In his fifth work of nonfiction, Mark Kurlansky turns his attention to a common household item with a long and intriguing history: salt. The only rock we eat, salt has shaped civilization from the very beginning, and its story is a glittering, often surprising part of the history of humankind. A substance so valuable it served as currency, salt has influenced the establishment of trade routes and cities, provoked and financed wars, secured empires, and inspired revolutions. Populated by colorful characters and filled with an unending series of fascinating details, Salt is a supremely entertaining, multi-layered masterpiece.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
Easy to use and lavishly illustrated, this new and completely revised and expanded edition of Collecting Rocks, Gems, and Minerals is designed with beginners in mind, yet filled with valuable technical information for seasoned collectors. This guide takes you from being simply someone who enjoys rocks to a knowledgeable enthusiast in no time and features:
An easy-to-use, quick reference format arranged by category and color of stone800+ beautiful color photographsValues and tips for locating, buying and collectingBoth lapidary and mineral display materialsDecades of rock-collecting know-how of the authorForeword by Johann Zenz, world-renowned agate expert, author and lecturer.
This P.S. edition features an extra 16 pages of insights into the book, including author interviews, recommended reading, and more.
Uranium is a common element in the earth's crust and the only naturally occurring mineral with the power to end all life on the planet. After World War II, it reshaped the global order-whoever could master uranium could master the world.
Marie Curie gave us hope that uranium would be a miracle panacea, but the Manhattan Project gave us reason to believe that civilization would end with apocalypse. Slave labor camps in Africa and Eastern Europe were built around mine shafts and America would knowingly send more than six hundred uranium miners to their graves in the name of national security.
Fortunes have been made from this yellow dirt; massive energy grids have been run from it. Fear of it panicked the American people into supporting a questionable war with Iraq and its specter threatens to create another conflict in Iran. Now, some are hoping it can help avoid a global warming catastrophe.
In Uranium, Tom Zoellner takes readers around the globe in this intriguing look at the mineral that can sustain life or destroy it.
* Provides the structure and composition of clay minerals, as well as their phyisical and chemical properties
* Discusses pplications for Kaolin, Bentonite, Palygorskite and Sepiolite
* Contains appendixes of laboratory tests and procedures, as well as a test for common clays
Based on extensive professional, research and teaching experience, this book will provide an authoritative and comprehensive text for final year undergraduates and commencing postgraduate students. For professional practitioners, not only will it be of interest to mining and geological engineers but also to civil engineers, structural and mining geologists and geophysicists as a standard work for professional reference purposes.
B.H.G. Brady is Emeritus Professor and former Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics at The University of Western Australia, and a consulting rock mechanics engineer.
E.T. Brown is Senior Consultant, Golder Associates Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Australia and formerly Senior Deputy Vice-Chancellor of The University of Queensland, Australia.
‘Gem Gemstones’ is an indispensable guide for amateurs and enthusiasts alike. This pocket-sized book explores the fascinating history of ornamental stones, discussing their different social and cultural meanings and monetary values through the ages.
Each page features specific details about the crystal system, hardness, composition, lustre and gemstone ‘family’ of each gem.
Full colour photography for each specimen with cut and uncut examples from the Smithsonian Institution’s archives are included throughout, as well as up-to-date information on where to go to view such gems.
Simple illustrations show the crystal structure of each stone for ease of identification and a complete glossary and bibliography show where to go for further information.
Sixty-six million years ago, an object the size of a city descended from space to crash into Earth, creating a devastating cataclysm that killed off the dinosaurs, along with three-quarters of the other species on the planet. What was its origin? In Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs, Lisa Randall proposes it was a comet that was dislodged from its orbit as the Solar System passed through a disk of dark matter embedded in the Milky Way. In a sense, it might have been dark matter that killed the dinosaurs.
Working through the background and consequences of this proposal, Randall shares with us the latest findings—established and speculative—regarding the nature and role of dark matter and the origin of the Universe, our galaxy, our Solar System, and life, along with the process by which scientists explore new concepts. In Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs, Randall tells a breathtaking story that weaves together the cosmos’ history and our own, illuminating the deep relationships that are critical to our world and the astonishing beauty inherent in the most familiar things.
Twenty years ago, when John McPhee began his journeys back and forth across the United States, he planned to describe a cross section of North America at about the fortieth parallel and, in the process, come to an understanding not only of the science but of the style of the geologists he traveled with. The structure of the book never changed, but its breadth caused him to complete it in stages, under the overall title Annals of the Former World.
Like the terrain it covers, Annals of the Former World tells a multilayered tale, and the reader may choose one of many paths through it. As clearly and succinctly written as it is profoundly informed, this is our finest popular survey of geology and a masterpiece of modern nonfiction.
Annals of the Former World is the winner of the 1999 Pulitzer Prize for Nonfiction.
Interweaving physics, astronomy, chemistry, geology, and biology, this sweeping account tells Earth’s complete story, from the synthesis of chemical elements in stars, to the formation of the Solar System, to the evolution of a habitable climate on Earth, to the origin of life and humankind. The book also addresses the search for other habitable worlds in the Milky Way and contemplates whether Earth will remain habitable as our influence on global climate grows. It concludes by considering the ways in which humankind can sustain Earth’s habitability and perhaps even participate in further planetary evolution.
Like no other book, How to Build a Habitable Planet provides an understanding of Earth in its broadest context, as well as a greater appreciation of its possibly rare ability to sustain life over geologic time.
Leading schools that have ordered, recommended for reading, or adopted this book for course use:Arizona State University Brooklyn College CUNY Columbia University Cornell University ETH Zurich Georgia Institute of Technology Harvard University Johns Hopkins University Luther College Northwestern University Ohio State University Oxford Brookes University Pan American University Rutgers University State University of New York at Binghamton Texas A&M University Trinity College Dublin University of Bristol University of California-Los Angeles University of Cambridge University Of Chicago University of Colorado at Boulder University of Glasgow University of Leicester University of Maine, Farmington University of Michigan University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of North Georgia University of Nottingham University of Oregon University of Oxford University of Portsmouth University of Southampton University of Ulster University of Victoria University of Wyoming Western Kentucky University Yale University
"A sweeping rip-roaring yarn of immense scope, from the birth of the elements in the stars to meditations on the future habitability of our world." -Science
"A fascinating story." -Bill McKibben
Hard Road West brings their perspective vividly to life, weaving together the epic overland journey of the covered wagon trains and the compelling story of the landscape they encountered. Taking readers along the 2,000-mile California Trail, Keith Meldahl uses the diaries and letters of the settlers themselves—as well as the countless hours he has spent following the trail—to reveal how the geology and geography of the West directly affected our nation’s westward expansion. He guides us through a corrugated landscape of sawtooth mountains, following the meager streams that served as lifelines through an arid land, all the way to California itself, where colliding tectonic plates created breathtaking scenery and planted the gold that lured travelers west in the first place.
“Alternates seamlessly between vivid accounts of the 19th-century journey and lucid explanations of the geological events that shaped the landscape traveled. . . . The reader comes away with both an appreciation for the arduous cross-continental wagon journey and an understanding of the events that created such a vast and difficult landscape.”—Library Journal “[Meldahl] draws on his professional knowledge to explain the geology of the West, showing how centuries of geological activity had a direct effect on the routes taken by the travelers. . . . Meldahl provides a novel account of the largest overland migration since the Crusades.”—Science News
Beginning with Mt. Vesuvius, whose eruption in Roman times helped spark the science of geology, and ending in a lab in the West of England where mathematical models and lab experiments replace direct observation, Richard Fortey tells us what the present says about ancient geologic processes. He shows how plate tectonics came to rule the geophysical landscape and how the evidence is written in the hills and in the stones. And in the process, he takes us on a wonderful journey around the globe to visit some of the most fascinating and intriguing spots on the planet.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
This expansive text pulls together the numerous fields of study encompassed by biogeochemistry to analyze the increasing demands of the growing human population on limited resources and the resulting changes in the planet's chemical makeup.
The book helps students extrapolate small-scale examples to the global level, and also discusses the instrumentation being used by NASA and its role in studies of global change. With extensive cross-referencing of chapters, figures and tables, and an interdisciplinary coverage of the topic at hand, this updated edition provides an excellent framework for courses examining global change and environmental chemistry, and is also a useful self-study guide.Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors AssociationCalculates and compares the effects of industrial emissions, land clearing, agriculture, and rising population on Earth's chemistrySynthesizes the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur, and suggests the best current budgets for atmospheric gases such as ammonia, nitrous oxide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfideIncludes an extensive review and up-to-date synthesis of the current literature on the Earth's biogeochemistry
· Does Let, Made, Formed, and Create all mean the same thing?
· Does Replenish in Genesis 1:27 mean “fill”?
· Does Genesis 1:2 really describe an unformed and unfilled earth?
· Were angels really created in the Six-Day Narrative?
· Does the Bible really say that the material universe was created in the Six-Day Narrative?
· Was Adam immortal before his fall?
· Is there a workable model in Biblical Creation for Modern Geology?
· Did the Geologic Column form in the Noahic Flood?
· Is the YECSM from within or without Mainline Christianity?
· Does our Creation Doctrine affect other doctrines?
· Is Creation a part of God’s qualitative attributes, or is it just limited to the Six-Day Narrative?
· Is it logical or illogical to propagate an Appearance of Age Theory when defending a Young Earth?
· Did the Bible writers teach an Old or Young Earth?
· When was the Creation made subject to vanity? Pre- or Post- Fall?
· Could the early Church have grasped modern-day interpretations of Creation?
· Are the leaders of the YECSM qualified to represent Christianity to the world’s intellectual communities?
A Must for Every Person in the Ministry!
That tantalizing swirl of dye confirmed speculations that were to tempt more than 650 cavers over half a century with the thrill of being the first to make human passage of the cave connection. Roger Brucker and Richard Watson tell not only of their own twenty-year effort to complete the link but the stories of many others who worked their way through mud-choked crawlways less than a foot high only to find impenetrable blockages.
Floyd Collins died a grisly death in nearby Sand Cave in 1925, after being trapped there for 15 days. The wide press coverage of the rescue efforts stirred the imagination of the public and his body was on macabre display in a glass-topped coffin in Crystal Cave into the 1940s. Agents of a rival cave owner once even stole his corpse, which was recovered and still is in a coffin in the cave. Modern cavers still have a word with Floyd as they start their downward treks.
Brucker and Watson joined the parade of cavers who propelled themselves by wiggling kneecaps, elbows, and toes through quarter-mile long crawlways, clinging by fingertips and boot toes across mud-slick walls, over bottomless pits, into gurgling streams beneath stone ceilings that descend to water level, down crumbling crevices and up mountainous rockfalls, into wondrous domed halls, and straight ahead into a blackness intensified rather than dispelled by the carbide lamps on their helmets.
Over two decades they explored the passages with others who sought the final connection as vigorously as themselves. Pat Crowther, a young mother of two, joined them and because of her thinness became the member of the crew to go first into places no human had ever gone before. In that role, in July 1972, she wiggled her way through the Tight Spot and found the route that would link the Flint Ridge and Mammoth Cave systems into one cave extending 144.4 miles through the Kentucky limestone.
In a new afterword to this edition the authors summarize the subsequent explorations that have more than doubled the established length of the cave system. Based upon geological evidence, the authors predict that new discoveries will add another 200 miles to the length of the world’ s longest cave, making it over 500 miles long.
Offering a quantitative approach to the study of groundwater quality and the interaction of water, minerals, gases, pollutants and microbes, this book shows how physical and chemical theory can be applied to explain observed water qualities and variations over space and time. Integral to the presentation, geochemical modelling using PHREEQC code is demonstrated, with step-by-step instructions for calculating and simulating field and laboratory data. Numerous figures and tables illustrate the theory, while worked examples including calculations and theoretical explanations assist the reader in gaining a deeper understanding of the concepts involved.
A crucial read for students of hydrogeology, geochemistry and civil engineering, professionals in the water sciences will also find inspiration in the practical examples and modeling templates.
Topics covered in the handbook include:Processes to enhance productionWell modification to maximize oil and gas recoveryCompletion and evaluation of wells, well testing, and well surveys
Reservoir Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition provides solid information and insight for engineers and students alike on maximizing production from a field in order to obtain the best possible economic return. With this handbook, professionals will find a valuable reference for understanding the key relationships among the different operating variables. Examples contained in this reference demonstrate the performance of processes under forceful conditions through a wide variety of applications.
• Fundamental for the advancement of reservoir engineering concepts
• Step-by-step field performance calculations
• Easy to understand analysis of oil recovery mechanisms
• Step-by-step analysis of oil recovery mechanisms
• New chapter on fractured reservoirs
This upper-level undergraduate text is fully illustrated and meticulously indexed. Its reliable, authoritative coverage assumes an upper-level command of chemistry and physics, as well as mineralogy, petrology, and structural geology.
Outstanding features . . .
develops and combines the abilities of the explorationist and of the researcher of ore-forming processes
structures the geologic descriptions into groupings recognized by researchers and explorers alike
builds confidence, revitalizes curiosity, and encourages expanded thinking
emphasizes that the days of easy discovery of outcropping ores are not over
includes revised, expanded, and updated descriptions of districts
Until around ten years ago, the only planets that we knew about were within the Solar System. The first genuine planet beyond the confines of the Solar System was discovered only 1988. Since then another 350 or so exoplanets have been detected by various methods, and most of these haven been found in the last ten years. Although many more exoplanets discoveries may be expected to occur even as this book is being read, a large enough data set is now available to form the basis for an informed general account of exoplanets.
The topic hence is an extremely "hot" one - all the more so because the recently launched Kepler spacecraft should soon start uncovering many more exoplanets, some perhaps comparable with the Earth (and therefore possibly alternative homes for mankind, if we could ever reach them). Exoplanets: Finding, Exploring, and Understanding Alien Life gives a comprehensive, balances, and above all accurate account of exoplanets.
Following an introduction to Fossil-Lagerstätten, each chapter deals with a single fossil locality. Each chapter contains a brief introduction placing the Lagerstätte in an evolutionary context; there then follows a history of study of the locality; the background sedimentology, stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment; a description of the biota; discussion of the palaeoecology, and a comparison with other Lagerstätten of a similar age and/or environment. At the end of the book is an Appendix listing museums in which to see exhibitions of fossils from each locality and suggestions for visiting the sites.
Join author Mike Oard as he explores what is termed as "the retreating stage of the flood" - the seven month-period when the waters receded and the landscapes which are familiar to us were formed by a myriad of processes like uplifts and sinking, erosion, and more, which answer important questions regarding:Unusual dispersals of rocks over hundred of miles How quickly mountains and valleys were carved Emergence of continents and the formation of ocean basins Percussions marks shaped by vast and violently moving water Why very gradual erosion and deposits of soil cannot explain surface formations The study of geomorphology and what it can reveal
Flood by Design takes you into a fascinating aspect of the Genesis flood you may never have considered. Examine unusual rock formations and evidence that only the biblical flood model can fully explain. Filled with many photographs and easy-to-understand illustrations and charts, the books is a powerful source of research and answers for high school students and beyond.
*Review of GPR theory and applications by leaders in the field
*Up-to-date information and references
*Effective handbook and primary research reference for both experienced practitioners and newcomers
· New in-depth coverage of hydrocarbon characteristics, the different kinds of reservoirs, and impurities in crude.
· Practical suggestions help readers understand the art and science of handling produced liquids.
· Numerous, easy-to-read figures, charts, tables, and photos clearly explain how to design, specify, and operate oilfield surface production facilities.
After Senator Barack Obama delivered his celebrated speech, "A More Perfect Union," on March 18, 2008, New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd noted that only Barack Obama "could alchemize a nuanced 40-minute speech on race into must-see YouTube viewing for 20-year-olds." Pundits established the speech's historical eminence with comparisons to Abraham Lincoln's "A House Divided" and Martin Luther King Jr's "I Have a Dream." The future president had addressed one of the biggest issues facing his campaign-and our country-with an eloquence and honesty rarely before heard on a national stage.
The Speech brings together a distinguished lineup of writers and thinkers-among them Adam Mansbach, Alice Randall, Connie Schultz, and William Julius Wilson -in a multifaceted exploration of Obama's address. Their original essays examine every aspect of the speech-literary, political, social, and cultural-and are punctuated by Boston Globe columnist Derrick Z. Jackson's reportage on the issue of race in the now historic 2008 campaign. The Speech memorializes and gives full due to a speech that propelled Obama toward the White House, and prompted a nation to evaluate our imperfect but hopeful union.
This new book introduces different types of geophysical logs and subsurface maps that can be generated from basic well data, and subsurface problems that can be solved using geophysical logs and subsurface maps. "Hands-on" exercises reveal how each map type is generated and what applications they may have. Exercises at the end of each chapter introduce different types of wells and lithologies.
Elements of Petroleum Geology begins with an account of the physical and chemical properties of petroleum, reviewing methods of petroleum exploration and production. These methods include drilling, geophysical exploration techniques, wireline logging, and subsurface geological mapping. After describing the temperatures and pressures of the subsurface environment and the hydrodynamics of connate fluids, Selley examines the generation and migration of petroleum, reservoir rocks and trapping mechanisms, and the habit of petroleum in sedimentary basins. The book contains an account of the composition and formation of tar sands and oil shales, and concludes with a brief review of prospect risk analysis, reserve estimation, and other economic topics.Updates the Second Edition completelyReviews the concepts and methodology of petroleum exploration and productionWritten by a preeminent petroleum geologist and sedimentologist with decades of petroleum exploration in remote corners of the worldContains information pertinent to geophysicists, geologists, and petroleum reservoir engineersUpdated statistics throughoutAdditional figures to illustrate key points and new developmentsNew information on drilling activity and production methods including crude oil, directional drilling, thermal techniques, and gas playsAdded coverage of 3D seismic interpretationNew section on pressure compartmentsNew section on hydrocarbon adsorption and absorption in source rocksCoverage of The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt of VenezuelaUpdated chapter on unconventional petroleum
Our molecular guide makes its first appearance at the source of the Chemical Cosmos, at a time when only three elements and a total of 11 molecules existed. From those simple beginnings, H-three-plus guides us down river on the violent currents of exploding stars, through the streams of the Interstellar Medium, and into the delta where new stars and planets form. We are finally left on the shores of the sea of life. Along the way, we meet the key characters who have shaped our understanding of the chemistry of the universe, such as Cambridge physicist J.J. Thomson and the Chicago chemist Takeshi Oka. And we are given an insider’s view of just how astronomers, making use of telescopes and Earth-orbiting satellites, have put together our modern view of the Chemical Cosmos.
In this second, significantly revised and expanded edition of his widely popular book, Webb discusses in detail the (for now!) 75 most cogent and intriguing solutions to Fermi's famous paradox: If the numbers strongly point to the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, why have we found no evidence of them?
Reviews from the first edition:
"Amidst the plethora of books that treat the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence, this one by Webb ... is outstanding. ... Each solution is presented in a very logical, interesting, thorough manner with accompanying explanations and notes that the intelligent layperson can understand. Webb digs into the issues ... by considering a very broad set of in-depth solutions that he addresses through an interesting and challenging mode of presentation that stretches the mind. ... An excellent book for anyone who has ever asked ‘Are we alone?’." (W. E. Howard III, Choice, March, 2003)
"Fifty ideas are presented ... that reveal a clearly reasoned examination of what is known as ‘The Fermi Paradox’. ... For anyone who enjoys a good detective story, or using their thinking faculties and stretching the imagination to the limits ... ‘Where is everybody’ will be enormously informative and entertaining. ... Read this book, and whatever your views are about life elsewhere in the Universe, your appreciation for how special life is here on Earth will be enhanced! A worthy addition to any personal library." (Philip Bridle, BBC Radio, March, 2003)
Since gaining a BSc in physics from the University of Bristol and a PhD in theoretical physics from the University of Manchester, Stephen Webb has worked in a variety of universities in the UK. He is a regular contributor to the Yearbook of Astronomy series and has published an undergraduate textbook on distance determination in astronomy and cosmology as well as several popular science books. His interest in the Fermi paradox combines lifelong interests in both science and science fiction.