Charles Marion Russell was an artist of the Wild American West. He created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Indians. Recognized as 'the cowboy artist', Russell was also a storyteller. His works comprised a wide range of topics, including major historical events and everyday life in the West. He was noted for the frequency with which he portrayed well-known events from the point of view of Native American people instead of the non-Native viewpoint. Russell used as much color as a painter could on his mountain landscapes. As artist he arrived on the cultural scene at a time when the "wild west" was being chronicled and sold back to the public in many forms. Russell was fond of these popular art forms and made many friends among the well-off collectors of his works, including actors and film makers such as Will Rogers and Douglas Fairbanks.
This Art Book contains 132 selected annotated reproductions of watercolors and paintings from J. M. W. Turner. Joseph Mallord William Turner was English artist, one of the greatest and most imaginative painters who put on a pedestal landscape painting. Although renowned for his oils, he is as well one of the coryphées of British watercolor landscape painting. Having been skilled academically, Turner seemed to spend the rest of his life developing an ever more loose style. He uncompromisingly studied nature and light. For his manner of painting he says: "My job is to draw what I see, not what I know." He had a extraordinary production of drawings and paintings; upon his death, he left nearly 30,000 pieces of his art work. He is usually known as "the painter of light" and his work is considered as a Romantic prelude to Impressionism.
Thomas Cole was an American artist, regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that prospered in the mid-19th century. Cole's work was known for its realistic and detailed depiction of American landscape and wilderness, which feature themes of romanticism and naturalism. Cole was primarily a painter of landscapes, but he also painted allegorical works. The most famous of these are the five-part series, The Course of Empire, which depict the same landscape over generations—and the four-part The Voyage of Life. Among his other famous works are the Oxbow (1836), the Notch of the White Mountains, Daniel Boone at His cabin at the Great Osage Lake, and Lake with Dead Trees (1825). He also painted The Garden of Eden (1828), with plentiful detail of Adam and Eve living amid waterfalls, colorful plants, and deer. Thomas Cole influenced his artistic peers, especially Asher B. Durand and Frederic Edwin Church, who studied with Cole from 1844 to 1846.
Gustave Caillebotte was a French Impressionist, though he painted in a more realistic style than many other Impressionists. In common with his precursors Millet and Courbet Caillebotte tried to paint reality as it existed and as he saw it. Perhaps because of his close relationship with so many of his peers, his style and technique varies considerably among his works, as if "borrowing" and experimenting, but not really sticking to any one style. His work may have been strongly influenced by Japanese prints and the new technology of photography, though evidence of his actual use of photography is lacking. Cropping and "zooming-in", techniques which are also commonly found in Caillebotte's oeuvre, may also be the result of his interest in photography, but may just as likely derive from his intense interest in perspective effects. A large number of his paintings also make use of a very high vantage point.
Claude Monet once called of Corot: "There is only one master here and his name is Corot. We are nothing weigh against to him - nothing." Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was the leading French painter of the Barbizon school. Corot often praised as a predecessor of Impressionism, but he painted his landscapes in more traditional way than is generally supposed. Unlike the Impressionists, Corot painted only sketches in the open air; he composed his finished paintings in the studio. Compared to the Impressionists who came later, Corot's palette is restrained, dominated with browns and blacks ("forbidden colors" among the Impressionists) along with dark and silvery green. Though appearing at times to be rapid and spontaneous, usually his strokes were controlled and careful, and his compositions well-thought out and generally rendered as simply and concisely as possible, heightening the poetic effect of the imagery.
Albert Bierstadt was a German-American painter best known for his plentiful landscapes of the American West. To paint the scenes, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. He was the leading painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century. He became part of the Hudson River School in New York, an informal group of painters who started painting along this scenic river. Their style was based on carefully detailed paintings with romantic, almost glowing lighting, sometimes called "luminism". An important interpreter of the western landscape, Bierstadt, along with Thomas Moran, is also grouped with the Rocky Mountain School. Bierstadt's technical skill, earned through his study of European landscape, was crucial to his success as a painter of the American West. His exhibition pieces were brilliantly crafted images that glorified the American West as a land of promise. Bierstadt was a prolific artist, having completed over 500 paintings during his lifetime.
An important Post-Impressionist French painter, Georges Seurat moved away from the apparent spontaneity and rapidity of Impressionism and developed a structured, more monumental art to depict modern urban life. For several of his large compositions, Seurat painted many small studies. He is chiefly remembered as the pioneer of the Neo-Impressionist technique commonly known as Divisionism, or Pointillism, an approach associated with a softly flickering surface of small dots or strokes of color. His innovations derived from new quasi-scientific theories about color and expression, yet the graceful beauty of his work is explained by the influence of very different sources. His success quickly propelled him to the forefront of the Parisian avant-garde. His triumph was short-lived, as after barely a decade of mature work he died at the age of only 31.
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872 – 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His drawings in black ink, influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the Aesthetic movement which also included Oscar Wilde and James A. McNeill Whistler. Beardsley's contribution to the development of the Art Nouveau and poster styles was significant, despite the brevity of his career before his early death from tuberculosis. Beardsley was a public as well as private eccentric. He said, "I have one aim—the grotesque. If I am not grotesque I am nothing." Wilde said he had "a face like a silver hatchet, and grass green hair." Beardsley was meticulous about his attire: dove-grey suits, hats, ties; yellow gloves. He would appear at his publisher's in a morning coat and patent leather pumps.
Artemisia Gentileschi was an Italian Baroque painter, considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation following that of Caravaggio. In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the artistic community or patrons, she was the first woman to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence. She painted many pictures of strong and suffering women from myth and the Bible - victims, suicides, warriors - and made it her specialty to paint the Judith story. Her best-known work is Judith Slaying Holofermes (a well-known medieval and baroque subject in art), which "shows the decapitation of Holofernes, a scene of horrific struggle and blood-letting". That she was a woman painting in the seventeenth century and that she was raped and participated in prosecuting the rapist, long overshadowed her achievements as an artist. For many years she was regarded as a curiosity. Nowadays she is regarded as one of the most talented and expressionist painters of her generation.
Ivan Aivazovsky was Russian-Armenian artist, world famous for his seascapes and regarded as one of the supreme seascape painters of all times. He painted a lot of portraits and landscapes but over half of all 6000 of Aivazovsky’s oil works are seascapes. His technique and imagination in depicting the sparkling play of light on the waves and sea foam is especially respected, and gives his works a romantic atmosphere and realistic excellence that resonances the paintings and watercolours of J. M. W. Turner. Especially effectual is his capacity to depict diffuse sunlight and moonlight, sometimes coming from behind clouds, sometimes coming through a fog, with almost transparent layers of paint. A series of paintings of naval battles brought his dramatic skills to the fore, with the flames of burning ships reflected in water and clouds.
Claude Monet was an important figure in the Impressionism that changed painting in the end of the 19 century. Follow in the pathway of the Barbizon, Monet accepted and widened their dedication to close up observation and naturalistic depiction. While the Barbizon artists painted only brief sketches en plein air, Monet frequently worked openly on significant canvases outdoors, then reworked and finished them in his studio. He brought a vibrant vividness to his paintings by unmediated colors, adding a variety of tones to his shadows, and preparing canvases with pale primers as a replacement for of the shady grounds used in conventional landscape paintings. Although Monet helped perpetrate the myth that he did not, and maybe even could not, draw, nearly 500 of more than 2,500 his works are sketchbooks, drawings and pastels. Works by Monet in pastel on paper are very rare - there are just over 100 known to exist.
Carl Larsson was a Swedish painter and interior designer, representative of the Arts and Crafts Movement. His many paintings include oils, watercolors, and frescoes. Larsson's popularity increased considerably with the development of color reproduction technology in the 1890s, when the Swedish publisher Bonnier published books written and illustrated by Larsson and containing full color reproductions of his watercolors. However, the print runs of these rather expensive albums did not come close to that produced in 1909 by the German publisher Karl Robert Langewiesche. His choice of watercolors, drawings and text by Carl Larsson, titled Das Haus in der Sonne (The House in the Sun), immediately became one of the German publishing industry's best-sellers of the year - 40,000 copies sold in three months. Larsson also drew several sequential picture stories, thus being one of the earliest Swedish comic creators.
William Blake was English artist, draughtsman, engraver, philosopher, and poet, one of the most remarkable figures of the Romantic period. In art as in life Blake was an individualist who made a principle of nonconformity. He had a prejudice against painting in oils on canvas and experimented with a variety of techniques in colour printing, illustration, and tempera. His work as an artist is almost impossible to divorce from the complex philosophy expressed also through his poetry. He believed that the visible world of the senses is an unreal envelope behind which the spiritual reality is concealed and set himself the impossible task of creating a visual symbolism for the expression of his spiritual visions. He refused the easy path of vagueness and misty suggestion, remaining content with nothing less than the maximum of clarity and precision.
To most of his contemporaries Blake seemed merely an eccentric, and his genius was not generally recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
To most of his contemporaries Blake seemed merely an eccentric, and his genius was not generally recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
Gustave Doré was a French artist, engraver, illustrator and sculptor, best known for his illustrations of epic literature, such as those by Dante, Cervantes, Hugo, and Milton, as well as contemporary texts, such as those by Balzac. Doré worked primarily with wood engraving. He rarely completed any works with colors, leading to the speculation that he was color blind. His vivid work is characterized by images of the grotesque and bizarre. Employing over 40 block cutters, he eventually produced more than 90 illustrated books. Dramatic, chiaroscuro illustrations of the Bible and literary giants made Dore's name. He had a particular gift for illustrating nature and fairy tales. His work influenced that of Van Gogh and later, the Symbolists. Doré was mainly celebrated for his paintings in his day. His paintings remain world renowned, but his woodcuts and engravings are where he really excelled as an artist with an individual vision.
Leonardo, like his contemporary Christopher Columbus, possessed an insatiable curiosity and desire for discovery of unknown worlds. Only observation, says many times Leonardo, is the key to knowledge and understanding. Throughout his life Leonardo seeks to understand and control the nature. He constructed machines and original installations built bridges, dissected human bodies and trying to break into the Providence of God; for me he is a semi-god, or at least the Son of God. This book reflects my passion for the creative genius of Leonardo and I have tried to gather and sort chronologically all his works known to me.Where it was possible and affordable, I briefly told the story of some of the masterpieces of Leonardo. Of course, to retell something an ingenious is too rather trivial, but the reader is free to simply enjoy the oil paintings and drawings. I wish you a happy minutes and hours with my collection.
Caspar David Friedrich was a German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his time and one of the most original geniuses in the history of landscape painting. He is best known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes which typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins. His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to convey a subjective, emotional response to the natural world.
In the primary identified description of Bosch's artworks, in 1560 Felipe de Guevara wrote that Bosch was regarded simply as "the originator of monsters and chimeras". In the beginning 17-th century, the Dutch Karel van Mander explained Bosch's art as "marvelous and extraordinary fantasies"; nevertheless, he finished that the paintings are "frequently less enjoyable than frightening to look at." In the 20-th century, researchers have come to sight Bosch's vision as fewer unbelievable, and acknowledged that his art reflects the conventional religious faith systems of his time. His images of sinning people, his view of Heaven and Hell are now perceived as consistent with those of late medieval didactic literature and habits. Nerveless, some critics notice Bosch as example of medieval surrealist, and parallels are repeatedly made with the modern Spanish artist Salvador Dali. Other scholars try to interpret his images using the words of Freudian psychology.
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo was a Spanish Baroque painter. All the works of Murillo are over 450. Their content is mainly religious. Significant groups among them are pictures of the type to the glorification of the Virgin known as «L'Immaculata Concepcion», «L'as uncion» and «La Purisima». Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. These lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times. Murillo was also engaged in landscape and landscape painting. He had many pupils and followers. The prolific imitation of his paintings ensured his reputation in Spain and fame throughout Europe, and prior to the 19th century his work was more widely known than that of any other Spanish artist.
Frederic Sackrider Remington was an American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in depictions of the Old American West, specifically concentrating on the last quarter of the 19th-century American West and images of cowboys, American Indians, and the U. S. Cavalry. His style was naturalistic, sometimes impressionistic, and usually veered away from the ethnographic realism of earlier Western artists such as George Catlin. His focus was firmly on the people and animals of the West, with landscape usually of secondary importance, unlike the members and descendants of the Hudson River School, such as Frederic Edwin Church, Albert Bierstadt, and Thomas Moran, who glorified the vastness of the West and the dominance of nature over man. The galloping horse became Remington’s signature subject, copied and interpreted by many Western artists who followed him. He was an effective publicist and promoter of his art.
This Art Book representing 101 annotated reproductions of selected paintings from El Greco. El Greco (born Doménikos Theotokópoulos) was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. He is one of the not many old masters who benefit from extensive fame. Like few others, he was rediscovered from darkness by an enthusiastic faction of 19-century collectors and critics, and became one of the chosen members of the contemporary pantheon of great artists. For many later admirers, El Greco was both the archetypal Spaniard and a intellectual artist of the spirit. It was as a master who “felt the spiritual inner creation”.
Anders Zorn was one of Sweden’s foremost artists who obtained international success as a painter, sculptor and print maker in etching. His fame abroad is founded mostly on his portraiture where he had the ability to capture the character and the personality of the depicted person. His incisive ability to depict the individual character of his model is, for example, apparent in portraits of prominent cultural personalities. The model's surroundings were important; Zorn believed that a portrait should be painted in an environment that was natural for the model. An artificial studio environment was not to his taste. Beginning in 1910, Zorn focused on developing his control of the technique and motif. He accomplished this with such certainty that the process of painting can assume the dominant role, sometimes to the detriment of the work's emotional expression.
Félix Vallotton was a Swiss painter and printmaker associated with group Les Nabis. By the end of his life he had completed over 1700 paintings and about 200 prints, in addition to hundreds of drawings and several sculptures. His earliest paintings, chiefly portraits, are firmly rooted in the academic tradition. He was influenced by post-Impressionism, Symbolism, and especially by the Japanese woodcut. During the 1890s, when Vallotton was closely allied with the avant-garde, his paintings reflected the style of his woodcuts, with flat areas of color, hard edges, and simplification of detail. His subjects included genre scenes, portraits and nudes. Vallotton's paintings of the post-Nabi period found admirers, and were generally respected for their truthfulness and their technical qualities, but the severity of his style was frequently criticized, and has a further parallel in the work of Edward Hopper.
Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov (1848 – 1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. He is considered the co-founder of Russian folklorist and romantic modernist painting and a key figure in the revivalist movement. It is ironic, but Viktor, whose name is associated with historical and mythological paintings, initially avoided these subjects at all costs. While living in France, Viktor studied classical and contemporary paintings, academic and Impressionist alike. It was in Paris that he became fascinated with fairy-tale subjects, starting to work on Ivan Tsarevich Riding a Grey Wolf and The Firebird. The vogue for Vasnetsov's paintings would spread in the 1880s, when he turned to religious subjects and executed a series of icons. He was central in moving realism towards a more nationalist, and historical style, believing that a true work of art conveys the past, present, and even the future.
John William Waterhouse was an English painter who worked several decades after the break-up of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which had seen its zenith in the mid-nineteenth century, leading him to have gained the moniker of "the modern Pre-Raphaelite". Borrowing stylistic influences not only from the earlier Pre-Raphaelites but also from his contemporaries, the Impressionists, his artworks were known for their depictions of women from both ancient Greek mythology and Arthurian legend. He was a painter of classical, historical, and literary subjects. His early works were of classical themes in the spirit of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema and Frederic Leighton. The latter works reveals Waterhouse's growing interest in themes associated with particularly tragic or powerful femmes fatales (Circe Invidiosa, Cleopatra, La Belle Dame Sans Merci and several versions of Lamia), as well as plein-air painting. In the 1890s he began to exhibit portraits.
This Art Book with Foreword and annotated reproductions by Maria Tsaneva contains 164 selected drawings and paintings of Paul Gauguin. Eugene-Henri-Paul Gauguin was French avant-garde painter, sculptor, and printmaker. His style cultivated from Impressionism in the direction of a personal variety of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the scepticism of a sophisticated European. Gauguin was identified for his investigational use of colors and bold style that were absolutely altered from Impressionism. His work was prominent to the French avant-garde and a lot of modern painters like Matisse and Picasso. His brave testing with colors led in a straight line to the so called Synthetist style of modernism and traced the way to Primitivism and the come again to the idyllic and pastoral.
William Bouguereau was a follower of classical art and had no wish for everything like novelty or the avant-garde. His sense of idealism was his guiding principle, regarding the ugly as worthless for representation. A skilled craftsman and master of human anatomy, he utilized a delicate palette and glorious light to sensitively capture nuances of personality and mood, vibrantly bringing the soul and spirit of his subjects to life. Bouguereau has left a large number of works and he is undoubtedly a key figure in 19th century French art. Although his work was widely collected by the English and more especially by the Americans in his lifetime, Bouguereau’s reputation in France was more indistinct—indeed quite low—in his later years. He remained a hard supporter of the academic training system at a time when it was criticized for stifling originality and nurturing mediocrity.
Giotto di Bondone was Florentine painter and architect, already recognized by Dante as the leading artist of his day. His significance to the Renaissance can be gauged from the fact that not only the leaders in the early 15th-century transformation of the arts, such as Masaccio, but the key figures of the High Renaissance, such as Raphael and Michelangelo were still learning from him and partly founding their style on his example. The reasons for this are dual. Firstly, his art is notable for its clear, grave, simple solutions to the basic problems of the representation of space and of the volume, structure, and solidity of 3-dimensional forms, and above the entire human figure. Secondly, he was a genius at getting to the heart of whatever episode from sacred history he was representing, at cutting it down to its essential, dramatic core, and at finding the compositional means to express its innermost spiritual meaning and its psychological effects in terms of simple areas of paint.
Tiziano Vecellio was the greatest artist of the Venetian School, recognized as immense genius in his own time and his reputation as one of the giants of art has never been sincerely questioned. Lomazzo described him as the 'sun amidst small stars not only among the Italians but all the painters of the world'. Poussin, Rubens, and Velazquez are among the painters who have particularly revered him. In many subjects, above all in portraiture, he set patterns that were followed by generations of artists. His free and expressive brushwork revolutionized the oil technique: His meticulous execution and concern for detail suggest the light, space, and variety of physical forms in his drawings too. He suggested textures through varying styles of line, carefully and economically placed hatchings even created air with line, as in the atmosphere that envelops the objects.
Paul Signac was a French neo-impressionist artist who, together with Georges Seurat, helped builds up the pointillist style. Signac also left several important works on the theory of art, among them From Eugène Delacroix to Neo-Impressionism, published in 1899; a monograph devoted to Johan Barthold Jongkind, published in 1927; several introductions to the catalogs of art exhibitions; and many other still unpublished writings. Under Monet's influence Signac neglected the short brushstrokes of impressionism to experiment with systematically juxtaposed small dots of pure color, intended to combine and blend not on the canvas but in the viewer's eye, the defining feature of pointillism. Many of Signac's paintings are of the French coast. He loved to paint the water. As president of the Société des Artistes Indépendants from 1908 until his death, Signac encouraged younger artists by exhibiting the controversial works of the Fauves and the Cubists.
William Blake was English Romantic artist, draftsman, engraver, philosopher, and poet. He possessed visionary powers and in art as in life was an individualist who made a standard of nonconformity. Blake had a prejudice against painting in oils on canvas and experimented with a variety of techniques in color printing, illustration, and tempera. His work as an artist is almost impossible to divorce from the complex philosophy expressed also through his poetry. He believed that the visible world of the senses is an unreal envelope behind which the spiritual reality is masked. He refused the easy path of abstraction and foggy suggestion, remaining content with nothing less than the maximum of clarity and perfection. To most of his generation Blake seemed merely a strange, and his genius was not in general recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was an English painter, well known for his paintings of animals — particularly horses, dogs and stags. The best known of Landseer's works, however, are sculptures: the lions in Trafalgar Square, London. Much of his fame—and his income—was generated by the publication of engravings of his work, many of them by brother Thomas. Reproductions of his works were common in middle-class homes, while he was also popular with the aristocracy. Queen Victoria commissioned numerous pictures from the artists. Initially asked to paint various royal pets, he then moved on to portraits of gamekeepers. Landseer was particularly associated with Scotland, which he had first visited in 1824 and the Highlands in particular, which provided the subjects for many of his important paintings. His works can be found in Tate Britain, the Victoria and Albert Museum, Kenwood House and the Wallace Collection in London.
Kensett was an American painter and engraver, a member of the second generation of the Hudson River School. His works are landscape paintings of New England and New York State, whose bright light and calm depicting rejoice splendid qualities of nature, and are connected with Luminism. Kensett's early work owed much to the influence of Thomas Cole, but was from the beginning eminent by a preference for cooler colors and an interest in less dramatic effects, favouring restraint in both palette and composition. The work of Kensett's maturity features relaxing surroundings represented with a additional geometry, culminating in series of paintings in which coastal landscapes are balanced with smooth like glass water. He was broadly applauded and successful during his life. John Frederick Kensett was a full member of the National Academy of Design, the founder and president of the Artists' Fund Society, and a founder and trustee of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Maxime Maufra was a French landscape and marine painter, etcher and lithographer. He first began painting at 18 but didn’t fully embrace his painting career right away. Being a businessman, he only painted on his spare time from 1884 to 1890. During this time, Maufra discovered the work of the Impressionists and was able to display his works at the Paris Salon of 1886. In 1890, Maufra decided to give up commerce and to become a full-time painter. He left Nantes for Brittany, where he was able to meet Paul Gauguin and Paul Sérusier. Maufra had his first solo exhibition in Paris in 1894, at Le Barc de Toutteville. In his paintings, Maufra sometimes quoted the pointillisit technique of Pissarro or Sisley, and also took from the strong colors and powerful drawing of the Pont Aven School. However, Maufra stayed an independent artist his all life through, and dedicated his art to recording the beauty of nature.
Claude Monet was an important figure in the Impressionism that changed painting in the end of the 19 century. During his livelihood, he constantly painted the landscape and leisure time behavior of Parisians and its surrounding area in addition to the Normandy coast. He traces the approach to 20-century modernism by mounting a distinctive method that strove to imprison on canvas the extremely act of perceiving nature. Follow in the pathway of the Barbizon, Monet accepted and widened their dedication to close up observation and naturalistic depiction. While the Barbizon artists painted only brief sketches en plein air, Monet frequently worked openly on significant canvases outdoors, then reworked and finished them in his studio. His pursuit to capture nature more precisely also provoked him to reject European conventions leading composition, color, and perspective. He brought a vibrant vividness to his paintings by unmediated colors, adding a variety of tones to his shadows, and preparing canvases with pale primers as a replacement for of the shady grounds used in conventional landscape paintings.
Lucas Cranach the Elder was a German Renaissance painter and graphic artist who shined in portraits and in female nudes. He was the foremost member of the family of artists by that name active in Saxony during the 16th century. From about 1501 to 1504 Cranach lived in Vienna, and his earliest known works date from this period. His work at this time, lyrical and spirited with landscape setting, was influenced by that of Albrecht Durer. In 1505 Cranach became court painter to the electors of Saxony at Wittenberg, a position he held until 1550. For his patrons he painted biblical and mythological scenes with decorative sensual nudes that were new to German painting. Cranach was a friend of Martin Luther, and his art expresses much of the spirit and feeling of the German Reformation. His portraits of Protestant leaders are sober and meticulously drawn. Cranach ran a large workshop and worked with great speed, producing hundreds of works.
Arnold Böcklin was a Swiss symbolist painter, influenced by Romanticism. His painting is symbolist with mythological subjects often related with the Pre-Raphaelites. He depicts fantastical figures alongside classical buildings, frequently revealing an obsession with death, creating a strange, fantasy world. Art critics have constantly found it not easy to categorize this original and eccentric artist. Böcklin hated giving titles to his pictures and declared that he painted in order to make people dream: "Just as it is poetry's task to express feelings, painting must provoke them too. A picture must give the spectator as much food for thought as a poem and must make the same kind of impression as a piece of music..."
Ilya Repin was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. An important part of his work is dedicated to his native country, Ukraine. His realistic works often expressed great psychological depth. In 1870, Repin made his first sketches for Baurge Haulers on the Volga, while being on a boat trip. Throughout his career, Repin was drawn to the common people from whom he traced his origins. He frequently painted country folk, both Ukrainian and Russian, though in later years he also painted members of the Imperial Russian elite, the intelligentsia, and the aristocracy, including Tsar Nicholas II. He is the author of many portraits, but he never painted faces, he painted real people. Repin rarely painted historical paintings. The most popular in this genre is The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mahmoud IV. He never painted anything substantial on the subject of the 1917 revolutions or the Soviet experiment that followed.
Francisco de Zurbarán was a Spanish painter, known mainly for his religious paintings depicting monks, nuns, and martyrs, and for his still-lifes. Zurbarán gained the nickname "Spanish Caravaggio", owing to the forceful, realistic use of chiaroscuro in which he excelled. He painted directly from nature, and made great use of the lay-figure in the study of draperies, in which Zurbarán was particularly expert. His subjects were mostly severe and ascetic religious vigils, the spirit chastising the flesh into subjection, the compositions often reduced to a single figure. The style is more reserved and chastened than Caravaggio's, the tone of color often quite bluish. Exceptional effects are attained by the precisely finished foregrounds, massed out largely in light and shade. Towards 1630 he was appointed painter to Philip IV, and there is a story that on one occasion the sovereign laid his hand on the artist's shoulder, saying "Painter to the king, king of painters."
This Art Book with Foreword and annotated reproductions by Maria Tsaneva contains 208 selected drawings, prints, watercolors, pastels and paintings of Odilon Redon. Odilon Redon was a French symbolist painter, printmaker, draftsman and master of the pastels. He describes his own work as "ambiguous and indefinable": "My drawings inspire, and are not to be defined. They place us, as does music, in the ambiguous realm of the undetermined." Redon's paintings and drawings represent an exploration of his internal feelings and awareness. He himself wanted to "place the visible at the service of the invisible"; thus, although his work seems filled with strange beings and grotesque dichotomies, his aim was to represent pictorially the ghosts of his own mind.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir was French painter, important figure in the Impressionist movement. His early work reflected many influences including those of Courbet, Manet, Corot, Ingres and Delacroix. Under the influence of Gustave Courbet and painters of the School of Barbizon he turned to plein air painting. Together with Claude Monet he develops the new painting style of Impressionism around 1870; Renoir is regarded as one of its main representatives. As a celebrator of feminine beauty "Renoir is the last representative of a tradition which runs in a straight line from Rubens to Watteau." Renoir's artworks are famous for their vivacious light and saturated color, most frequently focusing on people in friendly and intimate compositions. The female nudes were one of his primary themes. In typical Impressionist manner, Renoir suggested the details of a picture through liberally brushed touches of color, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their environment.
Mary Cassatt was an American impressionist painter who depicted the lives of women, chiefly the intimate bond between mother and child. Cassatt is known for superior draughtsmanship in all the media, notably pastel. In Europe, Cassatt’s paintings were better received, increasing her prospects, and exhibited in the Salon of 1872, selling a painting. She exhibited every year at the Paris Salon until 1877, when all her works were rejected. Distraught at her rejection, she turned to the Impressionists, who welcomed her with welcome arms. Deciding early in her career that marriage was not an option, Cassatt never married, and spent much of her time with her sister Lydia, until her death in 1882, which left Mary unable to work for a short time. As her career progressed, her critical reputation grew, and she was often touted, along with Degas, as the one of the best exhibitors at the Impressionist Salon. She was awarded the French Legion of Honor in 1906.
Guido Reni was an Italian painter of high-Baroque style. He was a typically classical academic but he was also one of the most elegant painters in the chronicles of art history. He was constantly seeking an absolute, rarefied perfection which he measured against classical Antiquity and Raphael. Because of this, over the years the Bolognese painter has been in and out of fashion, depending on the tastes of the times. He was very popular in eighteenth century, bit in the nineteenth century the violent criticism of John Ruskin broke down his reputation. However even his enemies cannot deny the exceptional technical quality of his work nor the clarity of his supremely assured and harmonious brushwork. He praised the clearness of light, the perfection of the body, and lively color. Toward the end of his life, Reni modified his style. His paintings became airy as to seem insubstantial and were almost completely monochrome.
Henri Fantin-Latour was a French painter and printmaker. Though he associated with innovative artists like Gustave Courbet, Eugene Delacroix and Edouard Manet, he was a traditionalist best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers. His portrait groups, reminiscent of 17th-century Dutch guild portraits, depict literary and artistic persons of the time; his flower paintings were especially popular in England, thanks to James McNeill Whistler and John Everett Millais, who found patrons to support him. In addition to his realistic paintings, Fantin-Latour created imaginative lithographs inspired by the music of some of the great classical composers.
Gustave Moreau was a French Symbolist artist whose most important accent was the depiction of biblical and mythological figures. As a painter, Moreau appealed to the imaginations of some Symbolist writers and artists. He himself best explains the essence of his art: “I am dominated by one thing, an irresistible, burning attraction towards the abstract. The expression of human feelings and the passions of man certainly interest me deeply, but I am less concerned with expressing the motions of the soul and mind than to render visible, so to speak, the inner flashes of intuition which have something divine in their apparent insignificance and reveal magic, even divine horizons, when they are transposed into the marvelous effects of pure plastic art.” During his lifetime, Moreau produced more than 8,000 paintings, watercolors and drawings.
Theodore Robinson was an American artist famous for his Impressionist landscapes. He was one of the first American painters to take up Impressionism in the late 1880s, visiting Giverny and developing a close friendship with Claude Monet. Some of his works are considered masterpieces of American Impressionism.Robinson's art shifted to impressionistic manner due to Monet's influence. At Giverny, Robinson painted what art historians regard as some of his finest works. These depicted the surrounding countryside in different weather, in the plein air tradition, sometimes with women shown in leisurely poses. Back in America, Robinson moved among a growing number of American artists pursuing Impressionism. He was particularly close to John Henry Twachtman and Julian Alden Weir. Robinson painted a series of boat scenes at the Riverside Yacht Club which have come to be regarded as among his finest works.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler was American painter, etcher, and lithographer who created a new set of principles for the fine arts, favored "art for art's sake", and introduced a delicate style of painting in which atmosphere and mood were the main focus. Establishing himself as a painter in Paris and London, Whistler developed his distinctive style, utilizing muted colors and simple forms. His paintings are notable for their clarity of design and distinctive loosely, airy manner. In later years Whistler devoted himself increasingly to etching, drypoint, lithography, and interior decoration. Portraits, printmaking, and small oil landscapes also continued to absorb his energy. His masterpiece is largely credited as "Whistler's Mother" ("Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1"). His work later provided the inspiration for Oscar Wilde's novel The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890).
Henry Tanner was the first African-American painter to gain international acclaim. He is often regarded as a realist painter, focusing on accurate depictions of subjects. While his works were concerned with everyday life as an African American, Tanner later painted themes based on religious subjects. His body of work is not limited to one specific approach to painting. His works vary from meticulous attention to detail in some paintings to loose, expressive brushstrokes in others. Often both methods are employed simultaneously. The combination of these two techniques makes for a masterful balance of skilful precision and powerful expression. Tanner was also interested in the effects that color could have in a painting. Many of his paintings accentuate a specific area of the color spectrum. Warmer compositions such as The Resurrection of Lazarus (1896) and The Annunciation (1898) express the intensity and fire of religious moments, and the elation of transcendence between the divine and humanity.
Willard Metcalf was an American artist born in Lowell, Massachusetts. He studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and later attended Académie Julian, Paris. After early figure-painting and illustration, he became prominent as a landscape painter. He was one of the Ten American Painters who in 1897 seceded from the Society of American Artists. For some years he was an instructor in the Woman's Art School, Cooper Union, New York, and in the Art Students League, New York. In 1893 he became a member of the American Watercolor Society, New York. Generally associated with American Impressionism, he is also remembered for his landscapes. He became known as the quintessential painter of New England landscape in which he was born.
Jean Frédéric Bazille was a French Impressionist artist. Many of his paintings are examples of figure compositions in which Bazille placed the subject figure within a landscape. His work is of interest for its exploration of the effects of light on flesh tones. Much of his work retained a high finish and dark palette (e.g. Black Woman and Peonies, 1870). He was also a portraitist and recorder of the Impressionist scene. Bazille became interested in painting after seeing some works of Eugène Delacroix. His family agreed to let him study painting, but only if he also studied medicine. As a student in Paris he befriended Monet, Renoir, and Sisley. Attracted by the modernist tendencies of avant-garde art, they abandoned the studio in favor of direct observation of nature and gradually invented impressionism. From 1865 to 1866, he shared a studio with Monet and then the following year, shared a studio with Renoir. The work of Bazille was ended by his untimely death during the war of 1870.
George Stubbs was marvelous English animal painter and anatomical draftsman, famous for his paintings of horses. Stubbs also painted a wide range of other animals, including the lion, tiger, giraffe, monkey, and rhinoceros, which he was able to observe in private menageries. According to the Ozias Humphrey, Stubbs was so convinced of the importance of observation that he visited Italy in 1754 only to reinforce his belief that nature is superior to art. Among Stubbs's best-known pictures are several depicting a horse being frightened or attacked by a lion (Horse Frightened by a Lion, 1770). His historical paintings are among the least successful of his works; much more convincing are his scenes of familiar country activities done in the 1770s. Unfortunately, he tended to execute his paintings in thin oil paint, and relatively few survive in undamaged condition. Stubbs's last years were spent on a final work of anatomical analysis, for which he completed 100 drawings and 18 engravings.
Jacob-Abraham-Camille Pissarro, known as the "Father of Impressionism", painted rural and urban French life, particularly landscapes in and around Pontoise, as well as scenes from Montmartre. His mature work displays empathy for peasants and laborers, and sometimes evidences his radical political leanings. He was a mentor to Paul Cezanne and Paul Gauguin and his example inspired many younger artists, including Californian Impressionist Lucy Bacon. Pissarro experimented with Neo-Impressionist ideas between 1885 and 1890. Discontented with what he referred to as "romantic Impressionism," he investigated Pointillism which he called "scientific Impressionism" before returning to a purer Impressionism in the last decade of his life.
Eugène Louis Boudin was marine painter and one of the first French landscape artists to paint outdoors, expert in the rendering of all that goes upon the sea and along its shores. Although his art received very little admiration from the wide-ranging public, it was greatly respected by Corot, Courbet, Sisley, Manet, Monet and by the poet Baudelaire. Boudin's work is bight and clean in color. His favorites themes were the attractively dressed ladies and gentlemen of the bourgeoisie class upon Normandy beaches, but he also painted still lives, landscapes, and yet a few portraits. In his preoccupation with the effects of atmospheric light, his work is seen as strongly influenced Monet and the other Impressionists. However Boudin was a unpretentious man and considered himself neither a revolutionary nor as important an artist as the younger men. With luminous skies moving gently across the canvas, his work offers a soft and peaceful impression of an peaceful nature.
Sir John Lavery was an Irish artist best known for his portraits of the rich and famous, caught in a mood of elegant relaxation. He exhibited at all the most important European salons and secessions. Lavery traveled widely between World War I and World War II, producing many ‘portrait interiors'. His conversation pieces showed famous contemporaries, such as George Moore and Ramsay MacDonald, at ease in their homes and, with his portraits, are of great historical interest. Lavery's work was favored in Paris, Rome and Berlin rather than in London. He exhibited at all the major European salons and secessions and in the early 20th century two of his paintings, Father and Daughter (1898) and Spring (1904), were acquired for the Louvre. After the war he was knighted and in 1921 he was elected to the Royal Academy. Lavery received honorary degrees from the University of Dublin and Queen's University of Belfast and was also made a free man of both Dublin and Belfast.
Edgar Degas seems never to have reconciled himself to the label of "Impressionist," preferring to call himself a "Realist" or "Independent." Nevertheless, he was one of the group’s founders, an organizer of its exhibitions, and one of its most important core members. Like the Impressionists, he sought to capture fleeting moments in the flow of modern life, yet he showed little interest in painting plain air landscapes, favoring scenes in theaters and cafes illuminated by artificial light, which he used to clarify the contours of his figures, adhering to his Academic training. Unusual vantage points and asymmetrical framing are a consistent theme throughout Degas's works. Though noted for his attention to the female figure, Degas executed many studies of grouped horses and jockeys from which he would use figures in later compositions.He absorbed artistic tradition and outside influences and reinterpreted them in innovative ways.
John Atkinson Grimshaw was a Victorian-era artist, a "remarkable and imaginative painter" known for his city night-scenes and landscapes. His primary influence was the Pre-Raphaelites. He painted landscapes that typified seasons or a type of weather; city and suburban street scenes and moonlit views of the docks in London, Leeds, Liverpool, and Glasgow also figured largely in his art. His careful painting and skill in lighting effects meant that he captured both the appearance and the mood of a scene in minute detail. Grimshaw painted more interior scenes, especially in the 1870s, when he worked under the influence of James Tissot and the Aesthetic Movement. His later work included imagined scenes from the Greek and Roman empires, and he painted literary subjects from Longfellow and Tennyson. Grimshaw's paintings depicted the contemporary world but eschewed the dirty and depressing aspects of industrial towns.
Fra Angelico was Florentine painter and Dominican friar originally named Guido di Pietro. Vasari, who referred to Fra Giovanni as a simple and most holy man, popularized the use of the name Angelico for him, but he says it is the name by which he was always known, and it was certainly used as early as 1469. Angelico combined the influence of the elegantly decorative International Gothic style of Gentile da Fabriano with the more realistic style of Renaissance masters as Masaccio, Donatello and Ghiberti, all of whom worked in Florence. Angelico was also aware of the theories of perspective proposed by Leon Battista Alberti. Angelico's representation of devout facial expressions and his use of color to heighten emotion are particularly effective. His skill in creating monumental figures, representing motion, and suggesting deep space through the use of linear perspective, especially in the Roman frescoes, mark him as one of the foremost painters of the Renaissance.
Jan Steen was a Dutch genre painter of the Dutch Golden Age 17th century. Psychological insight, sense of humor and abundance of color are marks of his art. Daily life was Jan Steen's main pictorial theme. Many of the genre scenes he portrayed, as in The Feast of Saint Nicholas, are lively to the point of chaos and lustfulness. Many of Steen's paintings bear references to old Dutch proverbs or literature. He often used members of his family as models, and painted quite a few self-portraits in which he showed no tendency of vanity. Steen painted also historical, mythological and religious scenes, portraits, still lifes and natural scenes. His portraits of children are famous. He is also well known for his mastery of light and attention to detail, most notably in persian rugs and other textiles. He was prolific, producing about 800 paintings, of which roughly 350 survive. He did not have many students but his work proved a source of inspiration for many painters.
Frederick McCubbin, as one of the founders of the Heidelberg school, was a major figure in the development of the Australian landscape and subject painting. His early interest in the portrayal of national life was illustrated in his large subject pictures of recent history, extolling the virtues and quiet heroism of the pioneers. His work was directly influenced by the earlier traditions of Australian colonial art, late-Victorian subject pictures, and interests in heroic history pieces. Other influences included Louis Buvelot, Roberts and plein air realism, combined with the example of Bastien-Lepage and his humble peasants. In later years McCubbin turned increasingly to landscape painting, portraying the lyrical and intimate beauty of the bush. The early influence of Corot gave way to that of J. M. W. Turner, as he turned from the quiet poetry of the shaded bush to the brilliant impressionistic effects of light and color of his final manner.
John Joseph Enneking (1841 – 1916) was an American Impressionist painter. Enneking is a plein air painter, and his favorite subject is the November twilight of New England, and more generally the half lights of early spring, late autumn, and winter dawn and evening. He was a member of the Twentieth Century Club, Pudding Stone Club, Hyde Park Historical Society, Boston Art Club, Paint and Clay Club of Boston, and the Boston Guild of Artists. He exhibited at the following: Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Boston (medals); Paris Expo, 1900 (prize); Pan-Am Expo in Buffalo, 1901 (medal); Pan-Pacific Expo in San Francisco, 1915 (gold). Enneking made several painting trips to the White Mountains and became the artist-in-residence at Wilson Cottages and later in the Iron Mountain House. His work has been preserved at the Worcester Museum and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
Julian Alden Weir was an American impressionist painter, one of the founding members of "The Ten", a group of American artists dissatisfied with professional art organizations, who banded together in 1898 to exhibit their works. He received his first art training at the National Academy of Design before enrolling at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1873. Upon his return to New York City in 1877, Weir became a charter member of the Society of American Artists and continued exhibiting his work at the National Academy of Design. His works as a young artist centered on still life and the human figure, which he rendered in a realist style not unlike the work of Édouard Manet. By 1891 Weir had reconciled his earlier misgivings about impressionism and adopted the style as his own. His work demonstrated a tendency for a lighter palette of pastel colors and broken brushwork similar to the Impressionists. During the remainder of his life Weir painted impressionist landscapes and figurative works.