This is an engineering book. You will not find much prose in here (the author’s English is broken anyway.) Instead, this book has only bit of text and plenty of drawings attempting to describe in great detail the Wolfenstein 3D game engine and its hardware, the IBM PC with an Intel 386 CPU and a VGA graphic card.
Game Engine Black Book details techniques such as raycasting, compiled scalers, deferred rendition, VGA Mode-Y, linear feedback shift register, fixed point arithmetic, pulse width modulation, runtime generated code, self-modifying code, and many others tricks. Open up to discover the architecture of the software which pioneered the First Person Shooter genre.
In the world's top research labs and universities, the race is on to invent the ultimate learning algorithm: one capable of discovering any knowledge from data, and doing anything we want, before we even ask. In The Master Algorithm, Pedro Domingos lifts the veil to give us a peek inside the learning machines that power Google, Amazon, and your smartphone. He assembles a blueprint for the future universal learner-the Master Algorithm-and discusses what it will mean for business, science, and society. If data-ism is today's philosophy, this book is its bible.
"Soni and Goodman are at their best when they invoke the wonder an idea can instill. They summon the right level of awe while stopping short of hyperbole." —Financial Times
"Jimmy Soni and Rob Goodman make a convincing case for their subtitle while reminding us that Shannon never made this claim himself." —The Wall Street Journal
"Soni and Goodman have done their research...A Mind at Play reveals the remarkable human behind some of the most important theoretical and practical contributions to the information age." —Nature
"A Mind at Play shows us that you don't need to be a genius to learn from a genius. Claude Shannon's inventive, vibrant life demonstrates how vital the act of play can be to making the most of work." —Inc.
“A charming account of one of the twentieth century’s most distinguished scientists…Readers will enjoy this portrait of a modern-day Da Vinci.” —Fortune
In their second collaboration, biographers Jimmy Soni and Rob Goodman present the story of Claude Shannon—one of the foremost intellects of the twentieth century and the architect of the Information Age, whose insights stand behind every computer built, email sent, video streamed, and webpage loaded. Claude Shannon was a groundbreaking polymath, a brilliant tinkerer, and a digital pioneer. He constructed the first wearable computer, outfoxed Vegas casinos, and built juggling robots. He also wrote the seminal text of the digital revolution, which has been called “the Magna Carta of the Information Age.” In this elegantly written, exhaustively researched biography, Soni and Goodman reveal Claude Shannon’s full story for the first time. With unique access to Shannon’s family and friends, A Mind at Play brings this singular innovator and always playful genius to life.
Analyzing the strategic maneuvers of today’s great information powers–Apple, Google, and an eerily resurgent AT&T–Tim Wu uncovers a time-honored pattern in which invention begets industry and industry begets empire.
It is easy to forget that every development in the history of the American information industry–from the telephone to radio to film–once existed in an open and chaotic marketplace inhabited by entrepreneurs and utopians, just as the Internet does today. Each of these, however, grew to be dominated by a monopolist or cartel. In this pathbreaking book, Tim Wu asks: will the Internet follow the same fate? Could the Web–the entire flow of American information–come to be ruled by a corporate leviathan in possession of "the master switch"? Here, Tim Wu shows how a battle royale for Internet’s future is brewing, and this is one war we dare not tune out.
A NEW YORK TIMES NOTABLE BOOK
A VOICE LITERARY SUPPLEMENT TOP 25 FAVORITE BOOKS OF THE YEAR
AN ESQUIRE MAGAZINE BEST BOOK OF THE YEAR
Explaining why the whole is sometimes smarter than the sum of its parts, Johnson presents surprising examples of feedback, self-organization, and adaptive learning. How does a lively neighborhood evolve out of a disconnected group of shopkeepers, bartenders, and real estate developers? How does a media event take on a life of its own? How will new software programs create an intelligent World Wide Web?
In the coming years, the power of self-organization -- coupled with the connective technology of the Internet -- will usher in a revolution every bit as significant as the introduction of electricity. Provocative and engaging, Emergence puts you on the front lines of this exciting upheaval in science and thought.
Previously the domain of philosophers and linguists, information theory has now moved beyond the province of code breakers to become the crucial science of our time. In Decoding the Universe, Charles Seife draws on his gift for making cutting-edge science accessible to explain how this new tool is deciphering everything from the purpose of our DNA to the parallel universes of our Byzantine cosmos. The result is an exhilarating adventure that deftly combines cryptology, physics, biology, and mathematics to cast light on the new understanding of the laws that govern life and the universe.
Through the ideas and software in this book, users will learn to design and employ a fully-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This completely updated and revised edition includes new coverage on ray-tracing hair and curves primitives, numerical precision issues with ray tracing, LBVHs, realistic camera models, the measurement equation, and much more. It is a must-have, full color resource on physically-based rendering.Presents up-to-date revisions of the seminal reference on rendering, including new sections on bidirectional path tracing, numerical robustness issues in ray tracing, realistic camera models, and subsurface scatteringProvides the source code for a complete rendering system allowing readers to get up and running fastIncludes a unique indexing feature, literate programming, that lists the locations of each function, variable, and method on the page where they are first describedServes as an essential resource on physically-based rendering
The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 15 submissions. They deal with the general subject and issues of high-dimensional data clustering; present examples of techniques used to find and investigate clusters in high dimensionality; and the most common approach to tackle dimensionality problems, namely, dimensionality reduction and its application in clustering.
Beginning ASP.NET 4.5 Databases is a comprehensive introduction on how you can connect a Web site to many different data sources — not just databases — and use the data to create dynamic page content. It also shows you how to build a relational database, use SQL to communicate with it, and understand how they differ from each other.
With in-depth, on-target coverage of the new data access features of .NET Framework 4.5, this book is your guide to using ASP.NET to build responsive, easy-to-update data-driven Web sites.
Database design is not an exact science. Many are surprised to find that problems with their databases are caused by poor design rather than by difficulties in using the database management software. Beginning Database Design, Second Edition helps you ask and answer important questions about your data so you can understand the problem you are trying to solve and create a pragmatic design capturing the essentials while leaving the door open for refinements and extension at a later stage. Solid database design principles and examples help demonstrate the consequences of simplifications and pragmatic decisions. The rationale is to try to keep a design simple, but allow room for development as situations change or resources permit.Provides solid design principles by which to avoid pitfalls and support changing needs Includes numerous examples of good and bad design decisions and their consequences Shows a modern method for documenting design using the Unified Modeling Language
A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg
From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.”
One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us?
Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas.
Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become?
Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.
With tables, diagrams, games, and as little math as possible, authors Colt McAnlis and Aleks Haecky neatly explain the fundamentals. Learn how compressed files are better, cheaper, and faster to distribute and consume, and how they’ll give you a competitive edge.Learn why compression has become crucial as data production continues to skyrocketKnow your data, circumstances, and algorithm options when choosing compression toolsExplore variable-length codes, statistical compression, arithmetic numerical coding, dictionary encodings, and context modelingExamine tradeoffs between file size and quality when choosing image compressorsLearn ways to compress client- and server-generated data objectsMeet the inventors and visionaries who created data compression algorithms
Whether you are populating databases, retrieving data from the Web, or performing complex calculations on large data sets, SSIS gives you the tools to get the job done. And this book gives you the knowledge to take advantage of everything SSIS offers.Helps you design and develop robust, efficient, scalable ETL solutions Walks you through using the built-in, stock components Shows how to programmatically extend the power of SSIS to cover any possible scenario
SQL Server 2012 Integration Services Design Patterns does not focus on the problems to be solved; instead, the book delves into why particular problems should be solved in certain ways. You'll learn more about SSIS as a result, and you'll learn by practical example. Where appropriate, SQL Server 2012 Integration Services Design Patterns provides examples of alternative patterns and discusses when and where they should be used. Highlights of the book include sections on ETL Instrumentation, SSIS Frameworks, and Dependency Services.
Takes you through solutions to several common data integration challenges Demonstrates new features in SQL Server 2012 Integration Services Teaches SSIS using practical examples
We are living in the computer age, in a world increasingly designed and engineered by computer programmers and software designers, by people who call themselves hackers. Who are these people, what motivates them, and why should you care?
Consider these facts: Everything around us is turning into computers. Your typewriter is gone, replaced by a computer. Your phone has turned into a computer. So has your camera. Soon your TV will. Your car was not only designed on computers, but has more processing power in it than a room-sized mainframe did in 1970. Letters, encyclopedias, newspapers, and even your local store are being replaced by the Internet.
Hackers & Painters: Big Ideas from the Computer Age, by Paul Graham, explains this world and the motivations of the people who occupy it. In clear, thoughtful prose that draws on illuminating historical examples, Graham takes readers on an unflinching exploration into what he calls "an intellectual Wild West."
The ideas discussed in this book will have a powerful and lasting impact on how we think, how we work, how we develop technology, and how we live. Topics include the importance of beauty in software design, how to make wealth, heresy and free speech, the programming language renaissance, the open-source movement, digital design, internet startups, and more.
Modern cryptology has been described as the science of the integrity of information, covering all aspects like confidentiality, authenticity and non-repudiation and also including the protocols required for achieving these aims. In both theory and practice it requires notions and constructions from three major disciplines: computer science, electronic engineering and mathematics. Within mathematics, group theory, the theory of finite fields, and elementary number theory as well as some topics not normally covered in courses in algebra, such as the theory of Boolean functions and Shannon theory, are involved.Although essentially self-contained, a degree of mathematical maturity on the part of the reader is assumed, corresponding to his or her background in computer science or engineering. Algebra for Cryptologists is a textbook for an introductory course in cryptography or an upper undergraduate course in algebra, or for self-study in preparation for postgraduate study in cryptology.
Now, what if you had a time machine and could go back and read this book. You would learn that even NoSQL databases like MongoDB require some level of data modeling. Data modeling is the process of learning about the data, and regardless of technology, this process must be performed for a successful application. You would learn the value of conceptual, logical, and physical data modeling and how each stage increases our knowledge of the data and reduces assumptions and poor design decisions.
Read this book to learn how to do data modeling for MongoDB applications, and accomplish these five objectives:
Understand how data modeling contributes to the process of learning about the data, and is, therefore, a required technique, even when the resulting database is not relational. That is, NoSQL does not mean NoDataModeling! Know how NoSQL databases differ from traditional relational databases, and where MongoDB fits. Explore each MongoDB object and comprehend how each compares to their data modeling and traditional relational database counterparts, and learn the basics of adding, querying, updating, and deleting data in MongoDB. Practice a streamlined, template-driven approach to performing conceptual, logical, and physical data modeling. Recognize that data modeling does not always have to lead to traditional data models! Distinguish top-down from bottom-up development approaches and complete a top-down case study which ties all of the modeling techniques together.
This book is written for anyone who is working with, or will be working with MongoDB, including business analysts, data modelers, database administrators, developers, project managers, and data scientists. There are three sections:In Section I, Getting Started, we will reveal the power of data modeling and the tight connections to data models that exist when designing any type of database (Chapter 1), compare NoSQL with traditional relational databases and where MongoDB fits (Chapter 2), explore each MongoDB object and comprehend how each compares to their data modeling and traditional relational database counterparts (Chapter 3), and explain the basics of adding, querying, updating, and deleting data in MongoDB (Chapter 4).
In Section II, Levels of Granularity, we cover Conceptual Data Modeling (Chapter 5), Logical Data Modeling (Chapter 6), and Physical Data Modeling (Chapter 7). Notice the “ing” at the end of each of these chapters. We focus on the process of building each of these models, which is where we gain essential business knowledge.
In Section III, Case Study, we will explain both top down and bottom up development approaches and go through a top down case study where we start with business requirements and end with the MongoDB database. This case study will tie together all of the techniques in the previous seven chapters.
Nike Senior Data Architect Ryan Smith wrote the foreword. Key points are included at the end of each chapter as a way to reinforce concepts. In addition, this book is loaded with hands-on exercises, along with their answers provided in Appendix A. Appendix B contains all of the book’s references and Appendix C contains a glossary of the terms used throughout the text.
SQL Server 2008 puts an incredible amount of BI functionality at your disposal. But how do you take advantage of it? That’s what this book is all about. Authors Guy Fouché and Lynn Langit show how to implement end-to-end BI solutions using SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS), SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS), and other tools in the Microsoft business intelligence toolkit. You’ll learn about all-features such as PowerPivot and Report Builder 3.0. Also provided are clear examples of predictive analysis made possible through powerful data mining features in SQL Server.
If you’re an analyst or developer working with SQL Server 2008 who is charged with delivering results that drive business success, you can’t afford to be without this book; you can’t afford to ignore the powerful business intelligence suite that Microsoft has placed at your disposal.Provides the "big picture" of Microsoft’s BI tool suite Covers PowerPivot and other game-changing technologies introduced alongside SQL Server 2008 Release 2 Gives a practical analysis of features based on real-world practices
Karen Morton has updated the content for Oracle version 12c and helps you master powerful aspects of Oracle SQL from the inside-out. You’ll learn analytic functions, the MODEL clause, and advanced grouping syntax—features that will help in creating good queries for reporting and business intelligence applications. Pro Oracle SQL, Second Edition also helps you minimize parsing overhead, read execution plans, test for correct results, understand performance management, and exert control over SQL execution in your database. You’ll learn when to create indexes, how to verify that they make a difference, how to use SQL Baselines and Profiles to optimize and stabilize SQL execution plans, and much more. You’ll also understand how SQL is optimized for working in sets, and that the key to getting accurate results lies in making sure that queries ask clear and precise questions.
Pro Oracle SQL, Second Edition helps you work at a truly professional level in the Oracle dialect of SQL. You’ll master the language, the tools to work effectively with the language, and the right way to think about a problem in SQL.
Endorsed by the OakTable Network, a group of Oracle technologists well-known for their rigorous and scientific approach to Oracle Database performance Comprehensive—goes beyond the language with a focus on what you need to know to write successful queries and data manipulation statements. Performance focused—teaches you how to measure the performance of your SQL statements and not just the syntax.
Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves. Topics covered include the geometry and group structure of elliptic curves, the Nagell–Lutz theorem describing points of finite order, the Mordell–Weil theorem on the finite generation of the group of rational points, the Thue–Siegel theorem on the finiteness of the set of integer points, theorems on counting points with coordinates in finite fields, Lenstra's elliptic curve factorization algorithm, and a discussion of complex multiplication and the Galois representations associated to torsion points. Additional topics new to the second edition include an introduction to elliptic curve cryptography and a brief discussion of the stunning proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Wiles et al. via the use of elliptic curves.
The book begins with a summary of the nontechnical aspects of interviewing, such as common mistakes, strategies for a great interview, perspectives from the other side of the table, tips on negotiating the best offer, and a guide to the best ways to use EPI.
The technical core of EPI is a sequence of chapters on basic and advanced data structures, searching, sorting, broad algorithmic principles, concurrency, and system design. Each chapter consists of a brief review, followed by a broad and thought-provoking series of problems. We include a summary of data structure, algorithm, and problem solving patterns.
The story begins with Leibniz in the 17th century and then focuses on Boole, Frege, Cantor, Hilbert, and Gödel, before turning to Turing. Turing’s analysis of algorithmic processes led to a single, all-purpose machine that could be programmed to carry out such processes—the computer. Davis describes how this incredible group, with lives as extraordinary as their accomplishments, grappled with logical reasoning and its mechanization. By investigating their achievements and failures, he shows how these pioneers paved the way for modern computing.
Bringing the material up to date, in this revised edition Davis discusses the success of the IBM Watson on Jeopardy, reorganizes the information on incompleteness, and adds information on Konrad Zuse. A distinguished prize-winning logician, Martin Davis has had a career of more than six decades devoted to the important interface between logic and computer science. His expertise, combined with his genuine love of the subject and excellent storytelling, make him the perfect person to tell this story.
The modern human animal spends upwards of 11 hours out of every 24 in a state of constant consumption. Not eating, but gorging on information ceaselessly spewed from the screens and speakers we hold dear. Just as we have grown morbidly obese on sugar, fat, and flour—so, too, have we become gluttons for texts, instant messages, emails, RSS feeds, downloads, videos, status updates, and tweets.
We're all battling a storm of distractions, buffeted with notifications and tempted by tasty tidbits of information. And just as too much junk food can lead to obesity, too much junk information can lead to cluelessness. The Information Diet shows you how to thrive in this information glut—what to look for, what to avoid, and how to be selective. In the process, author Clay Johnson explains the role information has played throughout history, and why following his prescribed diet is essential for everyone who strives to be smart, productive, and sane.
In The Information Diet, you will:Discover why eminent scholars are worried about our state of attention and general intelligenceExamine how today’s media—Big Info—give us exactly what we want: content that confirms our beliefsLearn to take steps to develop data literacy, attention fitness, and a healthy sense of humorBecome engaged in the economics of information by learning how to reward good information providersJust like a normal, healthy food diet, The Information Diet is not about consuming less—it’s about finding a healthy balance that works for you
This book also has on-line support that contains many short MATLAB programs that complement examples and exercises on multidimensional signal, image, and video processing. There are numerous short video clips showing applications in video processing and coding, plus a copy of the vidview video player for playing .yuv video files on a Windows PC and an illustration of the effect of packet loss on H.264/AVC coded bitstreams.
New to this edition:
New appendices on random processes, information theory
New coverage of image analysis – edge detection, linking, clustering, and segmentation
Expanded coverage on image sensing and perception, including color spaces.
Now summarizes the new MPEG coding standards: scalable video coding (SVC) and multiview video coding (MVC), in addition to coverage of H.264/AVC.
Updated video processing material including new example on scalable video coding and more material on object- and region-based video coding.
More on video coding for networks including practical network coding (PNC), highlighting the significant advantages of PNC for both video downloading and streaming.
New coverage of super-resolution methods for image and video.Only R&D level tutorial that gives an integrated treatment of image and video processing - topics that are interconnected. New chapters on introductory random processes, information theory, and image enhancement and analysis Coverage and discussion of the latest standards in video coding: H.264/AVC and the new scalable video standard (SVC)
Each project is fully illustrated, so you will see clearly what you are building as you create your own database-driven website. You will build a form for registering users, and then build an interface so that an administrator can view and administer the user database. You will create a message board for users and a method for emailing them. You will also learn the best practices for ensuring that your website databases are secure. Later chapters describe how to create a blog, a product catalog, and a simple e-commerce site. You will also discover how to migrate a database to a remote host. Because you are building the interactive pages yourself, you will know exactly how the MySQL and PHP work, and you will be able to add database interactivity to your own websites with ease.
Some of the classical models of IR is presented as a contrast to extending the Boolean model. This includes a brief mention of the source of weights for the various models. In a typical retrieval environment, answers are either yes or no, i.e., on or off. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can bring in a "degree of" match, vs. a crisp, i.e., strict match. This, too, is looked at and explored in much detail, showing how it can be applied to information retrieval. Fuzzy logic is often times considered a soft computing application and this book explores how IR with fuzzy logic and its membership functions as weights can help indexing, querying, and matching. Since fuzzy set theory and logic is explored in IR systems, the explanation of where the fuzz is ensues.
The concept of relevance feedback, including pseudorelevance feedback is explored for the various models of IR. For the extended Boolean model, the use of genetic algorithms for relevance feedback is delved into.
The concept of query expansion is explored using rough set theory. Various term relationships is modeled and presented, and the model extended for fuzzy retrieval. An example using the UMLS terms is also presented. The model is also extended for term relationships beyond synonyms.
Finally, this book looks at clustering, both crisp and fuzzy, to see how that can improve retrieval performance. An example is presented to illustrate the concepts.
The New Relational Database Dictionary defines all of these terms and many, many more. Carefully reviewed for clarity, accuracy, and completeness, this book is an authoritative and comprehensive resource for database professionals, with over 1700 entries (many with examples) dealing with issues and concepts arising from the relational model of data. DBAs, database designers, DBMS implementers, application developers, and database professors and students can find the information they need on a daily basis, information that isn’t readily available anywhere else.
BPM replaces those sketchy flowchart diagrams that business analysts draw on whiteboards with a precise model that uses standard graphical and XML representations, and an architecture that allows it converse with other services, systems, and users.
Sound complicated? It is. But it's downright frustrating when you have to search the Web for every little piece of information vital to the process. Essential Business Process Modeling gathers all the concepts, design, architecture, and standard specifications of BPM into one concise book, and offers hands-on examples that illustrate BPM's approach to process notation, execution, administration and monitoring.
Author Mike Havey demonstrates standard ways to code rigorous processes that are centerpieces of a service-oriented architecture (SOA), which defines how networks interact so that one can perform a service for the other. His book also shows how BPM complements enterprise application integration (EAI), a method for moving from older applications to new ones, and Enterprise Service BUS for integrating different web services, messaging, and XML technologies into a single network. BPM, he says, is to this collection of services what a conductor is to musicians in an orchestra: it coordinates their actions in the performance of a larger composition.
Essential Business Process Modeling teaches you how to develop examples of process-oriented applications using free tools that can be run on an average PC or laptop. You'll also learn about BPM design patterns and best practices, as well as some underlying theory. The best way to monitor processes within an enterprise is with BPM, and the best way to navigate BPM is with this valuable book.
Among the subjects covered are: various equivalent approaches to effective computability and their relations with computers and programming languages; a discussion of Church's thesis; a modern solution to Post's problem; global properties of Turing degrees; and a complete algebraic characterization of many-one degrees. Included are a number of applications to logic (in particular Gödel's theorems) and to computer science, for which Recursion Theory provides the theoretical foundation.
In the ever-changing social, organizational, and technological contexts, information architects not only design individual information spaces (e.g., websites, software applications, and mobile devices), but also tackle strategic aggregation and integration of multiple information spaces across websites, channels, modalities, and platforms. Not only do they create predetermined navigation pathways, but they also provide tools and rules for people to organize information on their own and get connected with others.
Information architects work with multi-disciplinary teams to determine the user experience strategy based on user needs and business goals, and make sure the strategy gets carried out by following the user-centered design (UCD) process via close collaboration with others. Drawing on the authors’ extensive experience as HCI researchers, User Experience Design practitioners, and Information Architecture instructors, this book provides a balanced view of the IA discipline by applying theories, design principles, and guidelines to IA and UX practices. It also covers advanced topics such as iterative design, UX decision support, and global and mobile IA considerations. Major revisions include moving away from a web-centric view toward multi-channel, multi-device experiences. Concepts such as responsive design, emerging design principles, and user-centered methods such as Agile, Lean UX, and Design Thinking are discussed and related to IA processes and practices.
In 1995, David Hay published Data Model Patterns: Conventions of Thought - the groundbreaking book on how to use standard data models to describe the standard business situations. Enterprise Model Patterns: Describing the World builds on the concepts presented there, adds 15 years of practical experience, and presents a more comprehensive view. You will learn how to apply both the abstract and concrete elements of your enterprise’s architectural data model through four levels of abstraction:
An abstract template that underlies the Level 1 model that follows, plus two meta models:
• Information Resources. In addition to books, articles, and e-mail notes, it also includes photographs, videos, and sound recordings.
• Accounting. Accounting is remarkable because it is itself a modeling language. It takes a very different approach than data modelers in that instead of using entities and entity classes that represent things in the world, it is concerned with accounts that represent bits of value to the organization.
Level 1: An enterprise model that is generic enough to apply to any company or government agency, but concrete enough to be readily understood by all. It describes:
• People and Organization. Who is involved with the business? The people involved are not only the employees within the organization, but customers, agents, and others with whom the organization comes in contact. Organizations of interest include the enterprise itself and its own internal departments, as well as customers, competitors, government agencies, and the like.
• Geographic Locations. Where is business conducted? A geographic location may be either a geographic area (defined as any bounded area on the Earth), a geographic point (used to identify a particular location), or, if you are an oil company for example, a geographic solid (such as an oil reserve).
• Assets. What tangible items are used to carry out the business? These are any physical things that are manipulated, sometimes as products, but also as the means to producing products and services.
• Activities. How is the business carried out? This model not only covers services offered, but also projects and any other kinds of activities. In addition, the model describes the events that cause activities to happen.
• Time. All data is positioned in time, but some more than others.
Level 2: A more detailed model describing specific functional areas:
• Human Resources
• Communications and Marketing
• The Laboratory Level 3: Examples of the details a model can have to address what is truly unique in a particular industry. Here you see how to address the unique bits in areas as diverse as:
• Criminal Justice. The model presented here is based on the “Global Justice XML Data Model” (GJXDM).
• Banking. The model presented here is the result of working for four different banks and then adding some thought to come up with something different from what is currently in any of them.
• Highways. The model here is derived from a project in a Canadian Provincial Highway Department, and addresses the question “what is a road?”