This analysis, prepared by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) for the Defense Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Appropriations, examines how O & M spending grew in the 1980s and fell in the 1990s. The study highlights changes that could be made to achieve lower levels of spending by 2002. In keeping with the CBO's mandate to provide objective analysis, the study makes no recommendations. - Preface.
To provide information for federal deliberations on the reauthorization of more than 50 elementary and secondary education programs, this report describes efforts by states to improve schools, examines trends and conditions in primary and secondary education, and analyzes options for changing the federal role in education. Following an overview of education and the federal government, chapter 1 of the report describes the purposes of federal support for educational programs and discusses the educational reform movement that began in the early 1980s. Chapter 2 profiles elementary and secondary education nationwide, focusing on trends in educational outcomes, school resources, and student and family characteristics, while chapter 3 addresses issues of the relative priority that should be given to equity and excellence in education, and the level of control the government should exercise over education. Chapter 4 describes options for reducing the federal role in education through the use of block grants that define funding purposes but do not specify states' implementation procedures, and chapter 5 discusses options for refining the current federal role through fully funding current programs, eliminating programs not directed to special populations, and focusing on early education. Finally, chapter 6 reviews approaches to promoting educational reform, including national curriculum and national assessment efforts, school-based reform, and modification of key elements of the educational system as a whole. (BCY)
"A centerpiece of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) transformation efforts in recent years has been the move toward making ground forces less reliant on access to foreign-controlled facilities such as harbors, airports, or logistics bases on the ground in their area of operations." "The United States Marine Corps and Army have long maintained expeditionary forces organized and equipped to be rapidly moved and inserted into combat with little reliance on access to local bases or infrastructure. Recognizing the vulnerability of forces that are dependent on local access (as U.S. forces have been in Afghanistan and Iraq), the Department of Defense (DoD) is improving its expeditionary capabilities across all of the military services. Prominent among those efforts is the Navy's plan to field a 14-ship squadro--the Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F--that would be capable of deploying, employing, and sustaining a Marine expeditionary brigade with little or no need for access to local bases or other infrastructure. This study ... looks at the capabilities and costs associated with MPF(F) and sea basing in general as well as other approaches that DoD might take to improve its expeditionary capabilities."--Preface
This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study--prepared at the request of the Ranking Member of the House Committee on Science--presents an overview of issues related to climate change, focusing primarily on its economic aspects. The study draws from numerous published sources to summarize the current state of climate science and provide a conceptual framework for addressing climate change as an economic problem. It also examines public policy options and discusses the potential complications and benefits of international coordination. In keeping with CBO's mandate to provide impartial analysis, the study makes no recommendations.
In 1991 the Federal Government initiated the multiagency High Performance Computing and Communications program (HPCC) to further the development of U.S. supercomputer technology and high-speed computer network technology. This overview by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) concentrates on obstacles that might prevent the growth of the high-performance computing and data communications industries. The market for supercomputers, relative to that of other technologies, is small. The main obstacle to the rise of large commercial markets for HPCC-developed technology is that cheaper workstations may preempt further growth of the supercomputer market as a whole. In addition, an economic inertia may occur, as conventional supercomputers, working well, become difficult to dislodge in the marketplace. The National Research and Educational Network (NREN) is central to the HPCC program. The ways in which Internet is becoming the core of a national data network promise well for HPCC in the future, but HPCC technology might be precluded from having a substantial effect on the current markets if demand for high-speed communications does not emerge as envisaged by HPCC leaders. Cost considerations and policy directions for HPCC are discussed. Five tables, six figures, and one box illustrate the discussion. Three appendixes discuss HPCC technology spinoffs and speed calculations. (SLD)
This Congressional Budget Office (CBO) study, written by Terry Dinan, examines how the potential costs of a carbon-allowance program would be distributed among U.S. households of different incomes. This analysis was done at the request of the Ranking Minority Member of the House Committee on Commerce.