The first international handbook of the history of mathematics education. One of the main trends in contemporary research in mathematics education is an evaluation of what has been done (or not done) in the past in an attempt to understand the current state of affairs as part of a long and continuous process. A great portion of the research in mathematics education remains inaccessible to the vast majority of scholars—at the very least due to a language barrier, since research in the history of mathematics education in different countries can often be read only by people who know the languages of those countries. An historical overview, however brief, has become an indelible part of nearly every dissertation, and nearly every scholarly article. There is a need for a comprehensive and systematic work that will aid researchers from around the world in tracking down the necessary information concerning historical developments in their own countries as well as abroad. It is also essential to bring together and systematize the past developments in research methodology: this will aid researchers in their efforts. Both of these are addressed by this handbook.