Charles Marion Russell was an artist of the Wild American West. He created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Indians. Recognized as 'the cowboy artist', Russell was also a storyteller. His works comprised a wide range of topics, including major historical events and everyday life in the West. He was noted for the frequency with which he portrayed well-known events from the point of view of Native American people instead of the non-Native viewpoint. Russell used as much color as a painter could on his mountain landscapes. As artist he arrived on the cultural scene at a time when the "wild west" was being chronicled and sold back to the public in many forms. Russell was fond of these popular art forms and made many friends among the well-off collectors of his works, including actors and film makers such as Will Rogers and Douglas Fairbanks.
Claude Monet once called of Corot: "There is only one master here and his name is Corot. We are nothing weigh against to him - nothing." Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was the leading French painter of the Barbizon school. Corot often praised as a predecessor of Impressionism, but he painted his landscapes in more traditional way than is generally supposed. Unlike the Impressionists, Corot painted only sketches in the open air; he composed his finished paintings in the studio. Compared to the Impressionists who came later, Corot's palette is restrained, dominated with browns and blacks ("forbidden colors" among the Impressionists) along with dark and silvery green. Though appearing at times to be rapid and spontaneous, usually his strokes were controlled and careful, and his compositions well-thought out and generally rendered as simply and concisely as possible, heightening the poetic effect of the imagery.
William Bouguereau was a follower of classical art and had no wish for everything like novelty or the avant-garde. His sense of idealism was his guiding principle, regarding the ugly as worthless for representation. A skilled craftsman and master of human anatomy, he utilized a delicate palette and glorious light to sensitively capture nuances of personality and mood, vibrantly bringing the soul and spirit of his subjects to life. Bouguereau has left a large number of works and he is undoubtedly a key figure in 19th century French art. Although his work was widely collected by the English and more especially by the Americans in his lifetime, Bouguereau’s reputation in France was more indistinct—indeed quite low—in his later years. He remained a hard supporter of the academic training system at a time when it was criticized for stifling originality and nurturing mediocrity.
Carl Larsson was a Swedish painter and interior designer, representative of the Arts and Crafts Movement. His many paintings include oils, watercolors, and frescoes. Larsson's popularity increased considerably with the development of color reproduction technology in the 1890s, when the Swedish publisher Bonnier published books written and illustrated by Larsson and containing full color reproductions of his watercolors. However, the print runs of these rather expensive albums did not come close to that produced in 1909 by the German publisher Karl Robert Langewiesche. His choice of watercolors, drawings and text by Carl Larsson, titled Das Haus in der Sonne (The House in the Sun), immediately became one of the German publishing industry's best-sellers of the year - 40,000 copies sold in three months. Larsson also drew several sequential picture stories, thus being one of the earliest Swedish comic creators.
Anders Zorn was one of Sweden’s foremost artists who obtained international success as a painter, sculptor and print maker in etching. His fame abroad is founded mostly on his portraiture where he had the ability to capture the character and the personality of the depicted person. His incisive ability to depict the individual character of his model is, for example, apparent in portraits of prominent cultural personalities. The model's surroundings were important; Zorn believed that a portrait should be painted in an environment that was natural for the model. An artificial studio environment was not to his taste. Beginning in 1910, Zorn focused on developing his control of the technique and motif. He accomplished this with such certainty that the process of painting can assume the dominant role, sometimes to the detriment of the work's emotional expression.
Leonardo, like his contemporary Christopher Columbus, possessed an insatiable curiosity and desire for discovery of unknown worlds. Only observation, says many times Leonardo, is the key to knowledge and understanding. Throughout his life Leonardo seeks to understand and control the nature. He constructed machines and original installations built bridges, dissected human bodies and trying to break into the Providence of God; for me he is a semi-god, or at least the Son of God. This book reflects my passion for the creative genius of Leonardo and I have tried to gather and sort chronologically all his works known to me.Where it was possible and affordable, I briefly told the story of some of the masterpieces of Leonardo. Of course, to retell something an ingenious is too rather trivial, but the reader is free to simply enjoy the oil paintings and drawings. I wish you a happy minutes and hours with my collection.
Giovanni Boldini was an Italian genre and portrait painter, known as the "Master of Swish" because of his flowing style of painting. His paintings showed his subject in soft-focus, elongated, in movement, alive, and sophisticated. The brush work on his paintings was swift and bold. It is the masterful brushwork that gives his paintings the sense of motion. He painted mostly portraits and also landscapes in the naturalistic style of his day, influenced by the Macchiaioli schooled artists he knew in Florence, and worked on engravings, with pastels, watercolors and etchings. He became the most fashionable portrait painter in Paris in the late 19th century, with a fashionable style of painting which shows some Impressionist influence but which most closely resembles the work of his contemporaries John Singer Sargent and Paul Helleu. Only toward the end of his long life, did his style change, using mainly dark, rich colors.
Jan Steen was a Dutch genre painter of the Dutch Golden Age 17th century. Psychological insight, sense of humor and abundance of color are marks of his art. Daily life was Jan Steen's main pictorial theme. Many of the genre scenes he portrayed, as in The Feast of Saint Nicholas, are lively to the point of chaos and lustfulness. Many of Steen's paintings bear references to old Dutch proverbs or literature. He often used members of his family as models, and painted quite a few self-portraits in which he showed no tendency of vanity. Steen painted also historical, mythological and religious scenes, portraits, still lifes and natural scenes. His portraits of children are famous. He is also well known for his mastery of light and attention to detail, most notably in persian rugs and other textiles. He was prolific, producing about 800 paintings, of which roughly 350 survive. He did not have many students but his work proved a source of inspiration for many painters.
John William Waterhouse was an English painter who worked several decades after the break-up of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which had seen its zenith in the mid-nineteenth century, leading him to have gained the moniker of "the modern Pre-Raphaelite". Borrowing stylistic influences not only from the earlier Pre-Raphaelites but also from his contemporaries, the Impressionists, his artworks were known for their depictions of women from both ancient Greek mythology and Arthurian legend. He was a painter of classical, historical, and literary subjects. His early works were of classical themes in the spirit of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema and Frederic Leighton. The latter works reveals Waterhouse's growing interest in themes associated with particularly tragic or powerful femmes fatales (Circe Invidiosa, Cleopatra, La Belle Dame Sans Merci and several versions of Lamia), as well as plein-air painting. In the 1890s he began to exhibit portraits.
Gustave Caillebotte was a French Impressionist, though he painted in a more realistic style than many other Impressionists. In common with his precursors Millet and Courbet Caillebotte tried to paint reality as it existed and as he saw it. Perhaps because of his close relationship with so many of his peers, his style and technique varies considerably among his works, as if "borrowing" and experimenting, but not really sticking to any one style. His work may have been strongly influenced by Japanese prints and the new technology of photography, though evidence of his actual use of photography is lacking. Cropping and "zooming-in", techniques which are also commonly found in Caillebotte's oeuvre, may also be the result of his interest in photography, but may just as likely derive from his intense interest in perspective effects. A large number of his paintings also make use of a very high vantage point.
George Stubbs was marvelous English animal painter and anatomical draftsman, famous for his paintings of horses. Stubbs also painted a wide range of other animals, including the lion, tiger, giraffe, monkey, and rhinoceros, which he was able to observe in private menageries. According to the Ozias Humphrey, Stubbs was so convinced of the importance of observation that he visited Italy in 1754 only to reinforce his belief that nature is superior to art. Among Stubbs's best-known pictures are several depicting a horse being frightened or attacked by a lion (Horse Frightened by a Lion, 1770). His historical paintings are among the least successful of his works; much more convincing are his scenes of familiar country activities done in the 1770s. Unfortunately, he tended to execute his paintings in thin oil paint, and relatively few survive in undamaged condition. Stubbs's last years were spent on a final work of anatomical analysis, for which he completed 100 drawings and 18 engravings.
Gustave Doré was a French artist, engraver, illustrator and sculptor, best known for his illustrations of epic literature, such as those by Dante, Cervantes, Hugo, and Milton, as well as contemporary texts, such as those by Balzac. Doré worked primarily with wood engraving. He rarely completed any works with colors, leading to the speculation that he was color blind. His vivid work is characterized by images of the grotesque and bizarre. Employing over 40 block cutters, he eventually produced more than 90 illustrated books. Dramatic, chiaroscuro illustrations of the Bible and literary giants made Dore's name. He had a particular gift for illustrating nature and fairy tales. His work influenced that of Van Gogh and later, the Symbolists. Doré was mainly celebrated for his paintings in his day. His paintings remain world renowned, but his woodcuts and engravings are where he really excelled as an artist with an individual vision.
Jean-Honoré Fragonard was a French Rococo painter and print-maker whose style was remarkable by cheerfulness and hedonism. His most popular artworks are genre paintings conveying an atmosphere of intimacy and veiled eroticism. Fragonard has been ranked with Watteau as one of the two great lyrical painters of the analytical 18th century in France. An extraordinary active artist, he produced more than 550 paintings, several thousand drawings, and 35 etchings. His style, based primarily on that of Rubens, was express, forceful, and effortless, never tensed or fussy like that of so many of his contemporaries. Although the greater part of his active life was passed during the neoclassical period, he continued to paint in a Rococo manner until shortly before the French Revolution.
Thomas Cole was an American artist, regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that prospered in the mid-19th century. Cole's work was known for its realistic and detailed depiction of American landscape and wilderness, which feature themes of romanticism and naturalism. Cole was primarily a painter of landscapes, but he also painted allegorical works. The most famous of these are the five-part series, The Course of Empire, which depict the same landscape over generations—and the four-part The Voyage of Life. Among his other famous works are the Oxbow (1836), the Notch of the White Mountains, Daniel Boone at His cabin at the Great Osage Lake, and Lake with Dead Trees (1825). He also painted The Garden of Eden (1828), with plentiful detail of Adam and Eve living amid waterfalls, colorful plants, and deer. Thomas Cole influenced his artistic peers, especially Asher B. Durand and Frederic Edwin Church, who studied with Cole from 1844 to 1846.
An important Post-Impressionist French painter, Georges Seurat moved away from the apparent spontaneity and rapidity of Impressionism and developed a structured, more monumental art to depict modern urban life. For several of his large compositions, Seurat painted many small studies. He is chiefly remembered as the pioneer of the Neo-Impressionist technique commonly known as Divisionism, or Pointillism, an approach associated with a softly flickering surface of small dots or strokes of color. His innovations derived from new quasi-scientific theories about color and expression, yet the graceful beauty of his work is explained by the influence of very different sources. His success quickly propelled him to the forefront of the Parisian avant-garde. His triumph was short-lived, as after barely a decade of mature work he died at the age of only 31.
Arnold Böcklin was a Swiss symbolist painter, influenced by Romanticism. His painting is symbolist with mythological subjects often related with the Pre-Raphaelites. He depicts fantastical figures alongside classical buildings, frequently revealing an obsession with death, creating a strange, fantasy world. Art critics have constantly found it not easy to categorize this original and eccentric artist. Böcklin hated giving titles to his pictures and declared that he painted in order to make people dream: "Just as it is poetry's task to express feelings, painting must provoke them too. A picture must give the spectator as much food for thought as a poem and must make the same kind of impression as a piece of music..."
Artemisia Gentileschi was an Italian Baroque painter, considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation following that of Caravaggio. In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the artistic community or patrons, she was the first woman to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence. She painted many pictures of strong and suffering women from myth and the Bible - victims, suicides, warriors - and made it her specialty to paint the Judith story. Her best-known work is Judith Slaying Holofermes (a well-known medieval and baroque subject in art), which "shows the decapitation of Holofernes, a scene of horrific struggle and blood-letting". That she was a woman painting in the seventeenth century and that she was raped and participated in prosecuting the rapist, long overshadowed her achievements as an artist. For many years she was regarded as a curiosity. Nowadays she is regarded as one of the most talented and expressionist painters of her generation.
Claude Monet was an important figure in the Impressionism that changed painting in the end of the 19 century. Follow in the pathway of the Barbizon, Monet accepted and widened their dedication to close up observation and naturalistic depiction. While the Barbizon artists painted only brief sketches en plein air, Monet frequently worked openly on significant canvases outdoors, then reworked and finished them in his studio. He brought a vibrant vividness to his paintings by unmediated colors, adding a variety of tones to his shadows, and preparing canvases with pale primers as a replacement for of the shady grounds used in conventional landscape paintings. Although Monet helped perpetrate the myth that he did not, and maybe even could not, draw, nearly 500 of more than 2,500 his works are sketchbooks, drawings and pastels. Works by Monet in pastel on paper are very rare - there are just over 100 known to exist.
Jules Joseph Lefebvre (1836–1911) was a French figure painter, educator and theorist. Like a typical academic artist, Lefèbvre started his career with the traditional subject matter of histories and other narratives. It would not be till later in his career that he would focus exclusively on the human figure in portraiture and especially the female nude, with great ability and success. Many of his paintings are single figures of beautiful women. Among his best portraits were those of M. L. Reynaud and the Prince Imperial (1874). He won the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1861. Among his famous students were Fernand Khnopff, Kenyon Cox, Félix Vallotton, Ernst Friedrich von Liphart, Georges Rochegrosse, the Scottish-born landscape painter William Hart, and Edmund C. Tarbell, who became an American Impressionist painter.
Fra Angelico was Florentine painter and Dominican friar originally named Guido di Pietro. Vasari, who referred to Fra Giovanni as a simple and most holy man, popularized the use of the name Angelico for him, but he says it is the name by which he was always known, and it was certainly used as early as 1469. Angelico combined the influence of the elegantly decorative International Gothic style of Gentile da Fabriano with the more realistic style of Renaissance masters as Masaccio, Donatello and Ghiberti, all of whom worked in Florence. Angelico was also aware of the theories of perspective proposed by Leon Battista Alberti. Angelico's representation of devout facial expressions and his use of color to heighten emotion are particularly effective. His skill in creating monumental figures, representing motion, and suggesting deep space through the use of linear perspective, especially in the Roman frescoes, mark him as one of the foremost painters of the Renaissance.
This Art Book contains 132 selected annotated reproductions of watercolors and paintings from J. M. W. Turner. Joseph Mallord William Turner was English artist, one of the greatest and most imaginative painters who put on a pedestal landscape painting. Although renowned for his oils, he is as well one of the coryphées of British watercolor landscape painting. Having been skilled academically, Turner seemed to spend the rest of his life developing an ever more loose style. He uncompromisingly studied nature and light. For his manner of painting he says: "My job is to draw what I see, not what I know." He had a extraordinary production of drawings and paintings; upon his death, he left nearly 30,000 pieces of his art work. He is usually known as "the painter of light" and his work is considered as a Romantic prelude to Impressionism.
Petrus Christus was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges from 1444, where, along with Hans Memling, he became the leading painter after the death of Jan van Eyck. He was influenced by van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden and is noted for his innovations with linear perspective and a meticulous technique which seems derived from miniatures and manuscript illumination. Today, very few works are confidently attributed to him. The best-known include the 1446 Portrait of a Carthusian and c. 1470 Berlin Portrait of a Young Girl; both are highly innovative in presentation of the figure against detailed, rather than flat, backgrounds. Christus was an anonymous figure for centuries, his importance not established until the work of modern art historians. In the early to mid nineteenth century Gustav Waagen and Johann David Passavant were important in establishing Christus's biographical details and in attributing works to him.
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo was a Spanish Baroque painter. All the works of Murillo are over 450. Their content is mainly religious. Significant groups among them are pictures of the type to the glorification of the Virgin known as «L'Immaculata Concepcion», «L'as uncion» and «La Purisima». Although he is best known for his religious works, Murillo also produced a considerable number of paintings of contemporary women and children. These lively, realist portraits of flower girls, street urchins, and beggars constitute an extensive and appealing record of the everyday life of his times. Murillo was also engaged in landscape and landscape painting. He had many pupils and followers. The prolific imitation of his paintings ensured his reputation in Spain and fame throughout Europe, and prior to the 19th century his work was more widely known than that of any other Spanish artist.
Evelyn De Morgan (1855 – 1919) was an English Pre-Raphaelite painter. During her lifetime Evelyn De Morgan produced approximately 102 oil paintings and over 300 drawings. At first glance, works like Flora (1894), Cadmus and Harmonia (1877), Eos (1895) and Night and Sleep (1878) appear to be that of a typical mid-century literary painter influenced by the work of Spencer Stanhope, Watts and Burne-Jones. Consequently, this was the way in which most contemporary critics assessed her paintings: Many do reflect the usual conventions and literary themes of late Victorian art with its Pre-Raphaelite traces and neo-classical tendencies. However, looking closer, one discovers Symbolist works that employ the language of Christian allegory to reveal the artist’s engagement with the contemporary issues of her time. These works may be divided into three categories: spiritualist allegories, depictions of sacred heroines, and war paintings.
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872 – 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His drawings in black ink, influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the Aesthetic movement which also included Oscar Wilde and James A. McNeill Whistler. Beardsley's contribution to the development of the Art Nouveau and poster styles was significant, despite the brevity of his career before his early death from tuberculosis. Beardsley was a public as well as private eccentric. He said, "I have one aim—the grotesque. If I am not grotesque I am nothing." Wilde said he had "a face like a silver hatchet, and grass green hair." Beardsley was meticulous about his attire: dove-grey suits, hats, ties; yellow gloves. He would appear at his publisher's in a morning coat and patent leather pumps.
William James Glackens (1870 – 1938) was an American realist painter and one of the founders of the Ashcan School of American art. He is also known for his work in helping Albert C. Barnes to acquire the European paintings that form the nucleus of the famed Barnes Foundation in Philadelphia. His dark-hued, vibrantly painted street scenes and depictions of daily life in pre-World War I New York and Paris first established his reputation as a major artist. His later work was brighter in tone and showed the strong influence of Renoir. During much of his career as a painter, Glackens also worked as an illustrator for newspapers and magazines in Philadelphia and New York City. His legacy is linked to that of the Ashcan school and The Eight. Although he distanced himself from some of their ideals, William Glackens continued to be considered an integral part of the realist movement in American art.
William Blake was English Romantic artist, draftsman, engraver, philosopher, and poet. He possessed visionary powers and in art as in life was an individualist who made a standard of nonconformity. Blake had a prejudice against painting in oils on canvas and experimented with a variety of techniques in color printing, illustration, and tempera. His work as an artist is almost impossible to divorce from the complex philosophy expressed also through his poetry. He believed that the visible world of the senses is an unreal envelope behind which the spiritual reality is masked. He refused the easy path of abstraction and foggy suggestion, remaining content with nothing less than the maximum of clarity and perfection. To most of his generation Blake seemed merely a strange, and his genius was not in general recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
Albert Bierstadt was a German-American painter best known for his plentiful landscapes of the American West. To paint the scenes, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. He was the leading painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century. He became part of the Hudson River School in New York, an informal group of painters who started painting along this scenic river. Their style was based on carefully detailed paintings with romantic, almost glowing lighting, sometimes called "luminism". An important interpreter of the western landscape, Bierstadt, along with Thomas Moran, is also grouped with the Rocky Mountain School. Bierstadt's technical skill, earned through his study of European landscape, was crucial to his success as a painter of the American West. His exhibition pieces were brilliantly crafted images that glorified the American West as a land of promise. Bierstadt was a prolific artist, having completed over 500 paintings during his lifetime.
Henri Fantin-Latour was a French painter and printmaker. Though he associated with innovative artists like Gustave Courbet, Eugene Delacroix and Edouard Manet, he was a traditionalist best known for his flower paintings and group portraits of Parisian artists and writers. His portrait groups, reminiscent of 17th-century Dutch guild portraits, depict literary and artistic persons of the time; his flower paintings were especially popular in England, thanks to James McNeill Whistler and John Everett Millais, who found patrons to support him. In addition to his realistic paintings, Fantin-Latour created imaginative lithographs inspired by the music of some of the great classical composers.
Edgar Degas seems never to have reconciled himself to the label of "Impressionist," preferring to call himself a "Realist" or "Independent." Nevertheless, he was one of the group’s founders, an organizer of its exhibitions, and one of its most important core members. Like the Impressionists, he sought to capture fleeting moments in the flow of modern life, yet he showed little interest in painting plain air landscapes, favoring scenes in theaters and cafes illuminated by artificial light, which he used to clarify the contours of his figures, adhering to his Academic training. Unusual vantage points and asymmetrical framing are a consistent theme throughout Degas's works. Though noted for his attention to the female figure, Degas executed many studies of grouped horses and jockeys from which he would use figures in later compositions.He absorbed artistic tradition and outside influences and reinterpreted them in innovative ways.
Henry Fuseli was a British painter, draughtsman, and writer on art, born in Zürich, Switzerland. As a painter, Fuseli favoured the supernatural and leaning everything on an ideal scale, believing a certain amount of hyperbole necessary in the higher branches of historical painting. The figures in his paintings are full of life and earnestness. Like Rubens he excelled in the art of setting his figures in motion. Though the lofty and terrible was his proper sphere, Fuseli had a fine perception of the ridiculous. Fuseli painted more than 200 pictures, but exhibited only a small number of them. His sketches or designs numbered about 800; they have admirable qualities of invention and design, and are frequently superior to his paintings. Fuseli produced no landscapes and painted only two portraits. Among his pupils were John Constable, Benjamin Haydon, William Etty, Edwin Landseerand and for a time many English artists copied his mannerisms.
Lucas Cranach the Elder was a German Renaissance painter and graphic artist who shined in portraits and in female nudes. He was the foremost member of the family of artists by that name active in Saxony during the 16th century. From about 1501 to 1504 Cranach lived in Vienna, and his earliest known works date from this period. His work at this time, lyrical and spirited with landscape setting, was influenced by that of Albrecht Durer. In 1505 Cranach became court painter to the electors of Saxony at Wittenberg, a position he held until 1550. For his patrons he painted biblical and mythological scenes with decorative sensual nudes that were new to German painting. Cranach was a friend of Martin Luther, and his art expresses much of the spirit and feeling of the German Reformation. His portraits of Protestant leaders are sober and meticulously drawn. Cranach ran a large workshop and worked with great speed, producing hundreds of works.
Claude Monet was an important figure in the Impressionism that changed painting in the end of the 19 century. During his livelihood, he constantly painted the landscape and leisure time behavior of Parisians and its surrounding area in addition to the Normandy coast. He traces the approach to 20-century modernism by mounting a distinctive method that strove to imprison on canvas the extremely act of perceiving nature. Follow in the pathway of the Barbizon, Monet accepted and widened their dedication to close up observation and naturalistic depiction. While the Barbizon artists painted only brief sketches en plein air, Monet frequently worked openly on significant canvases outdoors, then reworked and finished them in his studio. His pursuit to capture nature more precisely also provoked him to reject European conventions leading composition, color, and perspective. He brought a vibrant vividness to his paintings by unmediated colors, adding a variety of tones to his shadows, and preparing canvases with pale primers as a replacement for of the shady grounds used in conventional landscape paintings.
William Blake was English artist, draughtsman, engraver, philosopher, and poet, one of the most remarkable figures of the Romantic period. In art as in life Blake was an individualist who made a principle of nonconformity. He had a prejudice against painting in oils on canvas and experimented with a variety of techniques in colour printing, illustration, and tempera. His work as an artist is almost impossible to divorce from the complex philosophy expressed also through his poetry. He believed that the visible world of the senses is an unreal envelope behind which the spiritual reality is concealed and set himself the impossible task of creating a visual symbolism for the expression of his spiritual visions. He refused the easy path of vagueness and misty suggestion, remaining content with nothing less than the maximum of clarity and precision.
To most of his contemporaries Blake seemed merely an eccentric, and his genius was not generally recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
To most of his contemporaries Blake seemed merely an eccentric, and his genius was not generally recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
Gustave Moreau was a French Symbolist artist whose most important accent was the depiction of biblical and mythological figures. As a painter, Moreau appealed to the imaginations of some Symbolist writers and artists. He himself best explains the essence of his art: “I am dominated by one thing, an irresistible, burning attraction towards the abstract. The expression of human feelings and the passions of man certainly interest me deeply, but I am less concerned with expressing the motions of the soul and mind than to render visible, so to speak, the inner flashes of intuition which have something divine in their apparent insignificance and reveal magic, even divine horizons, when they are transposed into the marvelous effects of pure plastic art.” During his lifetime, Moreau produced more than 8,000 paintings, watercolors and drawings.
Domenico Ghirlandaio was one of the most popular Florentine artists of his time. He received his training in the workshop of Baldovinetti. Later, the work of Verrocchio in particular made an impression on him. Ghirlandaio's compositional representation was simultaneously imposing and respectable. His chiaroscuro, in the sense of realistic shading and three-dimensional images, was realistically superior, as were his perspectives, which he designed on a very elaborate scale by eye alone, without the use of sophisticated mathematics. A certain hardness of outline may show to his early training in metal work. Vasari states that Ghirlandaio was the first to abandon the use of ornamentation in his pictures, representing by genuine painting any objects supposed to be gilded. His drawings and sketches are considered particularly remarkable for their naturalistic vigor of outline. Ghirlandaio is commonly credited with having given some early art education to Michelangelo and Francesco Granacci.
The Venetian artist Giovanni Battista (Giambattista) Tiepolo was perhaps the greatest painter and draftsman of 18th-century in Europe. He was the classical example of the Italian Rococo. Tiepolo was equally prized as a painter and as a draftsman: his power of invention was unlimited and his skill without equivalent. His huge output of frescoes and altarpieces was somewhat due to his practice, like Rubens, of painting small 'modelli' (sketches) which, when approved by the client, could be carried out by his trained pupils under his own control. Many of these modelli and sketches survive, together with hundreds of his drawings. He also etched many plates, and, with Marco Ricci, was one of the founders of the great school of 18-century Venetian etchers.
Lovis Corinth, whose real name is Franz Heinrich Louis Corinth, was a German painter and printmaker, one of the most important representatives of German Impressionism and Expressionism. Corinth's oeuvre includes more than 100 paintings and several books and essays on painting. Today Corinth is regarded as one of the "Classics of Modern Art" and his works are exhibited in the most important museums and galleries of the German-speaking world. His early work was naturalistic in approach. Corinth was initially antagonistic towards the expressionist movement, but after a stroke in 1911 his style loosened and took on many expressionistic qualities. His use of color became more vibrant, and he created portraits and landscapes of extraordinary vitality and power. Corinth's subject matter also included nudes and biblical scenes. He painted numerous self-portraits, and made a habit of painting one every year on his birthday.
Théodore Rousseau was French landscape painter. His aims, style and development are characteristic of the Barbizon School, of which he was one of the major members. Like others in the group he suffered great suffering as a result of his attempts to introduce a non-academic landscape style. He was known as 'le grand refuse', because of his systematic exclusion from the Paris Salon between 1836 and 1841 and his no participation between 1842 and 1849. His pictures are always grave in character, with an air of exquisite melancholy. They are well finished when they profess to be completed pictures, but Rousseau spent so much time developing his subjects that his absolutely completed works are comparatively few. He left many canvases with parts of the picture realized in detail and with the remainder somewhat indistinct; and also a huge number of sketches and water-color drawings. His pen work in monochrome on paper is rare.
Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola also known as Parmigianino ("the little one from Parma") was an Italian Mannerist painter and printmaker active in Florence, Rome, Bologna, and his native city of Parma. His work is characterized by elongation of form and includes Vision of Saint Jerome (1527) and the Madonna with the Long Neck (1534). Parmigianino was also an early Italian etcher, a technique that was pioneered in Italy by Marcantonio Raimondi, but which appealed to draughtsmen: though the techniques of printing the copper plates require special skills, the ease with which acid, when substituted for ink, can reproduce the spontaneity of an artist's hand attracted Parmigianino, a master of elegant figure drawing. Parmigianino also designed chiaroscuro woodcuts, and although his output was small he had a considerable influence on Italian printmaking. Some of his prints were done in collaboration with Giovanni Jacopo Caraglio.
Henry Tanner was the first African-American painter to gain international acclaim. He is often regarded as a realist painter, focusing on accurate depictions of subjects. While his works were concerned with everyday life as an African American, Tanner later painted themes based on religious subjects. His body of work is not limited to one specific approach to painting. His works vary from meticulous attention to detail in some paintings to loose, expressive brushstrokes in others. Often both methods are employed simultaneously. The combination of these two techniques makes for a masterful balance of skilful precision and powerful expression. Tanner was also interested in the effects that color could have in a painting. Many of his paintings accentuate a specific area of the color spectrum. Warmer compositions such as The Resurrection of Lazarus (1896) and The Annunciation (1898) express the intensity and fire of religious moments, and the elation of transcendence between the divine and humanity.
George Morland was an English painter of animals and rustic scenes. His pictures were of the everyday life of his time, and of the experiences of the folk with whom he mixed, depicted with purity and simplicity, and showing much direct and instinctive feeling for nature. His coloring is mellow, rich in tone, and vibrant in quality. His work necessarily has the defects of his qualities and of his life - in his haste he often seems to have sacrificed some of the power which a more deliberate method might have imparted. He was one of the greatest masters of The English School, uniting in his work the magic of Gainsborough with the delicacy of an Old Dutch painter. Though he made a specialty of horses, he painted life on the high road and scenes of rural life with marvellous insight and skill. If his fame rests mainly upon his power of painting animals, his best attributes are shown in the social scenes which he portrayed so faithfully.
Arthur Hughes (1832 – 1915), was an English painter and illustrator associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His best-known paintings are April Love and The Long Engagement, both of which depict troubled couples contemplating the transience of love and beauty. They were inspired by John Everett Millais's earlier "couple" paintings but place far greater emphasis on the pathos of human inability to maintain the freshness of youthful feeling in comparison to the regenerative power of nature. Like Millais, Hughes also painted an Ophelia and illustrated Keats's poem The Eve of St. Agnes. Hughes's version of the latter is in the form of a secular triptych, a technique he repeated for scenes from Shakespeare's As You Like It. His works are noted for their magical, glowing coloring and delicate draughtsmanship. Hughes was in close contact with the writer George MacDonald and illustrated some of his books, as well as producing numerous illustrations for Norman MacLeod's monthly magazine, Good Words.
Ivan Aivazovsky was Russian-Armenian artist, world famous for his seascapes and regarded as one of the supreme seascape painters of all times. He painted a lot of portraits and landscapes but over half of all 6000 of Aivazovsky’s oil works are seascapes. His technique and imagination in depicting the sparkling play of light on the waves and sea foam is especially respected, and gives his works a romantic atmosphere and realistic excellence that resonances the paintings and watercolours of J. M. W. Turner. Especially effectual is his capacity to depict diffuse sunlight and moonlight, sometimes coming from behind clouds, sometimes coming through a fog, with almost transparent layers of paint. A series of paintings of naval battles brought his dramatic skills to the fore, with the flames of burning ships reflected in water and clouds.
Caspar David Friedrich was a German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his time and one of the most original geniuses in the history of landscape painting. He is best known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes which typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins. His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to convey a subjective, emotional response to the natural world.
Vincent van Gogh practiced a variety of occupations, including that of an art dealer and pastor, before deciding to become a painter at the age of 27. During his artistic career, which lasted 10 years - from 1880 to 1890 - he created about 900 paintings and above than 1100 drawings, watercolors and sketches. With sarcasm and irony, in 1890, he defined his own art as a painter with words that it is "of very secondary significance." During his short art-career Van Gogh had sold only one painting. His most excellent paintings were created in no more than 3 years in a method that graduated more and more emotional in brushstroke, in symbolic and powerful colors, in surface tension, and in the movement and vibration of structure and contour. His unique synthesis of form and substance is potent; spectacular, lyrically spontaneous, creative, and expressive. His masterpieces have a variety of uniqueness that have been imitated by many artists but achieved by no one of them.
Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis was a Lithuanian painter, composer and writer. He contributed to symbolism and art nouveau and was representative of the fin de siècle epoch. Ciurlionis has been considered one of the pioneers of abstract art in Europe. During his short life he composed about 400 pieces of music and created about 300 paintings, as well as many literary works and poems. His works have had a profound influence on modern Lithuanian culture. Ciurlionis felt that he was a synesthete; that is, he perceived colors and music simultaneously. Many of his paintings bear the names of musical pieces: sonatas, fugues, and preludes.His works have been displayed at international exhibitions in Japan, Germany, Spain, and elsewhere. His paintings were featured at "Visual Music" fest, an homage to synesthesia that included the works of Wassily Kandinsky, James McNeill Whistler, and Pau l Klee, at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles.
Frederick McCubbin, as one of the founders of the Heidelberg school, was a major figure in the development of the Australian landscape and subject painting. His early interest in the portrayal of national life was illustrated in his large subject pictures of recent history, extolling the virtues and quiet heroism of the pioneers. His work was directly influenced by the earlier traditions of Australian colonial art, late-Victorian subject pictures, and interests in heroic history pieces. Other influences included Louis Buvelot, Roberts and plein air realism, combined with the example of Bastien-Lepage and his humble peasants. In later years McCubbin turned increasingly to landscape painting, portraying the lyrical and intimate beauty of the bush. The early influence of Corot gave way to that of J. M. W. Turner, as he turned from the quiet poetry of the shaded bush to the brilliant impressionistic effects of light and color of his final manner.
John Atkinson Grimshaw was a Victorian-era artist, a "remarkable and imaginative painter" known for his city night-scenes and landscapes. His primary influence was the Pre-Raphaelites. He painted landscapes that typified seasons or a type of weather; city and suburban street scenes and moonlit views of the docks in London, Leeds, Liverpool, and Glasgow also figured largely in his art. His careful painting and skill in lighting effects meant that he captured both the appearance and the mood of a scene in minute detail. Grimshaw painted more interior scenes, especially in the 1870s, when he worked under the influence of James Tissot and the Aesthetic Movement. His later work included imagined scenes from the Greek and Roman empires, and he painted literary subjects from Longfellow and Tennyson. Grimshaw's paintings depicted the contemporary world but eschewed the dirty and depressing aspects of industrial towns.
In the primary identified description of Bosch's artworks, in 1560 Felipe de Guevara wrote that Bosch was regarded simply as "the originator of monsters and chimeras". In the beginning 17-th century, the Dutch Karel van Mander explained Bosch's art as "marvelous and extraordinary fantasies"; nevertheless, he finished that the paintings are "frequently less enjoyable than frightening to look at." In the 20-th century, researchers have come to sight Bosch's vision as fewer unbelievable, and acknowledged that his art reflects the conventional religious faith systems of his time. His images of sinning people, his view of Heaven and Hell are now perceived as consistent with those of late medieval didactic literature and habits. Nerveless, some critics notice Bosch as example of medieval surrealist, and parallels are repeatedly made with the modern Spanish artist Salvador Dali. Other scholars try to interpret his images using the words of Freudian psychology.
This Art Book with Foreword and annotated reproductions by Maria Tsaneva contains 164 selected drawings and paintings of Paul Gauguin. Eugene-Henri-Paul Gauguin was French avant-garde painter, sculptor, and printmaker. His style cultivated from Impressionism in the direction of a personal variety of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the scepticism of a sophisticated European. Gauguin was identified for his investigational use of colors and bold style that were absolutely altered from Impressionism. His work was prominent to the French avant-garde and a lot of modern painters like Matisse and Picasso. His brave testing with colors led in a straight line to the so called Synthetist style of modernism and traced the way to Primitivism and the come again to the idyllic and pastoral.
Tiziano Vecellio was the greatest artist of the Venetian School, recognized as immense genius in his own time and his reputation as one of the giants of art has never been sincerely questioned. Lomazzo described him as the 'sun amidst small stars not only among the Italians but all the painters of the world'. Poussin, Rubens, and Velazquez are among the painters who have particularly revered him. In many subjects, above all in portraiture, he set patterns that were followed by generations of artists. His free and expressive brushwork revolutionized the oil technique: His meticulous execution and concern for detail suggest the light, space, and variety of physical forms in his drawings too. He suggested textures through varying styles of line, carefully and economically placed hatchings even created air with line, as in the atmosphere that envelops the objects.
Giotto di Bondone was Florentine painter and architect, already recognized by Dante as the leading artist of his day. His significance to the Renaissance can be gauged from the fact that not only the leaders in the early 15th-century transformation of the arts, such as Masaccio, but the key figures of the High Renaissance, such as Raphael and Michelangelo were still learning from him and partly founding their style on his example. The reasons for this are dual. Firstly, his art is notable for its clear, grave, simple solutions to the basic problems of the representation of space and of the volume, structure, and solidity of 3-dimensional forms, and above the entire human figure. Secondly, he was a genius at getting to the heart of whatever episode from sacred history he was representing, at cutting it down to its essential, dramatic core, and at finding the compositional means to express its innermost spiritual meaning and its psychological effects in terms of simple areas of paint.
This Art Book representing 101 annotated reproductions of selected paintings from El Greco. El Greco (born Doménikos Theotokópoulos) was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. He is one of the not many old masters who benefit from extensive fame. Like few others, he was rediscovered from darkness by an enthusiastic faction of 19-century collectors and critics, and became one of the chosen members of the contemporary pantheon of great artists. For many later admirers, El Greco was both the archetypal Spaniard and a intellectual artist of the spirit. It was as a master who “felt the spiritual inner creation”.
Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov (1848 – 1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. He is considered the co-founder of Russian folklorist and romantic modernist painting and a key figure in the revivalist movement. It is ironic, but Viktor, whose name is associated with historical and mythological paintings, initially avoided these subjects at all costs. While living in France, Viktor studied classical and contemporary paintings, academic and Impressionist alike. It was in Paris that he became fascinated with fairy-tale subjects, starting to work on Ivan Tsarevich Riding a Grey Wolf and The Firebird. The vogue for Vasnetsov's paintings would spread in the 1880s, when he turned to religious subjects and executed a series of icons. He was central in moving realism towards a more nationalist, and historical style, believing that a true work of art conveys the past, present, and even the future.
Guido Reni was an Italian painter of high-Baroque style. He was a typically classical academic but he was also one of the most elegant painters in the chronicles of art history. He was constantly seeking an absolute, rarefied perfection which he measured against classical Antiquity and Raphael. Because of this, over the years the Bolognese painter has been in and out of fashion, depending on the tastes of the times. He was very popular in eighteenth century, bit in the nineteenth century the violent criticism of John Ruskin broke down his reputation. However even his enemies cannot deny the exceptional technical quality of his work nor the clarity of his supremely assured and harmonious brushwork. He praised the clearness of light, the perfection of the body, and lively color. Toward the end of his life, Reni modified his style. His paintings became airy as to seem insubstantial and were almost completely monochrome.
This Art Book with Foreword and annotated reproductions by Maria Tsaneva contains 185 selected drawings and sculptures of Auguste Rodin. Rodin is recognized worldwide for the exceptional authenticity of his anatomical sculptures. He strongly influenced twentieth century sculpture by his assemblage techniques and prepared the way for symbolism by adopting literary and mythological themes. It was the freedom and creativity along with his activation surfaces of sculptures through traces of his own touch and with his more open attitude toward bodily pose, sensual subject matter, and non-realistic surface – that marked Rodin's re-making of traditional 19th century sculptural techniques into the prototype for modern sculpture. Rodin's most original works departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, and celebrated individual character and physicality.
Hans Holbein the Younger was German painter, draftsman, and designer who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, renowned for the precise rendering of his drawings and the compelling realism of his portraits. Holbein was one of the greatest portraitists and most exquisite draftsmen of all time. It is the artist's record of the court of King Henry VIII of England, as well as the taste that he virtually imposed upon that court, that was his most remarkable achievement. He also produced religious art, satire and made a significant contribution to the history of book design. He is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, Hans Holbein the Elder, an accomplished painter of the Late Gothic School. Holbein has also been described as a great "one-off" of art history, since he founded no school. After his death, some of his work was lost, but much was collected, and by the 19th century, Holbein was recognized among the great portrait masters.
Albrecht Dürer was certainly the most significant painter and engraver of the Northern Renaissance. Living in Nuremberg, between Netherlands and Italy, he found inspiration in the two most important centers of art at his time. But instead of simply imitating, Dürer goes own way of discoverer. He has published hundreds engravings. At least 60 of his paintings have also survived and there are a thousand of his drawings and watercolors. The range of his work is just amazing. His woodcarvings made him famous all over Europe, and he is considered the best master in this area. As a painter, Dürer has the equal success as in the paintings of religious topics, also in those with secular topics. He painted portraits as well as altars. His drawings and watercolors even today strike us with a variety of techniques and were painted with an almost phenomenal precision. To summarize in just few words - Dürer is one of the most prominent figures for the development of the whole European painting.
Julian Alden Weir was an American impressionist painter, one of the founding members of "The Ten", a group of American artists dissatisfied with professional art organizations, who banded together in 1898 to exhibit their works. He received his first art training at the National Academy of Design before enrolling at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1873. Upon his return to New York City in 1877, Weir became a charter member of the Society of American Artists and continued exhibiting his work at the National Academy of Design. His works as a young artist centered on still life and the human figure, which he rendered in a realist style not unlike the work of Édouard Manet. By 1891 Weir had reconciled his earlier misgivings about impressionism and adopted the style as his own. His work demonstrated a tendency for a lighter palette of pastel colors and broken brushwork similar to the Impressionists. During the remainder of his life Weir painted impressionist landscapes and figurative works.