any time of day. Like an optical solar telescope, the solar position algorithm pin-points the solar reflector at the sun and locks onto the sun's position to track the sun across the sky as the sun progresses throughout the day. Optical sensors such as photodiodes, light-dependant-resistors (LDR) or photoresistors are used as optical accuracy feedback devices. Lately we also included a section in the book (with links to microprocessor code) on how the PixArt Wii infrared camera in the Wii remote or Wiimote may be used in infrared solar tracking applications.
In order to harvest free energy from the sun, some automatic solar positioning systems use an optical means to direct the solar tracking device. These solar tracking strategies use optical tracking techniques, such as a sun sensor means, to direct sun rays onto a silicon or CMOS substrate to determine the X and Y coordinates of the sun's position. In a solar mems sun-sensor device, incident sunlight enters the sun sensor through a small pin-hole in a mask plate where light is exposed to a silicon substrate. In a web-camera or camera image processing sun tracking and sun following means, object tracking software performs multi object tracking or moving object tracking methods. In an solar object tracking technique, image processing software performs mathematical processing to box the outline of the apparent solar disc or sun blob within the captured image frame, while sun-localization is performed with an edge detection algorithm to determine the solar vector coordinates.
An automated positioning system help maximize the yields of solar power plants through solar tracking control to harness sun's energy. In such renewable energy systems, the solar panel positioning system uses a sun tracking techniques and a solar angle calculator in positioning PV panels in photovoltaic systems and concentrated photovoltaic CPV systems. Automatic on-axis solar tracking in a PV solar tracking system can be dual-axis sun tracking or single-axis sun solar tracking. It is known that a motorized positioning system in a photovoltaic panel tracker increase energy yield and ensures increased power output, even in a single axis solar tracking configuration. Other applications such as robotic solar tracker or robotic solar tracking system uses robotica with artificial intelligence in the control optimization of energy yield in solar harvesting through a robotic tracking system.
Automatic positioning systems in solar tracking designs are also used in other free energy generators, such as concentrated solar thermal power CSP and dish Stirling systems. The sun tracking device in a solar collector in a solar concentrator or solar collector Such a performs on-axis solar tracking, a dual axis solar tracker assists to harness energy from the sun through an optical solar collector, which can be a parabolic mirror, parabolic reflector, Fresnel lens or mirror array/matrix. A parabolic dish or reflector is dynamically steered using a transmission system or solar tracking slew drive mean. In steering the dish to face the sun, the power dish actuator and actuation means in a parabolic dish system optically focusses the sun's energy on the focal point of a parabolic dish or solar concentrating means. A Stirling engine, solar heat pipe, thermosyphin, solar phase change material PCM receiver, or a fibre optic sunlight receiver means is located at the focal point of the solar concentrator. The dish Stirling engine configuration is referred to as a dish Stirling system or Stirling power generation system. Hybrid solar power systems (used in combination with biogas, biofuel, petrol, ethanol, diesel, natural gas or PNG) use a combination of power sources to harness and store solar energy in a storage medium. Any multitude of energy sources can be combined through the use of controllers and the energy stored in batteries, phase change material, thermal heat storage, and in cogeneration form converted to the required power using thermodynamic cycles (organic Rankin, Brayton cycle, micro turbine, Stirling) with an inverter and charge controller.
Beginning with introductory ideas and equations, K.K. Sharma takes the reader through the world of optics by detailing problems encountered, advanced subjects, and actual applications. Elegantly written, this book rigorously examines optics with over 300 illustrations and several problems in each chapter.
The book begins with light propagation in anisotropic media considered much later in most books. Nearly one third of the book deals with applications of optics. This simple idea of merging the sometimes overwhelming and dry subject of optics with real world applications will create better future engineers. It will make ‘optics’ jump off the page for readers and they will see it take shape in the world around them. In presenting optics practically, as well as theoretically, readers will come away not only with a complete knowledge base but a context in which to place it.
This book is recommended for optical engineers, libraries, senior undergraduate students, graduate students, and professors.Strong emphasis on applications to demonstrate the relevance of the theoryIncludes chapter on problem solving of ray deviations, focusing errors, and distortionProblems are included at the end of each chapter for thorough understanding of this dense subject matter
Applications for these specialty fibers abound in the biomedical, sensors, and industrial fields, as well as in more traditional communications capacities. This book will act as a specialty fiber “guided tour, hosted by the top names in the discipline. The globally renowned editors, Drs. Mendez and Morse, have extensive experience in research, academia, and industry.
*Completely covers biomedical and industrial sensor technology with emphasis on real world applications
*Comparative studies of pros and cons of all fiber types with relation to test and measurement, mechanical properties and strength, and reliability
*Easy to access essential facts and details at the begining of each chapter
Each of these developments is significant in its own right. Collectively, they require new thinking in the design of chips, optical components, and systems. Such change also signals new business opportunities and disruption.
Notwithstanding challenges, silicon photonics’ emergence is timely because it is the future of several industries. For the optical industry, the technology will allow designs to be tackled in new ways. For the chip industry, silicon photonics will become the way of scaling post-Moore’s law. New system architectures enabled by silicon photonics will improve large-scale computing and optical communications.
Silicon Photonics: Fueling the Next Information Revolutionoutlines the history and status of silicon photonics. The book discusses the trends driving the datacom and telecom industries, the main but not the only markets for silicon photonics. In particular, developments in optical transport and the data center are discussed as are the challenges. The book details the many roles silicon photonics will play, from wide area networks down to the chip level. Silicon photonics is set to change the optical components and chip industries; this book explains how.Captures the latest research assessing silicon photonics development and prospectsDemonstrates how silicon photonics addresses the challenges of managing bandwidth over distance and within systemsExplores potential applications of SiP, including servers, datacenters, and Internet of Things
The required mathematical rigor will be present where needed but be presented in such a way that it will not prevent non-scientists and non-engineers from gaining a basic understanding of OCT and the applications as well as the issues of bringing the technology to the market.Optical Coherence Tomography is a new medical high-resolution imaging technology which offers distinct advantages over current medical imaging technologies and is attracting a large number of researchers.Provides non-scientists and non-engineers basic understanding of Optical Coherence Tomography applications and issues.
The book also contains thorough discussions of the principles underlying all spectroscopic instrumentation, with special emphasis on grating instruments used with telescopes. An introduction to adaptive optics provides the needed background for further inquiry into this rapidly developing area.Geometrical aberration theory based on Fermat's principleDiffraction theory and transfer function approach to near-perfect telescopesThorough discussion of 2-mirror telescopes, including misalignmentsBasic principles of spectrometry; grating and echelle instrumentsSchmidt and other catadioptric telescopesPrinciples of adaptive opticsOver 220 figures and nearly 90 summary tables
This book gives a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of OFDM signal processing, with a distinctive focus on its broad range of applications. It evaluates the architecture, design and performance of a number of OFDM variations, discusses coded OFDM, and gives a detailed study of error correction codes for access networks, 100 Gb/s Ethernet and future optical networks.
The emerging applications of optical OFDM, including single-mode fiber transmission, multimode fiber transmission, free space optical systems, and optical access networks are examined, with particular attention paid to passive optical networks, radio-over-fiber, WiMAX and UWB communications.
Written by two of the leading contributors to the field, this book will be a unique reference for optical communications engineers and scientists. Students, technical managers and telecom executives seeking to understand this new technology for future-generation optical networks will find the book invaluable.
William Shieh is an associate professor and reader in the electrical and electronic engineering department, The University of Melbourne, Australia. He received his M.S. degree in electrical engineering and Ph.D. degree in physics both from University of Southern California.
Ivan Djordjevic is an Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Arizona, Tucson, where he directs the Optical Communications Systems Laboratory (OCSL). His current research interests include optical networks, error control coding, constrained coding, coded modulation, turbo equalization, OFDM applications, and quantum error correction.
"This wonderful book is the first one to address the rapidly emerging optical OFDM field. Written by two leading researchers in the field, the book is structured to comprehensively cover any optical OFDM aspect one could possibly think of, from the most fundamental to the most specialized. The book adopts a coherent line of presentation, while striking a thoughtful balance between the various topics, gradually developing the optical-physics and communication-theoretic concepts required for deep comprehension of the topic, eventually treating the multiple optical OFDM methods, variations and applications. In my view this book will remain relevant for many years to come, and will be increasingly accessed by graduate students, accomplished researchers as well as telecommunication engineers and managers keen to attain a perspective on the emerging role of OFDM in the evolution of photonic networks." -- Prof. Moshe Nazarathy, EE Dept., Technion, Israel Institute of Technology* The first book on optical OFDM by the leading pioneers in the field
* The only book to cover error correction codes for optical OFDM
* Applications of OFDM to free-space communications, optical access networks, and metro and log haul transports show optical OFDM can be implemented
* An introduction to signal processing for optical communications
* An introduction to optical communication fundamentals for the wireless engineer
This entire field of nonimaging optics is an evolving field, and the editor plans to update the technological progress every two to three years. The editor, John Koshel, is one of the most prominent leading experts in this field, and he is the right expert to perform the task.
From an early lens still being manufactured for use in low-cost cameras to designs made possible through such innovations as lens coating, rare-earth glasses, and computer aided lens design and testing, the author details each major advance in design and fabrication. The book explains how and why each new lens type was developed, and why most of them have since been abandoned. This authoritative history of lens technology also includes brief biographies of several outstanding lens designers and manufacturers of the past.
his thoroughly revised and updated text, now in its second edition, is primarily intended as a textbook for undergraduate students of Physics. The book provides a sound understanding of the fundamental concepts of optics adopting an integrated approach to the principles of optics. It covers the requirements of syllabi of undergraduate students in Physics and Engineering in Indian Universities.
The book includes a wide range of interesting topics such as Fermat’s principle, geometrical optics, dispersion, interference, diffraction and polarization of light waves, optical instruments and lens aberrations. It also discusses electromagnetic waves, fundamentals of vibrations and wave motion. The text explains the concepts through extensive use of line drawings and gives full derivations of essential relations. The topics are dealt with in a well-organized sequence with proper explanations along with simple mathematical formulations.
New to the SECOND Edition
• Incorporates two new chapters, i.e., ‘Fundamentals of Vibrations’, and ‘Wave Motion’
• Includes several worked-out examples to help students reinforce their comprehension of theory
• Provides Formulae at a Glance and Conceptual Questions with their answers for quick revision
• Provides several Solved Numerical Problems to help students comprehend the concepts with ease
• Includes Multiple Choice Questions and Theoretical Questions to help students check their understanding of the subject matter
• Contains unsolved Numerical Problems with answers to build problem-solving skills
Part one provides an introduction to the fundamentals of laser welding before moving on to explore developments in established technologies including CO2 laser welding, disk laser welding and laser micro welding technology. Part two highlights laser welding technologies for various materials including aluminium and titanium alloys, plastics and glass. Part three focuses on developments in emerging laser welding technologies with chapters on the applications of robotics in laser welding and developments in the modelling and simulation of laser and hybrid laser welding. Finally, part four explores the applications of laser welding in the automotive, railway and shipbuilding industries.
The Handbook of laser welding technologies is a technical resource for researchers and engineers using laser welding technologies, professionals requiring an understanding of laser welding techniques and academics interested in the field.Provides an introduction to the fundamentals of laser welding including characteristics, welding defects and evolution of laser weldingDiscusses developments in a number of techniques including disk, conduction and laser micro weldingFocusses on technologies for particular materials such as light metal alloys, plastics and glass
This thematic volume is on the topic of "Field-emission Source Mechanisms" and is authored by Kevin Jensen, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC.
The first part of this book describes the different classes and processing techniques of electrochromic materials. The second part highlights nanostructured electrochromic materials and device fabrication, and the third part focuses on the applications such as smart windows, adaptive camouflage, biomimicry, wearable displays and fashion. The last part rounds off the book by device case studies and environmental impact issues.
Volume (A) is devoted to components and subsystems, including: semiconductor lasers, modulators, photodetectors, integrated photonic circuits, photonic crystals, specialty fibers, polarization-mode dispersion, electronic signal processing, MEMS, nonlinear optical signal processing, and quantum information technologies. Volume (B) is devoted to systems and networks, including: advanced modulation formats, coherent systems, time-multiplexed systems, performance monitoring, reconfigurable add-drop multiplexers, Ethernet technologies, broadband access and services, metro networks, long-haul transmission, optical switching, microwave photonics, computer interconnections, and simulation tools.
Ivan Kaminow retired from Bell Labs in 1996 after a 42-year career. He conducted seminal studies on electrooptic modulators and materials, Raman scattering in ferroelectrics, integrated optics, semiconductor lasers (DBR , ridge-waveguide InGaAsP and multi-frequency), birefringent optical fibers, and WDM networks. Later, he led research on WDM components (EDFAs, AWGs and fiber Fabry-Perot Filters), and on WDM local and wide area networks. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a recipient of the IEEE/OSA John Tyndall, OSA Charles Townes and IEEE/LEOS Quantum Electronics Awards. Since 2004, he has been Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley.
Tingye Li retired from AT&T in 1998 after a 41-year career at Bell Labs and AT&T Labs. His seminal work on laser resonator modes is considered a classic. Since the late 1960s, He and his groups have conducted pioneering studies on lightwave technologies and systems. He led the work on amplified WDM transmission systems and championed their deployment for upgrading network capacity. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. He is a recipient of the IEEE David Sarnoff Award, IEEE/OSA John Tyndall Award, OSA Ives Medal/Quinn Endowment, AT&T Science and Technology Medal, and IEEE Photonics Award.
Alan Willner has worked at AT&T Bell Labs and Bellcore, and he is Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Southern California. He received the NSF Presidential Faculty Fellows Award from the White House, Packard Foundation Fellowship, NSF National Young Investigator Award, Fulbright Foundation Senior Scholar, IEEE LEOS Distinguished Lecturer, and USC University-Wide Award for Excellence in Teaching. He is a Fellow of IEEE and OSA, and he has been President of the IEEE LEOS, Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE/OSA J. of Lightwave Technology, Editor-in-Chief of Optics Letters, Co-Chair of the OSA Science & Engineering Council, and General Co-Chair of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics.